AP Biology Chapter 38

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1

The male wasp Campsoscolia ciliata transfers pollen from one orchid to another orchid of the
same species. What ʺrewardʺ does the male wasp receive from the orchid plants for helping
with the orchid pollination?
A) a supply of energy-rich nectar
B) volatile chemical hormones that help the male wasp find a sexually receptive female
C) There is no reward. The male wasp is deceived by the flower shape and odor
D) successful copulation with the flower
E) a store of nectar that the wasp can use in time of famine

C

2

For this pair of items, choose the option that best describes their relationship.
(A) The number of cells within the embryo sac
(B) The number of nuclei within the embryo sac
A) Item (A) is greater than item (B).
B) Item (A) is less than item (B).
C) Item (A) is exactly or very approximately equal to item (B).
D) Item (A) may stand in more than one of the above relations to item (B).

B

3

For this pair of items, choose the option that best describes their relationship.
(A) The ploidy of the angiosperm seed endosperm
(B) The ploidy of the angiosperm seed embryo
A) Item (A) is greater than item (B).
B) Item (A) is less than item (B).
C) Item (A) is exactly or very approximately equal to item (B).
D) Item (A) may stand in more than one of the above relations to item (B).

A

4

For this pair of items, choose the option that best describes their relationship.
(A) The percentage of dandelion plants that produce seeds by apomixis.
(B) The percentage of creosote bushes that produce seeds by apomixis
A) Item (A) is greater than item (B).
B) Item (A) is less than item (B).
C) Item (A) is exactly or very approximately equal to item (B).
D) Item (A) may stand in more than one of the above relations to item (B)

A

5

For this pair of items, choose the option that best describes their relationship.
(A) The GABA levels in pop2 mutant Arabidopsis flowers
(B) The GABA levels in wild-type Arabidopsis flowers
A) Item (A) is greater than item (B).
B) Item (A) is less than item (B).
C) Item (A) is exactly or very approximately equal to item (B).
D) Item (A) may stand in more than one of the above relations to item (B)

A

6

For this pair of items, choose the option that best describes their relationship.
(A) The amount of fumonisin in processed maize products
(B) The amount of fumonisin in processed Bt maize products
A) Item (A) is greater than item (B).
B) Item (A) is less than item (B).
C) Item (A) is exactly or very approximately equal to item (B).
D) Item (A) may stand in more than one of the above relations to item (B)

B

7

At the conclusion of meiosis in plants the end products are always four haploid
A) spores.
B) eggs.
C) sperm.
D) seeds.
E) gametes.

A

8

) Which of the following is the correct sequence during the alternation of generations life
cycle in a flowering plant?
A) sporophyte-meiosis-gametophyte-gametes-fertilization-diploid zygote
B) sporophyte-mitosis-gametophyte-meiosis-sporophyte
C) haploid gametophyte-gametes-meiosis-fertilization-diploid sporophyte
D) sporophyte-spores-meiosis-gametophyte-gametes
E) haploid sporophyte-spores-fertilization-diploid gametophyte

A

9

Which of the following is true in plants?
A) Mitosis occurs in gametophytes to produce gametes.
B) Meiosis occurs in sporophytes to produce spores.
C) The gametophyte is within the flower in angiosperms.
D) A and B only
E) A, B, and C

E

10

) Which of the following are true of most angiosperms?
A) a triploid endosperm within the seed
B) an ovary that becomes a fruit
C) a small (reduced) sporophyte
D) A and B only
E) A, B, and C

D

11

Based on studies of plant evolution, which flower part is not a modified leaf?
A) stamen
B) carpel
C) petals
D) sepals
E) receptacle

E

12

All of the following floral parts are directly involved in pollination or fertilization except the
A) stamen.
B) carpel.
C) petals.
D) sepals.
E) receptacle.

D

13

Location of the ovary:
A) stamen
B) carpel
C) petals
D) sepals
E) receptacle

B

14

Location of the microsporangia:
A) stamen
B) carpel
C) petals
D) sepals
E) receptacle

A

15

) Which of the following is the correct order of floral organs from the outside to the inside of a
complete flower?
A) petals-sepals-stamens-carpels
B) sepals-stamens-petals-carpels
C) spores-gametes-zygote-embryo
D) sepals-petals-stamens-carpels
E) male gametophyte-female gametophyte-sepals-petals

D

16

In some angiosperms, other floral parts contribute to what is commonly called the fruit.
Which of the following fruits is derived mostly from an enlarged receptacle?
A) pea
B) raspberry
C) apple
D) pineapple
E) peach

C

17

All of the following are primary functions of flowers except
A) pollen production.
B) photosynthesis.
C) meiosis.
D) egg production.
E) sexual reproduction.

