Chapter 1: The Human Organism - Multiple Choice Flashcards


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Seeley's Anatomy and Physiology 9th/10th edition
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1

1. Anatomy is

A. the study of function.
B. a branch of physiology.
C. the study of structure.
D. the study of living organisms.
E. the study of homeostasis.

C

2

2. Which subdivision of anatomy involves the study of organs that function together?

A. regional
B. developmental
C. systemic
D. histology
E. surface anatomy

C

3

3. Which of the following activities would represent a physiological study?

A. observing the structure of the interior of the heart
B. studying a model of the kidney
C. examining the surface of a bone
D. viewing muscle tissue through a microscope
E. determining normal blood sugar levels for 20-year-old students

E

4

4. Visual inspection of the appearance of the liver and gallbladder during surgery is associated with which of the following?

A. histology
B. physiology
C. gross anatomy
D. radiology
E. cytology

C

5

5. Microscopic examination of a frozen tissue specimen is an application of which of the following disciplines?

A. histology
B. physiology
C. gross anatomy
D. radiology
E. regional anatomy

A

6

6. Studies at the biochemical and molecular levels would be most appropriate for learning about the

A. locations of body parts.
B. gross anatomy of bones.
C. physiological functions of organs.
D. ecological niches of humans.
E. systemic anatomy.

C

7

7. Knowledge of the structure of body parts helps us to understand their function. Which of the following is an accurate example of that principle?

A. The basic structural unit of the body is the cell.
B. The internal environment of the body is maintained in a relatively stable condition.
C. Moveable joints allow us to bend our fingers to perform many different actions.
D. Each tissue type is composed of cells that have a similar structure and function.
E. Negative feedback is not homeostatic.

C

8

8. An investigator who conducts an experiment to determine how changes in pH affect the function of enzymes on digestion is most likely to be a(n)

A. neurologist.
B. anatomist.
C. engineer.
D. physiologist.
E. histologist.

D

9

9. The study of the structural features and functions of the cell is

A. cytology.
B. histology.
C. molecular biology.
D. microbiology.
E. surface anatomy.

A

10

10. The study of tissues is

A. cytology.
B. histology.
C. molecular biology.
D. microbiology.
E. surface anatomy.

B

11

11. The study of the body's organization by areas is

A. systemic anatomy.
B. regional anatomy.
C. molecular biology.
D. microbiology.
E. surface anatomy.

B

12

12. The study of the external form of the body and its relationship to deeper structures is

A. systemic anatomy.
B. regional anatomy.
C. molecular biology.
D. microbiology.
E. surface anatomy.

E

13

13. Which of the following systems carries necessary compounds like oxygen and nutrients throughout the body?

A. nervous
B. cardiovascular
C. urinary
D. lymphatic
E. respiratory

B

14

14. Consider the following structural levels: chemical, organ, tissue, cell, and organ system. Which level encompasses the other four?

A. tissue
B. organ system
C. organ
D. chemical
E. cell

B

15

15. A tissue is a

A. structure contained within a cell.
B. lower level of organization than a cell.
C. group of organs that performs specific functions.
D. group of cells with similar structure and function.
E. structure that contains a group of organs.

D

16

16. Organize the following structural levels of the human body from simplest to most complex.
(1) cell
(2) tissue
(3) chemical
(4) organ system
(5) organ

A. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
B. 2, 3, 1, 4, 5
C. 3, 1, 2, 5, 4
D. 4, 2, 3, 1, 5
E. 3, 1, 2, 4, 5

C

17

17. Which organ system is the location of blood cell production?

A. cardiovascular
B. skeletal
C. digestive
D. nervous
E. endocrine

B

18

18. Which body system would be affected by degeneration of cartilage in joints?

A. muscular
B. nervous
C. cardiovascular
D. skeletal
E. lymphatic

D

19

19. The gallbladder, liver, and stomach are all part of the

A. endocrine system.
B. cardiovascular system.
C. skeletal system.
D. respiratory system.
E. digestive system.

E

20

20. The integumentary system

A. regulates body temperature.
B. breaks down food into small particles for absorption.
C. controls intellectual functions.
D. produces body movements.
E. coordinates and integrates body function.

A

21

21. Which of the following is NOT the correct name of an organ system?

A. integumentary
B. lymphatic
C. cardiovascular
D. muscular
E. hormonal

E

22

22. A cell is

A. a small structure within a molecule.
B. a structure composed of several tissue types.
C. the basic structural unit of plants and animals.
D. a group of organs with a common set of functions.
E. a group of atoms with similar structure and function.

C

23

23. An organ is

A. a small structure within a cell.
B. a structure composed of several tissue types.
C. the basic structural unit of all living organisms.
D. a group of molecules with a common set of functions.
E. a group of cells with similar structure and function.

B

24

24. An organ system is

A. a small structure within a cell.
B. a structure composed of several tissue types.
C. the basic structural unit of all living organisms.
D. a group of organs with a common set of functions.
E. a group of cells with similar structure and function.

D

25

25. An organelle is

A. a small structure within a cell.
B. a structure composed of several tissue types.
C. the basic structural unit of all living organisms.
D. a group of organs with a common set of functions.
E. a group of cells with similar structure and function.

