Chapter 35: plant anatomy

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1

Root hairs are important to a plant because they _____.

protect the plant from freezing

protect the plant from soil microbes

help the root slide between soil particles

increase the surface area for absorption

develop into lateral roots

increase the surface area for absorption

2

How do cells in a meristem differ from cells in other types of plant tissue?

They are growing.

They photosynthesize at a faster rate.

They are differentiating.

They store food.

They continue to divide.

They continue to divide.

3

The primary growth of a plant adds _____ and secondary growth adds _____.

height ... branching

branching ... flowers

branching ... girth

height ... girth

girth ... height

height ... girth

4

Choose the option that best describes the relationship between the cell wall thickness of parenchyma cells versus sclerenchyma cells.

The cell walls of parenchyma cells are thinner than those of sclerenchyma cells.

The thickness of the cell walls for both types of cells is too variable for a comparison to be made.

The cell walls of collenchyma cells are thicker than sclerenchyma or parenchyma cells.

The cell walls of both types of cells are roughly equal.

The cell walls of parenchyma cells are thicker than those of sclerenchyma cells.

The cell walls of parenchyma cells are thinner than those of sclerenchyma cells.

5

Which structure is incorrectly paired with its tissue system?

tracheid–vascular tissue

palisade parenchyma–ground tissue

companion cell–ground tissue

guard cell–dermal tissue

root hair–dermal tissue

companion cell–ground tissue

6

Which of the following is derived from the ground tissue system?

cuticle

phloem

pith

periderm

root hair

pith

7

Which part of a plant absorbs most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil?

the thick parts of the roots near the base of the stem

sections of the root that have secondary xylem

root hairs

storage roots

root cap

root hairs

8

Vascular plant tissue includes all of the following cell types except

cambium cells.

companion cells.

sieve cells.

tracheids.

vessel elements.

cambium cells.

9

________ is to xylem as ________ is to phloem.

Vessel element; sieve-tube member

Sclerenchyma cell; collenchyma cell

Cortex; pith

Vascular cambium; cork cambium

Apical meristem; vascular cambium

Vessel element; sieve-tube member

10

Which of the following cells transport sugars over long distances?

sclerenchyma cells

collenchyma cells

sieve-tube elements

parenchyma cells

tracheids and vessel elements

sieve-tube elements

11

Which of the following have unevenly thickened primary walls that support young, growing parts of the plant?

tracheids and vessel elements

sclerenchyma cells

sieve-tube elements

parenchyma cells

collenchyma cells

collenchyma cells

12

The vascular bundle in the shape of a single central cylinder in a root is called the

endodermis.

cortex.

periderm.

stele.

pith.

stele.

13

One important difference between the anatomy of roots and the anatomy of leaves is that

leaves have epidermal tissue but roots do not.

a waxy cuticle covers leaves but is absent from roots.

only leaves have phloem and only roots have xylem.

root cells have cell walls and leaf cells do not.

vascular tissue is found in roots but is absent from leaves.

a waxy cuticle covers leaves but is absent from roots.

14

A student examining leaf cross sections under a microscope finds many loosely packed cells with relatively thin cell walls. The cells have numerous chloroplasts. What type of cells are they?

xylem

sclerenchyma

endodermis

collenchyma

parenchyma

parenchyma

15

CO2 enters the inner spaces of the leaf through the

cuticle.

epidermal trichomes.

phloem.

stoma.

walls of guard cells.

stoma.

16

Gas exchange, which is necessary for photosynthesis, can occur most easily in which leaf tissue?

palisade mesophyll

vascular tissue

bundle sheath

epidermis

spongy mesophyll

spongy mesophyll

17
card image

Xylem is indicated by the letter _____.

A

D

E

B

C

D

18
card image

The letter A indicates the _____.

epidermis

xylem

vascular cylinder

cortex

endodermis

epidermis

19
card image

The letter A indicates the _____.

phloem

cortex

pith

xylem

vascular bundle

cortex

20
card image

Pith is indicated by the letter _____.