B

18

) Meiosis occurs within all of the following flower parts except the
A) ovule.
B) style.
C) megasporangium.
D) anther.
E) ovary.

B

19

A perfect flower is fertile, but may be either complete or incomplete. Which of the following
correctly describes a perfect flower?
A) It has no sepals.
B) It has fused carpels.
C) It is on a dioecious plant.
D) It has no endosperm.
E) It has both stamens and carpels

E

20

Carpellate flowers
A) are perfect.
B) are complete.
C) produce pollen.
D) are found only on dioecious plants.
E) develop into fruits.

E

21

Which of the following statements regarding flowering plants is false?
A) The sporophyte is the dominant generation.
B) Female gametophytes develop from megaspores within the anthers.
C) Pollination is the placing of pollen on the stigma of a carpel.
D) The food-storing endosperm is derived from the cell that contains two polar nuclei
and one sperm nucleus.
E) Flowers produce fruits within the ovul

B

22

Which of the following types of plants is not able to self-pollinate?
A) dioecious
B) monoecious
C) complete
D) wind-pollinated
E) insect-pollinated

A

23

) In flowering plants, pollen is released from the
A) anther.
B) stigma.
C) carpel.
D) filament.
E) pollen tube.

A

24

In the life cycle of an angiosperm, which of the following stages is diploid?
A) megaspore
B) generative nucleus of a pollen grain
C) polar nuclei of the embryo sac
D) microsporocyte
E) both megaspore and polar nuclei

D

25

Where does meiosis occur in flowering plants?
A) megasporocyte
B) microsporocyte
C) endosperm
D) pollen tube
E) megasporocyte and microsporocyte

E

26

Which of the following is a correct sequence of processes that takes place when a flowering
plant reproduces?
A) meiosis-fertilization-ovulation-germination
B) fertilization-meiosis-nuclear fusion-formation of embryo and endosperm
C) meiosis-pollination-nuclear fusion-formation of embryo and endosperm
D) growth of pollen tube-pollination-germination-fertilization
E) meiosis-mitosis-nuclear fusion-pollen

C

27

Which of these is incorrectly paired with its life-cycle generation?
A) anthergametophyte
B) pollengametophyte
C) embryo sacgametophyte
D) stamensporophyte
E) embryosporophyte

A

28

Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in a pollen sac?
A) sporangiameiosistwo haploid cellsmeiosistwo pollen grains per cell
B) pollen grainmeiosistwo generative cellstwo tube cells per pollen grain
C) two haploid cellsmeiosisgenerative cell-tube cellfertilizationpollen grain
D) pollen grainmitosismicrosporesmeiosisgenerative cell plus tube cell
E) microsporocytemeiosismicrosporesmitosistwo haploid cells per pollen grain

E

29

Which of the following occurs in an angiosperm ovule?
A) An antheridium forms from the megasporophyte.
B) A megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis.
C) The egg nucleus is usually diploid.
D) A pollen tube emerges to accept pollen after pollination.
E) The endosperm surrounds the megaspore mother cell.

B

30

Where and by which process are sperm cells formed in plants?
A) meiosis in pollen grains
B) meiosis in anthers
C) mitosis in male gametophyte pollen tube.
D) mitosis in the micropyle
E) mitosis in the embryo sac

C

31

In which of the following pairs are the two terms equivalent?
A) ovuleegg
B) embryo sacfemale gametophyte
C) endospermmale gametophyte
D) seedzygote
E) microsporepollen grain

B

32

Which of the following is the male gametophyte of a flowering plant?
A) ovule
B) microsporocyte
C) pollen grain
D) embryo sac
E) stamen

C

33

33) Which of the following would be considered to be a multiple fruit?
A) apple
B) strawberry
C) raspberry
D) pineapple
E) corn on the cob

D

34

In flowering plants, a mature male gametophyte contains
A) two haploid gametes and a diploid pollen grain.
B) a generative cell and a tube cell.
C) two sperm nuclei and one tube cell nucleus.
D) two haploid microspores.
E) a haploid nucleus and a diploid pollen wall.

C

35

Three mitotic divisions within the female gametophyte of the megaspore produce
A) three antipodal cells, two polar nuclei, one egg, and two synergids.
B) the triple fusion nucleus.
C) three pollen grains.
D) two antipodal cells, two polar nuclei, two eggs, and two synergids.
E) a tube nucleus, a generative cell, and a sperm cell.

A

36
card image

Which cell(s), after fertilization, give(s) rise to the embryo plant?

B

37
card image

Which cell(s) become(s) the triploid endosperm?

C

38
card image

Which cell(s) guide(s) the pollen tube to the egg cell?