A

26

26. What system removes nitrogenous waste products from the blood and regulates blood pH, ion balance, and water balance?
A. respiratory
B. lymphatic
C. cardiovascular
D. immune
E. urinary

E

27

27. An organism's ability to use energy in order to swim is an example of

A. metabolism.
B. responsiveness.
C. organization.
D. maturation.
E. development.

A

28

28. The changes an organism undergoes through time is called

A. organization.
B. metabolism.
C. reproduction.
D. growth.
E. development.

E

29

29. Nerve cells generate electrical signals in response to changes in the environment. This is an example of

A. respiration.
B. digestion.
C. movement.
D. filtration.
E. responsiveness.

E

30

30. An increase in the number of cells is

A. reproduction.
B. growth.
C. differentiation.
D. metabolism.
E. organization.

B

31

31. The change in the shape of tissues or organs is called

A. reproduction.
B. growth.
C. differentiation.
D. metabolism.
E. morphogenesis.

E

32

32. Homeostasis is defined as

A. the production of energy by cells.
B. the combination of growth, self-repair, and energy release.
C. an amplification of deviation from the normal range.
D. the maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body.
E. a condition in the body that does not involve fluctuation.

D

33

33. Which of the following is consistent with homeostasis?

A. As body temperature rises, sweating occurs to cool the body.
B. When a person drinks large quantities of water, urine output decreases to raise blood volume.
C. Elevated blood glucose levels cause insulin secretion to decline.
D. Decreases in blood pressure cause a corresponding decrease in heart rate.
E. As blood pressure falls, blood flow to the heart decreases.

A

34

34. A blood clot stimulating even more blood clotting is an example of

A. negative feedback.
B. positive feedback.
C. neutral feedback.
D. metabolism.
E. There is no feedback involved.

B

35

35. Which of the following is most similar to the negative feedback mechanism in human physiology?

A. A car runs out of gas and stops.
B. A teacher marks all the wrong answers on students' exam papers.
C. A toilet tank refills itself after a flush.
D. An automatic door opens as soon as somebody approaches it.
E. A clock ticks on a shelf.

C

36

36. A researcher discovered a new hormone that raises blood calcium levels. According to the principles of negative feedback, this hormone would be secreted when

A. blood calcium levels increase.
B. blood calcium levels decrease.
C. blood calcium levels are stable.
D. blood calcium levels are elevated.
E. None of these choices are correct.

B

37

37. In a negative feedback mechanism, the response of the effector

A. reverses the original stimulus.
B. enhances the original stimulus.
C. has no effect on the original stimulus.
D. is usually damaging to the body.
E. creates a cycle that leads away from homeostasis.

A

38

38. Which of the following is most consistent with homeostasis?

A. As blood pressure falls, blood flow to cardiac (heart) muscle decreases.
B. As the mean blood pressure gradually increases in aging people, the blood vessel walls become thinner.
C. Men working in a hot environment drink large quantities of water, and their urine volume increases.
D. As body temperature decreases, blood vessels in the periphery dilate.
E. Elevated blood glucose levels cause insulin secretion (insulin causes cells to take up glucose) to increase.

E

39

39. A researcher discovered a sensory receptor that detects decreasing oxygen concentrations in the blood. According to the principles of negative feedback, it is likely that stimulation of this sensory receptor will produce which of the following types of responses?

A. a decrease in heart rate
B. an increase in the respiratory rate
C. an increase in physical activity
D. unconsciousness
E. both a decrease in heart rate and an increase in the respiratory rate

B

40

40. Which of the following is NOT a component of a negative feedback mechanism?

A. effector
B. stabilizer
C. control center
D. receptor

B

41

41. Positive-feedback mechanisms are always damaging to the body.

A. TRUE
B. FALSE

B

42

42. In the anatomical position, the

A. arms are crossed over the chest.
B. palms of the hands face posteriorly.
C. body is erect with the head turned to the right.
D. thumbs point to the midline of the body.
E. palms of the hands face anteriorly.

E

43

43. Which of the following sets of directional terms are most appropriately referred to as opposites?

A. distal and proximal
B. medial and inferior
C. superior and ventral
D. anterior and deep
E. lateral and superior

A

44

44. The term "dorsal" means

A. further from the point of attachment to the body.
B. to lie with the anterior surface down.
C. toward the back of the body.
D. away from the midline.
E. toward the front of the body.

C

45

45. The anatomical term that means "away from the midline of the body" is

A. medial.
B. proximal.
C. distal.
D. lateral.
E. superficial.

D

46

46. The thumb is ___ to the fifth digit (little finger).

A. distal
B. lateral
C. medial
D. proximal
E. superficial

B

47

47. Which of the following describes the position of the nose?

A. inferior to the chin
B. superior to the forehead
C. posterior to the ears
D. lateral to the eyes
E. superior to the mouth

E

48

48. The shoulder is _____ to the elbow.

A. lateral
B. dorsal
C. distal
D. ventral
E. proximal

E

49

49. A term that means "toward the attached end of a limb" is

A. medial.
B. lateral.
C. superficial.
D. distal.
E. proximal.

E

50

50. Which of the following is most inferior in location?

A. pelvic cavity
B. mediastinum
C. diaphragm
D. pleural cavity
E. pericardial cavity

A

51

51. While Stacy is in the process of passing over the bar during a pole vault, her hips are considered to be

A. anterior to her shoulders.
B. posterior to her shoulders.
C. inferior to her shoulders.
D. superior to her shoulders.
E. cephalic to her shoulders.

C

52

52. Cephalic means

A. toward the middle or midline of the body.
B. away from the surface.
C. closer to the head.
D. closer than another structure to the point of attachment to the trunk.
E. toward the back of the body.

C

53

53. Posterior means

A. toward the middle or midline of the body.
B. away from the surface.
C. closer to the head.
D. closer than another structure to the point of attachment to the trunk.
E. toward the back of the body.

E

54

54. Medial means

A. toward the middle or midline of the body.
B. away from the surface.
C. closer to the head.
D. closer than another structure to the point of attachment to the trunk.
E. toward the back of the body.

