Human Anatomy & Physiology: Study Area Chapter 25 The Urinary System Flashcards


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1

How is Na+ reabsorbed?

by active transport using ATP
by receptor-mediated endocytosis
by facilitated diffusion
by osmosis
by diffusion

by active transport using ATP

2

The major calyces are the __________.

pyramid-shaped structures in the renal medulla
expanded ends of nephrons
capsules surrounding each kidney
functional units of the kidneys
large branches of the renal pelvis

large branches of the renal pelvis

3

Micturition is __________.

a form of glomerular filtration
a mechanism for concentrating urine
a method of tubular reabsorption
the release of urine from the bladder via the urethra
the production of urine

the release of urine from the bladder via the urethra

4

The basic functional unit of the kidney is the __________.

glomerulus
major calyx
renal corpuscle
loop of Henle
nephron

nephron

5

The blood supply leading directly into the nephron is the __________.

afferent arteriole
efferent arteriole
interlobular artery
segmental artery
renal artery

afferent arteriole

6

The glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule and glomerulus make up the __________.

papilla
nephron
renal pelvis
renal corpuscle
loop of Henle

renal corpuscle

7

An important factor directly affecting the glomerular filtration rate is __________.

blood osmotic pressure
net filtration pressure
capsular hydrostatic pressure
capsular osmotic pressure
negative pressure

net filtration pressure

8

When the concentration of ADH increases, __________.

the specific gravity of the urine decreases
less water is reabsorbed by the nephron and collecting duct
less urine is produced
blood volume decreases
more salt is secreted by the nephron

less urine is produced

9

Which process results in increased blood pressure in response to hormone release?

adrenergic response
myogenic mechanism
countercurrent mechanism
tubuloglomerular response
renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism

renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism

10

Which structure is the muscular tube that delivers urine to the bladder?

renal pelvis
urethra
papillary duct
ureter
prostate

ureter

11

Which substance would NOT normally be expected in urine?

water
uric acid
potassium
sodium
protein

protein

12

Arrange the following structures to represent the sequence in which urine passes through them to the external environment: (1) ureter, (2) renal pelvis, (3) calyx, (4) urinary bladder, and (5) urethra.

3, 2, 1, 4, 5
2, 4, 1, 3, 5
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
3, 4, 1, 5, 2

3, 2, 1, 4, 5

13

If the efferent arteriole constricts while the afferent arteriole remains unchanged, the glomerular filtration rate __________.

decreases
increases
does not change
cannot be determined

increases

14

The presence of glucose and ketone bodies in the urine can indicate __________.

albuminuria
trauma to the kidneys
infection of the urinary tract
untreated diabetes mellitus

untreated diabetes mellitus

15

Which of the following statements about the urinary system is INCORRECT?

It metabolizes vitamin D to its active form.
It produces erythropoietin, which stimulates red blood cell formation.
It produces epinephrine.
It produces renin, which helps regulate blood pressure.

It produces epinephrine.

16

The renal hilum lies on the __________ surface of the kidney.

inferior
lateral
superior
medial

medial

17

The __________ cushions the kidney and helps attach it to the posterior body wall.

renal pelvis
ureter
fibrous capsule
perirenal fat capsule

perirenal fat capsule

18

Renal ptosis may lead to __________.

degeneration of the perirenal fat
renal calculus formation
hydronephrosis due to urine backup
bleeding in the kidney tissue

hydronephrosis due to urine backup

19

The renal __________ is continuous with the ureter.

cortex
pelvis
medulla
glomerulus

pelvis

20

All of the following are layers of the filtration membrane in the glomerular membrane EXCEPT the __________.

basement membrane
renal capsule
fenestrated endothelium
visceral layer

renal capsule

21

What structure(s) is/are part of the juxtaglomerular complex and act(s) as a mechanoreceptor, sensing blood pressure in the afferent arteriole?

extraglomerular mesangial cells
macula densa
podocytes
granular cells

granular cells

22

All of the following functions are carried out in the renal tubules EXCEPT __________.

