Human Anatomy & Physiology: Study Area Chapter 26 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance Flashcards


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Professor Brady 2017
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1

A major stimulus for the release of antidiuretic hormone is __________.

stimulation of the baroreceptors
a rise in plasma osmolality
an increase in ECF water concentration
inhibition of the osmoreceptors
an increase in potassium levels in the ICF

a rise in plasma osmolality

2

Acidosis results in increasing levels of what ion?

phosphorus
calcium
hydrogen
sodium
chloride

hydrogen

3

What is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid?

magnesium
bicarbonate
calcium
potassium
sodium

potassium

4

Normal arterial blood pH is __________.

slightly acidic
highly acidic
slightly alkaline
strongly alkaline
neutral

slightly alkaline

5

Parathyroid hormone __________.

results in a lower blood calcium level
is released when aldosterone levels climb
activates osteoblasts
targets the thyroid gland
enhances release of calcium from bone

enhances release of calcium from bone

6

The condition in which sodium levels are too low is referred to as __________.

hypokalemia
hyponatremia
Cushing’s syndrome
aldosteronism
hypernatremia

hyponatremia

7

The largest percentage of body water is located in what compartment?

interstitial fluid
intracellular fluid
blood plasma
extracellular fluid

intracellular fluid

8

The major source of water loss from the body is __________.

urine
insensible respiratory loss
feces
insensible skin loss
sweat

urine

9

The most prevalent electrolyte in the extracellular fluid is __________.

sodium
magnesium
chloride
phosphate
calcium
potassium

sodium

10

The only organ(s) of the body that can remove excess nonvolatile fixed acids is/are the __________.

lungs
sweat glands
liver
kidney
spleen

kidney

11

When the concentration of Na+ in the ECF decreases, __________.

aldosterone levels increase
a person experiences increased thirst
osmoreceptors are stimulated
ANP levels increase
more ADH is released

aldosterone levels increase

12

Which condition would cause a drop in pH?

hyperventilation
hypoventilation
hypokalemia
hypernatremia

hypoventilation

13

Which statement about acids is true?

Weak acids only dissociate partially in solution.
When high in the body, they cause alkalosis.
They have little physiological effect on chemical reactions in cells.
Our bodies have few ways to deal with excess amounts of acids.
Most acid is a result of ingestion with food.

Weak acids only dissociate partially in solution.

14

The only cation exerting significant osmotic pressure in the ECF is __________.

Fe2+
K+
Ca2+
Mg2+
Na+

Na+

15

The most important buffer system in the intracellular fluid compartment (ICF) is the __________ buffer system.

bicarbonate
chloride
phosphate
protein
sulfate

protein

16

Infants are more likely to experience problems regulating acid-base balance because of several factors, including __________.

decreased surface area relative to body volume
the inefficiency of infant kidneys
low rate of insensible water loss from skin
high residual volume of infant lungs
lower amount of fluid intake and output in infants

the inefficiency of infant kidneys

17

Which of the following tissues is the least hydrated?

muscle tissue
nervous tissue
adipose tissue
bone

adipose tissue

18

Which of the following individuals would have the most body water?

an infant
a healthy young female
an older obese person
a healthy young male

an infant

19

When atrial natriuretic peptide is released by the heart because of increased blood pressure, it causes __________.

decreased sodium and water reabsorption
increased antidiuretic-hormone secretion
increased renin secretion
vasoconstriction

decreased sodium and water reabsorption

20

Water lost through expired air is referred to as __________.

water of oxidation
metabolic water
water intake
insensible water loss

insensible water loss

21

All of the following would occur if there were an increase in plasma osmolality EXCEPT __________.

concentrated urine
release of ADH
thirst
production of large amounts of urine

production of large amounts of urine

22

All of the following factors would stimulate the hypothalamic thirst center EXCEPT __________.

decreased saliva production
hypotonic extracellular fluid
a decline in blood volume
increased angiotensin II secretion

hypotonic extracellular fluid

23

Diuresis peaks __________ after drinking water.

ten minutes
half an hour
one hour
three hours

one hour

24

Edema is the accumulation of fluid in the __________.

interstitial space
intracellular space
plasma
organelles

interstitial space

25

Pica, the desire to consume substances that are not normally considered food, such as chalk or clay, may be triggered by a deficiency of __________.

iron
calcium
water
sodium

iron

26

Electrolyte balance in the body usually refers to the balance of __________.

lipids
proteins
carbohydrates
salts

salts

27

The most important buffer system of extracellular fluid, such as plasma, is the __________ buffer system.

hemoglobin
bicarbonate
phosphate
protein

bicarbonate

28

Renal acid-base control mechanisms are coupled to __________.

ADH secretion
plasma protein levels
Na+ transport
water intake

Na+ transport

29

Estrogens are chemically similar to __________ and are therefore associated with water retention.

ANP
aldosterone
rennin
ADH

aldosterone

30

Any arterial pH between __________ is considered physiological acidosis.

6.5 and 7.0
6.5 and 7.35
7.0 and 7.35
7.35 and 7.45

7.0 and 7.35

31

Most fluid in the body is in the extracellular fluid (ECF) compartment.
True
False

False

32

Which of the following is NOT an electrolyte?

chloride
sodium
potassium
glucose

glucose

33

The most abundant cation in extracellular fluid is potassium.
True
False

False

34

Most water is excreted via the __________.

intestines
lungs
skin
kidneys

kidneys

35

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) acts on the __________ to __________ water excretion.

kidneys; decrease
kidneys; increase
intestines; decrease
intestines; increase

kidneys; decrease

36

Which of the following is associated with a swelling of cells?

dehydration
hypoproteinemia
hypotonic hydration
edema

hypotonic hydration

37

Which of the following would increase sodium excretion?

progesterone
aldosterone
estrogens
glucocorticoids

progesterone

38

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases Ca2+ deposition in the bones.
True
False

False

39

Most of the hydrogen ions in the body come from acidic substances in the foods we ingest.
True
False

False

40

The most important factor that influences K+ secretion is __________.

the concentration of Na+ in blood plasma
water balance in the body
the level of aldosterone in the plasma
the concentration of K+ in the ECF

the concentration of K+ in the ECF

41

Which of the following has the LEAST influence over the pH of blood plasma?

the bicarbonate buffer system
respiratory rate
the phosphate buffer system
the protein buffer system

the phosphate buffer system

42

Hyperventilation can lead to __________.

metabolic acidosis
respiratory acidosis
metabolic alkalosis
respiratory alkalosis

respiratory alkalosis

43

One way the kidneys maintain HCO3– balance is by __________.

reabsorbing H+
generating Na+ ions
generating new HCO3–
reabsorbing CO2

generating new HCO3

44

Someone who is suffocating would develop __________.

respiratory acidosis
respiratory alkalosis
metabolic acidosis
metabolic alkalosis

respiratory acidosis

45

Which of the following puts infants at increased risk for dehydration?

their inefficient kidneys
their high residual lung volume
their low surface area to volume ratio
their low metabolic rate

their inefficient kidneys