A

55

55. Proximal means

A. toward the middle or midline of the body.
B. away from the surface.
C. closer to the head.
D. closer than another structure to the point of attachment to the trunk.
E. toward the back of the body.

D

56

56. Deep means

A. toward the middle or midline of the body.
B. away from the surface.
C. closer to the head.
D. closer than another structure to the point of attachment to the trunk.
E. toward the back of the body.

B

57

57. In the expression "Let your fingers do the walking," which of the following anatomical terms could be substituted for "fingers?"

A. tarsals
B. manuals
C. digits
D. carpals
E. metatarsals

C

58

58. The anatomical arm refers to the part of the upper limb from the

A. shoulder to the wrist.
B. elbow to the wrist.
C. shoulder to the elbow.
D. elbow to the fingers.
E. shoulder to the fingers.

C

59

59. The lumbar region is the

A. area in front of the elbow.
B. chest area.
C. lower back.
D. bottom of foot.
E. forearm.

C

60

60. The antecubital region is the

A. area in front of the elbow.
B. chest area.
C. lower back.
D. bottom of foot.
E. forearm.

A

61

61. The antebrachial region is the

A. area in front of the elbow.
B. chest area.
C. lower back.
D. bottom of foot.
E. forearm.

E

62

62. The pectoral region is the

A. area in front of the elbow.
B. chest area.
C. lower back.
D. bottom of foot.
E. forearm.

B

63

63. The plantar surface is the

A. area in front of the elbow.
B. chest area.
C. lower back.
D. bottom of foot.
E. forearm.

D

64

64. The brachial region is commonly known as the

A. groin.
B. buttock.
C. breastbone.
D. upper arm.
E. naval.

D

65

65. The inguinal region is commonly known as the

A. groin.
B. buttock.
C. breastbone.
D. upper arm.
E. naval.

A

66

66. The gluteal region is commonly known as the

A. groin.
B. buttock.
C. breastbone.
D. upper arm.
E. naval.

B

67

67. The sternal region is commonly known as the

A. groin.
B. buttock.
C. breastbone.
D. upper arm.
E. naval.

C

68

68. The umbilical region is commonly known as the

A. groin.
B. buttock.
C. breastbone.
D. upper arm.
E. naval.

E

69

69. The cervical region is the

A. calf.
B. armpit.
C. hollow behind the knee.
D. neck.
E. thigh.

D

70

70. The popliteal region is the

A. calf.
B. armpit.
C. hollow behind the knee.
D. neck.
E. thigh.

C

71

71. The sural region is the

A. calf.
B. armpit.
C. hollow behind the knee.
D. neck.
E. thigh.

A

72

72. The femoral region is the

A. calf.
B. armpit.
C. hollow behind the knee.
D. neck.
E. thigh.

E

73

73. The axillary region is the

A. calf.
B. armpit.
C. hollow behind the knee.
D. neck.
E. thigh.

B

74

74. What plane divides the body into equal right and left halves?

A. coronal
B. transverse
C. median
D. sagittal
E. frontal

C

75

75. Which of the following abdominal regions would contain the appendix?

A. hypogastric
B. right iliac
C. right lumbar
D. umbilical
E. left iliac

B

76

76. Which of the following is NOT found in the epigastric region?

A. liver
B. stomach
C. urinary bladder
D. duodenum
E. large intestine

C

77

77. A vertical plane that separates the body into right and left portions is called a _____ plane.

A. sagittal
B. transverse
C. frontal
D. horizontal
E. coronal

A

78

78. "Cutting off your nose" would be a section in the _____ plane.

A. coronal
B. nasal
C. median
D. transverse
E. sagittal

A

79

79. Amputation of a foot at the ankle would involve a cut in the _____ plane.

A. coronal
B. median
C. transverse
D. frontal
E. lateral

C

80

80. The thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominal cavity by the

A. sternum.
B. diaphragm.
C. mediastinum.
D. mesentery.
E. pericardial cavity.

B

81

81. A bullet enters the left lung and collapses it. Which cavity has been entered?

A. mediastinal
B. pericardial
C. pleural
D. vertebral
E. cranial

C

82

82. The cavity of the body immediately inferior to the diaphragm is the _____ cavity.

A. pleural
B. thoracic
C. inguinal
D. pelvic
E. abdominal

E

83

83. The suffix "-itis" means inflammation. Which of the following terms means inflammation of the membrane lining the body cavity that contains the liver?

A. pericarditis
B. peritonitis
C. pleurisy
D. colitis
E. hepatitis

B

84

84. Which of the following organs is retroperitoneal in location?

A. stomach
B. liver
C. heart
D. kidney
E. ovary

D

85

85. The wall of the abdominopelvic cavity is lined by a serous membrane called the

A. visceral pleural membrane.
B. parietal peritoneum.
C. visceral mediastinal membrane.
D. visceral peritoneum.
E. epicardium.

B

86

86. The visceral pleura is

A. a double-layered serous membrane that anchors some of the abdominal organs to the body wall.
B. the serous membrane that covers the lungs.
C. the serous membrane that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities.
D. space located between the visceral and parietal pleura.
E. the membrane that lines the pericardial sac.

B

87

87. The parietal peritoneum is

A. a double-layered serous membrane that anchors some of the abdominal organs to the body wall.
B. the serous membrane that covers the lungs.
C. the serous membrane that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities.
D. space located between the visceral and parietal pleura.
E. the membrane that lines the pericardial sac.

C

88

88. The mesentery is

A. a double-layered serous membrane that anchors some of the abdominal organs to the body wall.
B. the serous membrane that covers the lungs.
C. the serous membrane that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities.
D. space located between the visceral and parietal pleura.
E. the membrane that lines the pericardial sac.