secretion
reabsorption
formation of urine
filtration

filtration

23

Which nephron capillary bed specializes in forming concentrated urine?

peritubular capillaries
efferent arteriole
vasa recta
glomerulus

vasa recta

24

The energy needed for secondary active transport is provided by the __________.

renal capillary hydrostatic pressure
cleavage of ATP
concentration gradient established by Na+
filtration membrane

concentration gradient established by Na+

25

Which of the following is the countercurrent multiplier in the kidney?

the proximal convoluted tubule
the glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule around the glomerulus
the vasa recta
the loop of Henle of a juxtamedullary nephron

the loop of Henle of a juxtamedullary nephron

26

Urea transport out of the medullary collecting duct is enhanced by __________.

renin
ADH
prostaglandin E2
angiotensin II

ADH

27

Which of the following is the standard substance used to measure the GFR?

glucose
drug metabolites
protein
inulin

inulin

28

Which of the following substances is the largest component of urine by weight after water?

inulin
uric acid
urea
creatinine

urea

29

Which of the following is/are NOT associated with primary nocturnal enuresis?

a small bladder capacity
unusually sound sleep
females over the age of 60 years
inadequate nocturnal ADH production

females over the age of 60 years

30

Every day the kidneys filter nearly __________ of fluid from the bloodstream.

50 liters
100 liters
200 liters
500 liters

200 liters

31

The perirenal fat capsule is a transparent capsule that prevents infections in surrounding regions from spreading to the kidney.
True
False

False

32

The __________ is the darker, reddish-brown area of the kidney that exhibits cone-shaped tissue masses called renal pyramids.

renal cortex
renal medulla
renal pelvis
renal column

renal medulla

33

Under normal resting conditions, the __________ arteries deliver one-fourth of the total cardiac output (about 1200 ml) to the kidneys each minute.

renal
segmental
interlobar
cortical radiate

renal

34

__________ are the structural and functional units of the kidneys, which carry out the processes that form urine.

Glomerular capsules
Major calyces
Nephrons
Renal pyramids

Nephrons

35

In what part of the nephron is plasma filtered?

in the renal corpuscle
in the proximal convoluted tubule
in the distal convoluted tubule
in the collecting duct

in the renal corpuscle

36

The hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries is the chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane.
True
False

True

37

In situations in which there is an extreme change of blood pressure (e.g., mean arterial pressure of less than 80 mm Hg), extrinsic controls take precedence over intrinsic blood pressure controls.
True
False

True

38

Which of the following homeostatic imbalances is indicative that glomerular blood pressure may be too low to cause filtration?

renal ptosis
pyelitis
hydronephrosis
anuria

anuria

39

The reason glucose is detected in the urine of individuals with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is that __________.

glucose is secreted in the collecting ducts of diabetics
glucose is too large to be filtered by the nephron
the transport maximum for glucose reabsorption has been exceeded
glucose cannot be reabsorbed by the kidney

the transport maximum for glucose reabsorption has been exceeded

40

Water can leave the ascending limb of the nephron loop.
True
False

False

41

Tubular secretion is important for all EXCEPT which of the following?

disposing of substances, such as certain drugs
eliminating undesirable substances or end products that have been reabsorbed by passive processes
controlling blood pH
ridding the body of excess glucose

ridding the body of excess glucose

42

The descending limb of the nephron loop is relatively impermeable to solutes and freely permeable to water.
True
False

True

43

Alcohol and many drugs prescribed for hypertension are examples of diuretics.
True
False

True

44

Which of the following is NOT a physical characteristic of freshly voided urine in a healthy person?

It is slightly basic in pH.
It is slightly aromatic.
It is clear and pale to deep yellow.
A given volume of urine has a greater specific gravity than the same volume of distilled water.

It is slightly basic in pH.

45

The urethra has two functions in men but only one in women.
True
False

True

46

Which of the following is NOT one of the most common causes of incontinence in adults?

physical pressure during pregnancy
emotional problems
nervous system problems
a side effect after general anesthesia

a side effect after general anesthesia