Which of the following best represents analogous structures?
A. the wing of a butterfly and the wing of a bee
B. the wing of a bat and the wing of a butterfly
C. the arm of a human and the leg of a human
A recent book by a reputable biologist suggests there is a deep, hot biosphere under the Earth's crust that may have more biomass than all life at the Earth's surface. This would primarily rely on what organisms?
A. thermoacidophilic archaea
B. primitive heat-loving plants
C. primitive animals
E. fungi living on the detritus from above
All of the following are true regarding systematics EXCEPT that it
A. is the specific study of identification, naming, and
classification of organisms
B. relies on data from the fossil record, homology, and molecular data
C. is the study of the diversity of organisms at all levels of organization
D. utilizes protein, DNA, and RNA comparisons to determine relatedness of individuals.
Of those listed, which level of classification is the most specific?
A. is the branch of biology dealing with the naming, identification
and classification of organisms.
B. uses a binomial system developed by Linnaeus
C. uses reproductive isolation as the basis of definition of a species
D. All of the choices are correct
Hair is a character shared by all mammals, but not found in their ancestral lineage. Hair is therefore considered to be a(n)
B. shared ancestral character (trait)
C. shared derived character (trait)
D. analogous structure
Whittaker's classification included Kingdom Monera, which included all prokaryotes. Why is this classification obsolete?
A. This kingdom now includes more organisms, so the name has been
B. Based on molecular data, Monera has been divided into two distinct domains. Archaea and Bacteria.
C. Based on fossil evidence, this group has been divided into three newly kingdoms.
D. The prokaryotes, which were included in this kingdom, are now included in Protista
Which of the following features would be used to construct a phylogenic tree?
A. homologous structures
B. fossil record data
C. DNA-DNA hybridization
D. amino acid sequences
E. all of the answer choices are correct
Which kingdom is correctly described?
A. Animalia: multicellular and heterotrophic by absorption
B. Protista: unicellular and heterotrophic only
C. Plantae: multicellular and photoautotrophic
D. Fungi: multicellular and heterotrophic by ingestion
Phylogenic trees with proportional branch lengths
A. indicate relatedness among organisms
B. indicate the relative number of nucleotide pair differences between groups
C. are constructed by comparing DNA sequences of homologous genes and calibrating this molecular clock with the fossil record
D. all of the answer choices are correct
E. indicate relatedness evolutionary time
Which of the following statements about taxonomy is NOT true?
A. Biochemical data and the fossil record can be independently to
indicate the length of time since two species diverged from a common
B. Analogous structures are derived from a common ancestral structure to perform the same function.
C. Homologous structures are derived from a single structure in the ancestor, although they mat be adapted to different uses in the descendent species (e.g. dog's foreleg and a human's arm.)
D. In cladistics, a common ancestor and all its descendents that share one or more derived traits are placed in a single clade.
If you were using cladistics to construct a phylogenetic tree of birds, what is the best outgroup?
D. eastern bluebirds
The evolution of organisms is the three domains and four kingdoms is most accurately described by which sequence?
A. Protists to Prokaryotes to Fungi, from Fungi separately to Plants
B. Prokaryotes to Fungi to Protists to Plants to Animals
C. Prokaryotes to Protists, separately to Animals and Plants with Fungi a loss of plant photosynthesis
D. Prokaryotes to Protists to Plants, from Plants separately to both Animals and Fungi
E. Prokaryotes to Protists, from Protists separately to Fungi, Plants, and Animals
Which kingdom or supergroup is characterized by organisms that are heterotrophic by ingestion?
A study of echinoderm embryos, such as sea stars, confirms a similar developmental pattern to that of vertebrates. In both, the blastopore becomes the anus. This would be considered
A. convergent evolution
B. behavioral data
The northern copperhead is Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix, the southern copperhead Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen, and the cottonmouth is Agkistrodon piscivorous. Therefore,
A. all are subspecies of Agkistrodon
B. they are all the same species
C. the copperheads are subspecies and the cottonmouth is a separate species
D. they are three distinct species
Single celled eukaryotic cells belong to which of the following domains?
Of the three domains in Woese's classification system, which do most biologists recognize?
A. Protista, Fungi, and Eukarya
B. Archae, Bacteria, and Eukarya
C. Monera, Archae, and Bacteria
D. Fungi, Monera, and Archae
Which of the following lists of features exemplifies the Domain Archaea?
A. Unicellular, varying branched lipids in their cell membrane,
nuclear envelope and contain some introns
B. Multicellular, varying branched lipids in their cell membrane, no nuclear envelope and contain some introns
C. Unicellular, varying branched lipids in their cell membrane, no nuclear envelope and contain some introns
D. Unicellular, unbranched phospholipids in their cell membrane, no nuclear envelope and contain some introns