A

89

89. The pleural cavity is the

A. a double-layered serous membrane that anchors some of the abdominal organs to the body wall.
B. the serous membrane that covers the lungs.
C. the serous membrane that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities.
D. space located between the visceral and parietal pleura.
E. the membrane that lines the pericardial sac.

D

90

90. The parietal pericardium is

A. a double-layered serous membrane that anchors some of the abdominal organs to the body wall.
B. the serous membrane that covers the lungs.
C. the serous membrane that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities.
D. space located between the visceral and parietal pleura.
E. the membrane that lines the pericardial sac.

E

91

91. A major limitation of radiographs is that they

A. can only visualize bone.
B. give only a flat, two-dimensional image of the body.
C. are old technology that do not give good results.
D. have very few applications.

B

92

92. An anatomic image created from sound waves is a

A. radiograph.
B. CT scan.
C. MRI.
D. sonogram.

D

93

93. A CT scan allows for a three-dimensional image to be generated.

A. TRUE
B. FALSE

A

94

94. What technique creates a three-dimensional dynamic image of blood vessels?

A. digital subtraction angiography
B. magnetic resonance imaging
C. dynamic spatial reconstruction
D. positron emission tomography

A

95

95. Magnetic resonance imaging is based on the movement of

A. electrons in a magnetic field.
B. carbons in a magnetic field.
C. protons in a magnetic field.
D. cells in a magnetic field.

C

96

96. The delivery of a radioactive compound to the body to study the metabolism of tissues is called

A. MRI.
B. PET.
C. DSA.
D. DSR.

B

97
card image

97. Here is a figure showing major trunk cavities and other structures. What does "A" represent?

A. diaphragm
B. mediastinum
C. pelvic cavity
D. thoracic cavity
E. abdominal cavity

B

98
card image

98. Here is a figure showing major trunk cavities and other structures. What does "B" represent?

A. diaphragm
B. mediastinum
C. pelvic cavity
D. thoracic cavity
E. abdominal cavity

A

99
card image

99. Here is a figure showing major trunk cavities and other structures. What does "C" represent?

A. diaphragm
B. mediastinum
C. pelvic cavity
D. thoracic cavity
E. abdominal cavity

D

100
card image

100. Here is a figure showing major trunk cavities and other structures. What does "D" represent?

A. diaphragm
B. mediastinum
C. pelvic cavity
D. thoracic cavity
E. abdominal cavity

E

101
card image

101. Here is a figure showing major trunk cavities and other structures. What does "E" represent?

A. diaphragm
B. mediastinum
C. pelvic cavity
D. thoracic cavity
E. abdominal cavity

C

102
card image

102. Directional terms are important in the study of anatomy. What does "A" represent?

A. median
B. right
C. left
D. inferior
E. lateral

B

103
card image

103. Directional terms are important in the study of anatomy. What does "B" represent?

A. median
B. right
C. left
D. inferior
E. lateral

C

104
card image

104. Directional terms are important in the study of anatomy. What does "C" represent?

A. median
B. right
C. left
D. inferior
E. lateral

A

105
card image

105. Directional terms are important in the study of anatomy. What does "D" represent?

A. median
B. right
C. left
D. inferior
E. lateral

E

106
card image

106. Directional terms are important in the study of anatomy. What does "E" represent?

A. median
B. right
C. left
D. inferior
E. lateral

D

107
card image

107. This is a sagittal section through the abdominopelvic cavity. What structure does "A" represent?

A. visceral peritoneum (covers organs)
B. mesentery
C. parietal peritoneum (lines cavity)
D. retroperitoneal organs
E. peritoneal cavity

B

108
card image

108. This is a sagittal section through the abdominopelvic cavity. What serous membrane does "B" represent?

A. visceral peritoneum (covers organs)
B. mesentery
C. parietal peritoneum (lines cavity)
D. retroperitoneal organs
E. peritoneal cavity

C

109
card image

109. This is a sagittal section through the abdominopelvic cavity. What serous membrane does "C" represent?

A.visceral peritoneum (covers organs)
B. mesentery
C. parietal peritoneum (lines cavity)
D. retroperitoneal organs
E. peritoneal cavity

A

110
card image

110. This is a sagittal section through the abdominopelvic cavity. What cavity does "D" represent?

A.visceral peritoneum (covers organs)
B. mesentery
C. parietal peritoneum (lines cavity)
D. retroperitoneal organs
E. peritoneal cavity

E

111
card image

111. This is a sagittal section through the abdominopelvic cavity. What structures does "E" represent?

A. visceral peritoneum (covers organs)
B. mesentery
C. parietal peritoneum (lines cavity)
D. retroperitoneal organs
E. peritoneal cavity

D

112

Anatomy deals with the

A) structure of the human body.
B) functions of body parts.
C) psychology of humans.
D) chemical compounds within the body.

A

113

Physiology deals with the

A) structure of the human body.
B) functions of the human body.
C) human body and its relation with the environment.
D) biochemistry of the bacterial population infecting the human body.

B

114

Which of the following statements about anatomy and physiology is true?
A) Anatomy and physiology are ancient fields of study.
B) Anatomy and physiology both are required to understand the body system.
C) Research still expands the concepts of physiology.
D) All of the above statements are true.

D

115

Most of the terms used in anatomy and physiology originated from which of the following languages?
A) Greek and French
B) French and English
C) Greek and Latin
D) Latin and Spanish

C

116

Information about human cells can be obtained by studying
A) bacteria.
B) rat cells.
C) monkey cells.
D) all of the above.

