Campbell Biology: Campbell Biology Chapter 38 Key Terms Flashcards


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Campbell Biology
Chapter 38
updated 6 years ago by juliebarr
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1
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sepals

A modified leaf in angiosperms that helps enclose and protect a flower bud before it opens.

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petals

A modified leaf of a flowering plant. Petals are the often colorful parts of a flower that advertise it to insects and other pollinators.

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stamens

The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and a filament.

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carpels

The ovule-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary.

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receptacle

The base of a flower; the part of the stem that is the site of attachment of the floral organs.

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anther

In an angiosperm, the terminal pollen sac of a stamen, where pollen grains containing sperm-producing male gametophytes form.

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ovary

In flowers, the portion of a carpel in which the egg-containing ovules develop.

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style

The stalk of a flower’s carpel, with the ovary at the base and the stigma at the top.

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stigma

The sticky part of a flower’s carpel, which receives pollen grains.

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ovules

A structure that develops within the ovary of a seed plant and contains the female gametophyte.

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pistil

A single carpel or a group of fused carpels.

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complete flowers

A flower that has all four basic floral organs: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels.

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incomplete flowers

A flower in which one or more of the four basic floral organs (sepals, petals, stamens, or carpels) are either absent or nonfunctional.

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inflorescences

A group of flowers tightly clustered together.

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microspores

A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a male gametophyte.

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pollen grain

In seed plants, a structure consisting of the male gametophyte enclosed within a pollen wall.

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pollen tube

A tube that forms after germination of the pollen grain and that functions in the delivery of sperm to the ovule.

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embryo sac

The female gametophyte of angiosperms, formed from the growth and division of the megaspore into a multicellular structure that typically has eight haploid nuclei.

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megaspores

A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a female gametophyte.

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pollination

The transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant containing the ovules, a process required for fertilization.

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coevolution

The joint evolution of two interacting species, each in response to selection imposed by the other.

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endosperm

In angiosperms, a nutrient-rich tissue formed by the union of a sperm with two polar nuclei during double fertilization. The endosperm provides nourishment to the developing embryo in angiosperm seeds.

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double fertilization

A mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms in which two sperm cells unite with two cells in the female gametophyte (embryo sac) to form the zygote and endosperm.

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dormancy

A condition typified by extremely low metabolic rate and a suspension of growth and development.

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seed coat

A tough outer covering of a seed, formed from the outer coat of an ovule. In a flowering plant, the seed coat encloses and protects the embryo and endosperm.

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hypocotyl

In an angiosperm embryo, the embryonic axis below the point of attachment of the cotyledon(s) and above the radicle.

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radicle

An embryonic root of a plant.

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epicotyl

In an angiosperm embryo, the embryonic axis above the point of attachment of the cotyledon(s) and below the first pair of miniature leaves.

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coleoptile

The covering of the young shoot of the embryo of a grass seed.

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coleorhiza

The covering of the young root of the embryo of a grass seed.

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imbibition

The physical adsorption of water onto the internal surfaces of structures.

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fruit

A mature ovary of a flower. The fruit protects dormant seeds and often aids in their dispersal.

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simple fruits

A fruit derived from a single carpel or several fused carpels.

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aggregate fruit

A fruit derived from a single flower that has more than one carpel.

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multiple fruit

A fruit derived from an entire inflorescence.

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accessory fruit

A fruit, or assemblage of fruits, in which the fleshy parts are derived largely or entirely from tissues other than the ovary.

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fragmentation

A means of asexual reproduction whereby a single parent breaks into parts that regenerate into whole new individuals.

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apomixis

The ability of some plant species to reproduce asexually through seeds without fertilization by a male gamete.

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vegetative reproduction

Cloning of plants by asexual means.

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dioecious

In plant biology, having the male and female reproductive parts on different individuals of the same species.

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self-incompatability

The ability of a seed plant to reject its own pollen and sometimes the pollen of closely related individuals.

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callus

A mass of dividing, undifferentiated cells growing in culture.

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stock

The plant that provides the root system when making a graft.

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scion

The twig grafted onto the stock when making a graft.

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transgenic

Pertaining to an organism whose genome contains a gene introduced from another organism of the same or a different species.

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protoplast fusion

The fusing of two protoplasts from different plant species that would otherwise be reproductively incompatible.

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biofuels

A fuel produced from dry organic matter or combustible oils produced by plants.