E

B

C

A

D

E

21
card image

Ground tissue is indicated by the letter _____.

D

E

A

C

B

A

22
card image

The region surrounded by guard cells is indicated by the letter _____.

D

C

A

B

E

D

23

Plants contain meristems whose major function is to

produce more cells.

produce flowers.

absorb ions.

photosynthesize.

attract pollinators.

produce more cells.

24

Axillary buds

do not form a vascular connection with the primary shoot.

are composed of a series of internodes lacking nodes.

grow immediately into shoot branches.

have dormant meristematic cells.

are initiated by the cork cambium.

have dormant meristematic cells.

25

The following question is based on parts of a growing primary root.

I. root cap
II. zone of elongation
III. zone of cell division
IV. zone of cell differentiation
V. apical meristem

Which of the following is the correct sequence from the growing tips of the root upward?

A) III, V, I, II, IV

B) II, IV, I, V, III

C) IV, II, III, I, V

D) I, II, V, III, IV

E) I, V, III, II, IV

E

26

Which of the following root tissues gives rise to lateral roots?

A) epidermis

B) cortex

C) endodermis

D) phloem

E) pericycle

E

27

Pores on the leaf surface that function in gas exchange are called

A hairs.

B xylem cells.

C stomata.

D phloem cells.

E sclereids.

C

28
card image

The following question is based on the drawing of root or stem cross sections shown in the figure.


A woody eudicot is represented by

I only.

II only.

III only.

IV only.

both I and III.

IV only.

29

Secondary growth NEVER occurs in _____.

stems

leaves

roots and leaves

stems and leaves

roots

leaves

30

_____ provides cells for secondary growth.

Secondary xylem

Secondary phloem

Apical meristem

The root

Vascular cambium

Vascular cambium

31
card image

The letter A indicates _____.

secondary xylem

cork cambium

lateral meristem

vascular cambium

apical meristem

secondary xylem

32

Vascular cambium forms wood toward the stem's _____ and secondary phloem toward the stem's _____.

top ... bottom

surface ... center

center ... surface

center ... center

surface ... surface

center ... surface

33

What is the function of cork?

regulating the opening and closing of stomata

providing a site for photosynthesis

providing cells for primary growth

insulation and waterproofing

providing cells for secondary growth

insulation and waterproofing

34

How is the supply of vascular cambium maintained?

by the differentiation of secondary xylem

by the differentiation of secondary phloem

by the division of its cells

by the differentiation of cork

by the differentiation of apical meristem

by the division of its cells

35

Cell division in the vascular cambium adds to the girth of a tree by adding new _____ to the layer's interior and _____ to the layer's exterior.

xylem and phloem ... bark

pith ... xylem and phloem

xylem ... cortex

xylem ... phloem

phloem ... xylem

xylem ... phloem

36

As the epidermis is pushed outward and sloughed off, it is replaced by tissues produced by the _____.

cork cambium

lenticels

suberin

vascular cambium

pith

cork cambium

37

Which of the following cells or tissues arise from lateral meristem activity?

cortex

trichomes

leaves

secondary xylem

tubers

secondary xylem

38

A plant has the following characteristics: a taproot system, several growth rings evident in a cross section of the stem, and a layer of bark around the outside. Which of the following best describes the plant?

woody monocot

herbaceous eudicot

woody eudicot

herbaceous monocot

woody annual

woody eudicot

39

Which of the following is a true statement?

Secondary growth is produced by both the vascular cambium and the cork cambium.

Primary growth and secondary growth alternate in the life cycle of a plant.

Flowers may have secondary growth.

Secondary growth is a common feature of eudicot leaves.

Plants with secondary growth are typically the smallest ones in an ecosystem.

Secondary growth is produced by both the vascular cambium and the cork cambium.