D

117

The first human anatomical illustrations, published by ___________, allowed for the correction of centuries of mistakes in textbooks.
A) Claudius Galen
B) Andreas Vesalius
C) Theodor Schwann
D) William Harvey

B

118

Biochemical and molecular explanations provide a better understanding of
A) body parts.
B) anatomical details of bones.
C) physiology of organs.
D) ecological niches.

C

119

Knowledge of the structure of body parts helps in understanding their function. Which of the following is an accurate example of that principle?
A) The heart is responsible for high blood pressure.
B) The knees can be a cause of trouble when climbing stairs.
C) Foldings in the brain do not reflect the complexity of the brain.
D) The hand is adapted for grasping.

D

120

The location and description of bones in the skeletal system will be covered under
A) physiology.
B) anatomy.
C) ground.
D) dust.

B

121

Which of the following statements about physiology is true?
A) Physiology is a stagnant subject.
B) Some human body functions are still not clearly understood.
C) Physiology could never be related with anatomy.
D) Physiology has no relationship with chemistry.

B

122

Magnetic resonance imaging makes use of
A) X-rays.
B) radio waves.
C) radioisotopes.
D) high-frequency sound waves.

B

123

The study of the microscopic structure of the tissues and organs is called
A) cytology.
B) astrology.
C) gross anatomy.
D) histology.

D

124

Magnetic resonance imaging might be used to
A) distinguish between normal and cancerous tissue.
B) assess damage sustained by the heart.
C) obtain a sectional view of the brain.
D) all of the above are uses of magnetic resonance imaging.

D

125

The smallest structures that are considered to be alive are
A) organelles.
B) cells.
C) tissues.
D) body systems.

B

126

Cells contain structures called _________, which can perform specific activities like energy production, and digestion.
A) atoms
B) molecules
C) organelles
D) macromolecules

C

127

To understand the structure and function of an organism we also need to understand the structure and properties of
A) atoms and molecules.
B) the atmosphere.
C) tectonic plates.
D) Computed Tomography (CT).

A

128

To understand the structure of complex body systems we start from the structure of the atom and progress to the structure of the organ systems. This concept is called
A) levels of deterioration.
B) structural diversity.
C) the hierarchy of species.
D) levels of organization.

D

129

Which of the following lists is in the order of increasing levels of complexity?
A) organelles - tissues - cells - organ systems - organs
B) cells - macromolecules - tissues - body - organs
C) organelles - cells - tissues - organs - organ systems
D) tissues - cells - organs - organelles - organ systems

C

130

Tissues are formed by a group of ________ that perform similar functions.
A) cells
B) tissues
C) organs
D) atoms

A

131

The heart is an example of a(n)
A) cell.
B) organ.
C) organelle.
D) organ segment.

B

132

To maintain life all living organisms depend on
A) oxygen.
B) food.
C) blood.
D) hydrogen.

B

133

As one of the characteristic of Life, development includes
A) fertilization and reproduction.
B) differentiation and morphogenesis.
C) fertilization and differentiation.
D) morphogenesis and metabolism.

C

134

Which of the following activities is not necessary to maintain life?
A) intellectual capability
B) production of energy
C) intake of food compounds
D) growth

A

135

To avoid extinction of a species, living organisms need to
A) think.
B) read.
C) reproduce.
D) overgrow.

C

136

Which of the following carries necessary compounds like nutrients and hormones throughout the body?
A) water
B) public city transport
C) blood
D) lymph

C

137

What organ system is responsible for the production of blood cells?
A) circulatory
B) skeletal
C) digestive
D) nervous

B

138

The ability of an organism to sense changes that take place within its body is an example of
A) responsiveness.
B) movement.
C) breathing.
D) metabolism.

A

139

Homeostasis is defined as the
A) ability of human beings to maintain a low body weight throughout life.
B) maintenance of constant room temperature.
C) capability of the body to maintain a relatively constant internal environment.
D) digestion of food compounds as soon as they are eaten.

C

140

Which of the following is NOT an example of a homeostatic mechanism?
A) Shivering when the body temperature falls below normal levels
B) Using blankets to cover up when the body feels cold
C) Secreting insulin to decrease blood sugar concentration after a meal or whenever the blood sugar level is high
D) Increasing heart rate and contraction force when blood pressure is low

B

141

A blood clot stimulating formation of more blood clotting is an example of
A) negative feedback.
B) negative and positive feedback.
C) positive feedback.
D) spoon feeding.

C

142

The function of ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) is to conserve water by decreasing urine output. According to the negative feedback mechanism, ADH will be secreted when the
A) body is running low in water.
B) body has an excess amount of water.
C) pituitary gland is extremely dry.
D) kidneys are not functioning properly.

A

143

A ______ section separates the body into right and left portions.
A) frontal
B) transverse
C) dorsal
D) sagittal

D

144

Amputation of a foot at the ankle would involve a cut in the ___________ plane.
A) coronal
B) midsagittal
C) transverse
D) frontal

C

145

Which of the following sets of directional terms are most appropriately referred to as opposite?
A) distal and proximal
B) medial and inferior
C) superior and ventral
D) anterior and deep

A

146

The three major anatomical planes are
A) parasagittal, midsagittal, and frontal.
B) sagittal, frontal, and transverse.
C) transverse, cross, and sagittal.
D) cross, frontal, and coronal.