A

39

What is the difference between pollination and fertilization in flowering plants?
A) Fertilization precedes pollination.
B) Pollination easily occurs between plants of different species, fertilization is within a
species.
C) Pollen is formed within megasporangia so that male and female gametes are near
each other.
D) Pollination is the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma. Fertilization is the
fusion of haploid nuclei
E) If fertilization occurs, pollination is unnecessary.

D

40

Recent research has shown that pollination requires that carpels recognize pollen grains as
ʺself or nonself.ʺ For self-incompatibility, the system requires
A) rejection of nonself cells.
B) the rejection of self cells.
C) carpel incompatibility with the egg cells.
D) that the flowers be incomplete.
E) the union of genetically identical sperm and egg cells.

B

41

) Genetic incompatibility does not affect the
A) attraction of a suitable insect pollinator.
B) germination of the pollen on the stigma.
C) growth of the pollen tube in the style.
D) membrane permeability of cells.
E) different individuals of the same species.

A

42

You are studying a plant from the Amazon that shows strong self-incompatibility. To
characterize this reproductive mechanism, you would look for
A) ribonuclease (RNAase) activity in stigma cells.
B) RNA in the plants.
C) pollen grains with very thick walls.
D) carpels that cannot produce eggs by meiosis.
E) systems of wind, but not insect, pollination.

A

43

What effects would occur in a mutant of Arabidopsis that cannot synthesize GABA within its
flowers?
A) Pollen tube growth would not be directed toward the egg, and fertilization would not
occur.
B) The seeds from the flowers would be unable to break dormancy.
C) The pollen grain would not form a pollen tube due to incompatibility with the pollen
tube.
D) The length of the style would be increased to the point where the growing pollen tube
would be unable to reach the synergids.

A

44

Biofuels are mainly produced by
A) the breakdown of cell wall biopolymers into sugars that can be fermented.
B) plants that convert hemicellulose into gasoline.
C) the genetic engineering of ethanol generating genes into plants.
D) transgenic crops that have cell walls containing ethylene.
E) plants that are easy to grow in arid environments.

A

45

A plant that has small, green petals is most likely to be
A) bee-pollinated.
B) bird-pollinated.
C) bat-pollinated.
D) wind-pollinated.
E) moth-pollinated.

D

46

A seed develops from
A) an ovum.
B) a pollen grain.
C) an ovule.
D) an ovary.
E) an embryo.

C

47

A fruit is a(an)
A) mature ovary.
B) mature ovule.
C) seed plus its integuments.
D) fused carpel.
E) enlarged embryo sac.

A

48

Double fertilization means that
A) flowers must be pollinated twice in order to produce fruits and seeds.
B) every egg must receive two sperm to produce an embryo.
C) one sperm is needed to fertilize the egg, and a second sperm is needed to fertilize the
polar nuclei.
D) the egg of the embryo sac is diploid.
E) every sperm has two nuclei.

C

49

Some dioecious species have the XY genotype for male and XX for female. After double
fertilization, what would be the genotypes of the endosperm nuclei and embryos?
A) embryo X and endosperm XX or embryo Y and endosperm XY
B) embryo XX and endosperm XX or embryo XY and endosperm XY
C) embryo XX and endosperm XXX or embryo XY and endosperm XYY
D) embryo XX and endosperm XXX or embryo XY and endosperm XXY
E) embryo XY and endosperm XXX or embryo XX and endosperm XXY

D

50

Sources of genetic variability in an asexually propagated species may involve all of the
following processes except
A) protoplast fusion.
B) mutation.
C) hybridization.
D) genetic engineering.
E) apomixis.

C

51

Plant biotechnologists use protoplast fusion mainly to
A) culture plant cells in vitro.
B) asexually propagate desirable plant varieties.
C) introduce bacterial genes into a plant genome.
D) study the early events following fertilization.
E) produce new hybrid species.

E

52

The basal cell formed from the first division of a plant zygote will eventually develop into
A) the suspensor that anchors the embryo and transfers nutrients.
B) the proembryo.
C) the endosperm that nourishes the developing embryo.
D) the root apex of the embryo.
E) two cotyledons in eudicots, but one in monocots.

A

53

) The development of Bt crops raises concerns because
A) Bt crops have been shown to be toxic to humans.
B) pollen from these crops is harmful to monarch butterfly larvae in the field.
C) if genes for Bt toxin ʺescapeʺ to related weed species, the hybrid weeds could have
harmful ecological effects.
D) Bacillus thuringiensis is a pathogen of humans.
E) Bt toxin reduces the nutritional quality of crops.

C

54

ʺGolden Riceʺ is a transgenic variety that
A) is resistant to various herbicides, making it practical to weed rice fields with those
herbicides.
B) is resistant to a virus that commonly attacks rice fields.
C) includes bacterial genes that produce a toxin that reduces damage from insect pests.
D) produces much larger, golden grains that increase crop yields.
E) contains daffodil genes that increase vitamin A content.

E