40

What tissue makes up most of the wood of a tree?

primary xylem

vascular cambium

mesophyll cells

secondary xylem

secondary phloem

secondary xylem

41

If you were able to walk into an opening cut into the center of a large redwood tree, when you exit from the middle of the trunk (stem) outward, you would cross, in order,

A) the annual rings, new xylem, vascular cambium, phloem, and bark.

B) the vascular cambium, oldest xylem, and newest xylem.

C) the secondary xylem, cork cambium, phloem, and periderm.

D) the secondary xylem, secondary phloem, and vascular cambium.

E) the summer wood, bark, and phloem.

A

42

Which of the following is correctly matched with its tissue system?

cortex ... ground tissue system

xylem ... ground tissue system

phloem ... epidermis

pith ... vascular tissue system

guard cells ... ground tissue

cortex ... ground tissue system

43

What is the primary function of stems?

Facilitation of gas exchange

Water absorption and movement

Reproduction

Maximization of photosynthesis by leaves

Maximization of photosynthesis by leaves

44

One important difference between the anatomy of roots and the anatomy of leaves is that _____.

only leaves have phloem and only roots have xylem

a waxy cuticle covers leaves but is absent from roots

root cells have cell walls and leaf cells do not

vascular tissue is found in roots but is absent from leaves

leaves have epidermal tissue but roots do not

a waxy cuticle covers leaves but is absent from roots

45

Trichomes _____.

open and close for gas exchange

increase water loss from leaves

repel or trap insects

absorb sunlight, increasing the temperature of leaves

repel or trap insects

46

Which of the following is correctly paired with its structure and function?

guard cells – waterproof ring of cells surrounding the central stele in roots

sclerenchyma – supporting cells with thick secondary walls

ground meristem – protective coat of woody stems and roots

periderm – parenchyma cells functioning in photosynthesis in leaves

sclerenchyma – supporting cells with thick secondary walls

47

Which of the following are water-conducting cells that are dead at functional maturity?

parenchyma cells

tracheids and vessel elements

sieve-tube elements

collenchyma cells

tracheids and vessel elements

48

Which of the following cells transport sugars over long distances?

parenchyma cells

sclerenchyma cells

sieve-tube elements

tracheids and vessel elements

sieve-tube elements

49

Plant meristematic cells _____.

subdivide into three distinct cell types named parenchyma, ground meristem, and procambium

are undifferentiated cells that produce new cells

increase the surface area of dermal tissue by developing root hairs

are distributed evenly in all tissues throughout the plan

are undifferentiated cells that produce new cells

50

Which of the following cells or tissues arise from lateral meristem activity?

secondary xylem

tubers

trichomes

leaves

secondary xylem

51

Which of the following is the correct sequence of the zones in the primary growth of a root, moving from the root cap inward?

zone of cell division, zone of elongation, zone of differentiation

zone of differentiation, zone of elongation, zone of cell division

zone of elongation, zone of cell division, zone of differentiation

zone of cell division, zone of differentiation, zone of elongation

zone of cell division, zone of elongation, zone of differentiation

52

You find a plant unfamiliar to you and observe that it has vascular bundles scattered throughout the stem cross section. What do you conclude about the plant?

It will probably get annual rings of wood.

It is probably an herbaceous eudicot.

It could be either a young eudicot or a monocot.

It is probably a monocot.

It is probably a monocot.

53

The veins of leaves are _____.
I) composed of xylem and phloem
II) continuous with vascular bundles in the stem and roots
III) finely branched to be in close contact with photosynthesizing cells

only I

only II

only III

I, II, and III

I, II, and III

54

Where is primary growth occurring in an old tree?

Nowhere; trees more than a year old have only secondary growth.

in young branches where leaves are forming

where the vascular cambium and cork cambium are located

closest to ground level at the base of the tree

in young branches where leaves are forming

55

What tissue makes up most of the wood of a tree?

secondary xylem

vascular cambium

primary xylem

secondary phloem

secondary xylem