C

147

Which of the following does NOT belong to the axial part of the body?
A) neck
B) left upper quadrant
C) thoracic region
D) brachial region

D

148

The anterior medial thoracic region is called the _____ region.
A) coxial
B) cubital
C) pectoral
D) sternal

D

149

The groin is also known as the ______ region.
A) crural
B) inguinal
C) perineum
D) popliteal

B

150

The spleen is in the _______ of the abdomen.
A) left upper quadrant
B) right upper quadrant
C) right lateral abdominal region
D) epigastric region

A

151

A view of the heart showing the interior of all four chambers would be a ______ section.
A) transverse
B) coronal
C) cross
D) parasagittal

B

152

A ______ plane passes through the breast, hip, and knee on only one side of the body.
A) coronal
B) transverse
C) midsagittal
D) parasagittal

D

153

The antecubital (cubital fossa) region of the body most resembles what other body region?
A) sacral
B) lumbar
C) popliteal
D) tarsal

C

154

The cranial cavity is _______ to the thoracic cavity.
A) inferior
B) anterior
C) peripheral
D) superior

D

155

Most of the esophagus is in the
A) dorsal body cavity.
B) thoracic cavity.
C) epigastric cavity.
D) umbilical region.

B

156

The axial portion of the body includes
A) the dorsal cavity.
B) the ventral cavity.
C) the dorsal cavity and the ventral cavity.
D) neither the dorsal cavity nor the ventral cavity.

C

157

The upper midportion of the abdomen is called the ______ region.
A) hypochondriac
B) iliac
C) hypogastric
D) epigastric

D

158

When the body is placed in the anatomical position, which of the following is NOT true?
A) The face is forward.
B) The arms are at the sides.
C) The palms are facing backward.
D) The body is erect.

C

159

A parietal membrane _______, whereas a visceral membrane _______.
A) covers organs; lines cavities
B) lines cavities; covers organs
C) is thick; is thin
D) secretes mucus; secretes a serous fluid

B

160

Which of the following organs is located in the abdominopelvic cavity?
A) heart.
B) trachea.
C) thymus gland.
D) None of the above.

D

161

The thoracic cavity lies where in relationship to the abdominopelvic cavity?
A) dorsal (posterior)
B) ventral (anterior)
C) superior
D) inferior

C

162

The membrane on the surface of a lung is called the
A) visceral pleura.
B) parietal pleura.
C) visceral pericardium.
D) parietal pericardium.

A

163

The dorsal cavity includes which of the following smaller cavities?
A) spinal and cranial
B) abdominal and pelvic
C) abdominopelvic and thoracic
D) pelvic and mediastinum

A

164

The ankle is _______ to the knee.
A) deep
B) peripheral
C) superior
D) distal

D

165

The acromial region is the
A) neck.
B) armpit.
C) point of the shoulder.
D) hip.

C

166

The _______ contains a portion of the inguinal region.
A) left lower quadrant
B) left upper quadrant
C) hypochondriac region
D) epigastric region

A

167

The urinary bladder is in the ________ region.
A) inguinal
B) epigastric
C) umbilical
D) hypogastric

D

168

Examples of serous membranes include
A) pleura,
B) pericardium.
C) peritoneum.
D) all of the above.

D

169

All of the following are retroperitoneal EXCEPT the
A) esophagus.
B) pancreas.
C) kidneys.
D) adrenal glands.

A

170

The anus is in the ____ region.
A) perineal
B) gluteal
C) pubic
D) inguinal

A

171

The carpus is distal to the
A) manus.
B) tarsus.
C) digits.
D) acromion.

D

172

The concept of anatomical position stipulates all of the following EXCEPT the
A) forearms are supine.
B) feet are slightly apart.
C) arms are held down to the sides.
D) mouth is closed.

D

173

The breast is in the ______ region.
A) sternal
B) acromial
C) pectoral
D) cervical

C

174

All of the following are found in the thoracic cavity EXCEPT the
A) lungs.
B) pleurae.
C) meninges.
D) heart.

C

175

Which of the following is NOT the name of an organ system?
A) hormonal
B) lymphatic
C) circulatory
D) muscular

A

176

_____________ investigates the body's structure, whereas __________ investigates the processes or functions of living things.
A) Physiology, cytology
B) Physiology, anatomy
C) Anatomy, histology
D) Histology, cytology
E) Anatomy, physiology

E

177

Ultrasound, X-rays, CT, and MRI are all examples of
A) anatomic imaging.
B) surface anatomy.
C) regional anatomy.
D) gross anatomy.
E) cytology.

A

178

A group of cells with similar structure and function, together with the extracellular substances located between them, form a(n)
A) organism.
B) organelle.
C) tissue.
D) organ.
E) organ system.

C

179

The basic living unit of all plants and animals is the
A) cell.
B) chemical.
C) organ.
D) organelle.
E) tissue.

A

180

Which organ system removes substances from the blood, combats disease, maintains tissue fluid balance, and absorbs fat from the digestive tract?
A) endocrine
B) integumentary
C) lymphatic
D) respiratory
E) urinary

C

181

Which organ system consists of skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands?
A) endocrine
B) integumentary
C) lymphatic
D) respiratory
E) urinary

B

182

Which organ system consists of hormone-secreting glands, such as the pituitary and thyroid glands?
A) endocrine
B) integumentary
C) lymphatic
D) respiratory
E) urinary

A

183

Which of these characteristics of life helps maintain homeostasis when environmental conditions change?
A) growth and development
B) metabolism
C) organization
D) reproduction
E) responsiveness

E

184

Development is a process that begins with fertilization and ends with
A) birth.
B) adolescence.
C) adulthood.
D) old age.
E) death.

E

185

Given these terms related to negative(--)feedback: 1. control center 2. effector 3. receptor 4. response 5. stimulus Arrange them in the correct order as they operate to maintain homeostasis.
A) 1,2,3,4,5
B) 2,3,5,1,4
C) 3,2,1,5,4
D) 4,5,3,2,1
E) 5,3,1,2,4

E

186

A body temperature of 98.6 degrees F (37 degrees C) is the __________ for body temperature.
A) constant
B) lower limit
C) normal range
D) set point
E) upper limit

D

187

Which of these processes illustrates positive-feedback?
A) increase in respiratory rate during exercise
B) increase in heart rate when blood pressure decreases
C) shivering when body temperature decreases
D) increase in uterine contractions when uterine stretching increases during childbirth
E) all of these

D

188

Failure of negative-feedback mechanisms to maintain homeostasis
A) may produce disease.
B) occurs when blood pressure increases during exercise.
C) can be corrected by stimulating positive-feedback mechanisms.
D) cannot be corrected by medical therapy.
E) all of these

A

189

According to the concept of negative feedback, a slight increase in blood pressure causes
A) an increase in heart rate.
B) a decrease in heart rate.
C) no change in heart rate.

B

190

To maintain homeostasis, the normal range of values for a variable
A) is always below the set point.
B) may change in different situations.
C) may not deviate from the set point.
D) occurs because of positive-feedback.

B

191

A term that means "away from the midline" is:
A) distal
B) lateral
C) medial
D) proximal
E) superior

B

192

Which of these descriptions does NOT apply correctly to a person in the anatomic position?
A) standing erect
B) head facing forward
C) feet facing forward
D) arms hanging to the sides
E) palms facing toward the thighs

E

193

The scapula (shoulder blade) is __________ to the lung.
A) dorsal
B) posterior
C) superficial
D) all of these

D

194

The elbow is __________ to the wrist.
A) distal
B) inferior
C) lateral
D) medial
E) proximal

E

195

The nose is __________ and __________ to the ears.
A) anterior, proximal
B) superior, lateral
C) inferior, posterior
D) anterior, medial
E) superficial, medial

D

196

Which of the paired terms below are opposites?
A) anterior and cephalic
B) posterior and cephalic
C) posterior and caudal
D) superior and cephalic
E) anterior and dorsal

E

197

Pancreatitis describes
A) inflammation of the pancreas.
B) removal of the pancreas.
C) cancer of the pancreas.
D) secretions from the pancreas.
E) death of the pancreas.

A

198

A person lying flat on his back is said to be in the __________ position.
A) anatomic
B) prone
C) supine

C

199

Given these directional terms: 1. caudal 2. cephalic 3. distal 4. inferior 5. proximal Which of these directional terms correctly describes the relationship of the ankle to the knee?
A) 1,3
B) 1,3,4
C) 2,3,4
D) 3,4
E) 4,5

D

200

Which of these anatomical terms refers to the ankle?
A) crural
B) femoral
C) carpal
D) pedal
E) tarsal

E

201

Which of these anatomical terms refers to the shoulder?
A) acromial
B) brachial
C) cervical
D) clavicular
E) digital

A

202

The only plane that can divide the body into equal halves is the
A) frontal (coronal) plane.
B) oblique plane.
C) midsagittal plane.
D) transverse plane.
E) Serengeti plane.

C

203

A(n) __________ plane divides the body into superior and inferior portions.
A) frontal (coronal)
B) oblique
C) sagittal
D) transverse

D

204

A cut across the long axis of an organ made at other than a right angle is called a(n)
A) cross section.
B) transverse section.
C) oblique section.
D) longitudinal section.

C

205

In which quadrant of the abdomen would stomach pain most likely be felt?
A) lower left
B) lower right
C) upper left
D) upper right

C

206

Which of these structures is NOT found in the mediastinum?
A) diaphragm
B) esophagus
C) heart
D) thymus gland
E) trachea

A

207

Which of these statements concerning body regions is correct?
A) The pelvis is located between the thorax and abdomen.
B) The leg extends from the knee to the ankle.
C) The arm extends from the shoulder to the wrist.
D) The trunk can be divided into the thorax and pelvis.
E) The thorax is often subdivided superficially into four quadrants.

B

208

The cavity surrounded by the rib cage and bounded inferiorly by the diaphragm is the
A) mediastinum.
B) pericardial cavity.
C) thorax.
D) abdomen.
E) pelvic cavity.

C

209

The lungs are separated by the
A) mediastinum.
B) mesenteries.
C) diaphragm.
D) peritoneal membranes.
E) pelvic cavity.

A

210

Serous membranes
A) line body cavities that open to the outside.
B) produce a lubricating film of fluid.
C) are found only on the walls of the thoracic cavity.
D) separate the abdominal cavity from the pelvic cavity.
E) completely cover retroperitoneal organs.

B

211

The serous membrane on the surface of the lungs is called
A) parietal pericardium.
B) visceral pericardium.
C) parietal pleura.
D) visceral pleura.
E) parietal peritoneum.

D

212

Which of these organs is NOT retroperitoneal?
A) adrenal glands
B) kidneys
C) urinary bladder
D) spleen
E) pancreas

D

213

Given these serous membranes: 1. parietal pericardium 2. visceral pericardium 3. parietal peritoneum 4. visceral peritoneum 5. parietal pleura 6. visceral pleura
A man had a knife wound that penetrated the abdomen, passed through the stomach, and hit the diaphragm, but did not pass all the way through. Arrange the serous membranes in the correct order as the knife passed through them.
A) 1,2,4,3,5
B) 2,3,4,4,3,2
C) 3,4,4,3
D) 4,3,3,4,5
E) 5,6,6,4

C

214

You are doing a handstand. Your head is __________ to your neck.
A) superior
B) inferior
C) superficial
D) medial
E) proximal

A

215

Physiology
A) deals with the processes or functions of living things.
B) is the scientific discipline that investigates the body's structures.
C) is concerned with organisms and does not deal with different levels of organization, such as cells and systems.
D) recognizes the static (as opposed to the dynamic) nature of living things.
E) can be used to study the human body without considering anatomy.

A

216

The endocrine system
A) regulates other organ systems.
B) removes waste products from the blood; maintains water balance.
C) regulates temperature; prevents water loss; provides protection.
D) removes foreign substances from the blood; combats disease; maintains tissue fluid balance.
E) produces movement; maintains posture; produces body heat.

A

217

The integumentary system
A) regulates other organ systems
B) removes waste products from the blood; maintains water balance
C) regulates temperature; prevents water loss; provides protection
D) removes foreign substances from the blood; combats disease; maintains tissue fluid balance
E) produces movement; maintains posture; produces body heat

C

218

The lymphatic system
A) regulates other organ systems
B) removes waste products from the blood; maintains water balance
C) regulates temperature; prevents water loss; provides protection
D) removes foreign substances from the blood; combats disease; maintains tissue fluid balance
E) produces movement; maintains posture; produces body heat

D

219

The muscular system
A) regulates other organ systems
B) removes waste products from the blood; maintains water balance
C) regulates temperature; prevents water loss; provides protection
D) removes foreign substances from the blood; combats disease; maintains tissue fluid balance
E) produces movement; maintains posture; produces body heat

E

220

The nervous system
A) regulates other organ systems
B) removes waste products from the blood; maintains water balance
C) regulates temperature; prevents water loss; provides protection
D) removes foreign substances from the blood; combats disease; maintains tissue fluid balance
E) produces movement; maintains posture; produces body heat

A

221

The urinary system
A) regulates other organ systems
B) removes waste products from the blood; maintains water balance
C) regulates temperature; prevents water loss; provides protection
D) removes foreign substances from the blood; combats disease; maintains tissue fluid balance
E) produces movement; maintains posture; produces body heat

B

222

The characteristic of life that is defined as "all the chemical reactions taking place in an organism" is
A) development.
B) growth.
C) metabolism.
D) organization.
E) responsiveness.

C

223

Negative-feedback mechanisms
A) make deviations from the set point smaller.
B) maintain homeostasis.
C) are associated with an increased sense of hunger the longer a person goes without eating.
D) all of the above.

D

224

The following events are part of a negative-feedback mechanism.
1. Blood pressure increases.
2. Control center compares actual blood pressure to the blood pressure set point.
3.The heart beats faster.
4. Receptors detect a decrease in blood pressure.

Choose the arrangement that lists the events in the order they occur.
A) 1,2,3,4
B) 1,3,2,4
C) 3,1,4,2
D) 4,2,3,1
E) 4,3,2,1

D

225

Which of these statements concerning positive feedback is correct?
A) Positive-feedback responses maintain homeostasis.
B) Positive-feedback responses occur continuously in healthy individuals.
C) Birth is an example of a normally occurring positive-feedback mechanism.
D) When the cardiac muscle receives an inadequate supply of blood, positive-feedback mechanisms increase blood flow to the heart.
E) Medical therapy seeks to overcome illness by aiding positive-feedback mechanisms.

C

226

The clavicle (collarbone) is _____________ to the nipple of the breast.
A) anterior
B) distal
C) superficial
D) superior
E) ventral

D

227

A term that means nearer the attached end of a limb is
A) distal.
B) lateral.
C) medial.
D) proximal.
E) superficial.

D

228

Which of these directional terms are paired most appropriately as opposites?
A) superficial and deep
B) medial and proximal
C) distal and lateral
D) superior and posterior
E) anterior and inferior

A

229

The part of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist is called the
A) arm.
B) forearm.
C) hand.
D) inferior arm.
E) lower arm.

B

230

A patient with appendicitis usually has pain in the _____________ quadrant of the abdomen.
A) left-lower
B) right-lower
C) left-upper
D) right-upper

B

231

A plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts is a
A) frontal (coronal) plane.
B) sagittal plane.
C) transverse plane.

A

232

The pelvic cavity contains the
A) kidneys.
B) liver.
C) spleen.
D) stomach.
E) urinary bladder.

E

233

The lungs are
A) part of the mediastinum.
B) surrounded by the pericardial cavity.
C) found within the thoracic cavity.
D) separated from each other by the diaphragm.
E) surrounded by mucous membranes.

C

234

Given these characteristics:
1. reduce friction between organs
2. line fluid-filled cavities
3. line trunk cavities that open to the exterior of the body

Which of the characteristics describe serous membranes?
A) 1,2
B) 1,3
C) 2,3
D) 1,2,3

A

235

Given these organ and cavity combinations:
1. heart and pericardial cavity
2. lungs and pleural cavity
3. stomach and peritoneal cavity
4. kidney and peritoneal cavity

Which of the organs is correctly paired with a space that surrounds that organ?
A) 1,2
B) 1,2,3
C) 1,2,4
D) 2,3,4
E) 1,2,3,4

B

236

Which of these membrane combinations are found on the surface of the diaphragm?
A) parietal pleura-parietal peritoneum
B) parietal pleura-visceral peritoneum
C) visceral pleura-parietal peritoneum
D) visceral pleura-visceral peritoneum

A

237

Mesenteries
A) are found in the pleural, pericardial, and abdominopelvic cavities.
B) consist of two layers of peritoneum fused together.
C) anchor organs such as the kidneys and urinary bladder to the body wall.
D) are found primarily in body cavities that open to the outside.
E) all of the above.

B

238

Which of the following organs is not retroperitoneal?
A) adrenal glands
B) urinary bladder
C) kidneys
D) pancreas
E) stomach

E