46 notecards = 12 pages (4 cards per page)
How is Na+ reabsorbed?
by active transport using ATP
The major calyces are the __________.
large branches of the renal pelvis
Micturition is __________.
the release of urine from the bladder via the urethra
The basic functional unit of the kidney is the __________.
The blood supply leading directly into the nephron is the
The glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule and glomerulus make up the
An important factor directly affecting the glomerular filtration rate
net filtration pressure
When the concentration of ADH increases, __________.
less urine is produced
Which process results in increased blood pressure in response to
Which structure is the muscular tube that delivers urine to the
Which substance would NOT normally be expected in urine?
Arrange the following structures to represent the sequence in which
urine passes through them to the external environment: (1) ureter, (2)
renal pelvis, (3) calyx, (4) urinary bladder, and (5) urethra.
3, 2, 1, 4, 5
If the efferent arteriole constricts while the afferent arteriole
remains unchanged, the glomerular filtration rate __________.
The presence of glucose and ketone bodies in the urine can indicate
untreated diabetes mellitus
Which of the following statements about the urinary system is
It produces epinephrine.
The renal hilum lies on the __________ surface of the kidney.
The __________ cushions the kidney and helps attach it to the
posterior body wall.
perirenal fat capsule
Renal ptosis may lead to __________.
hydronephrosis due to urine backup
The renal __________ is continuous with the ureter.
All of the following are layers of the filtration membrane in the
glomerular membrane EXCEPT the __________.
What structure(s) is/are part of the juxtaglomerular complex and
act(s) as a mechanoreceptor, sensing blood pressure in the afferent
All of the following functions are carried out in the renal tubules
Which nephron capillary bed specializes in forming concentrated
The energy needed for secondary active transport is provided by the
concentration gradient established by Na+
Which of the following is the countercurrent multiplier in the
the loop of Henle of a juxtamedullary nephron
Urea transport out of the medullary collecting duct is enhanced by
Which of the following is the standard substance used to measure the
Which of the following substances is the largest component of urine
by weight after water?
Which of the following is/are NOT associated with primary nocturnal
females over the age of 60 years
Every day the kidneys filter nearly __________ of fluid from the
The perirenal fat capsule is a transparent capsule that prevents
infections in surrounding regions from spreading to the kidney.
The __________ is the darker, reddish-brown area of the kidney that
exhibits cone-shaped tissue masses called renal pyramids.
Under normal resting conditions, the __________ arteries deliver
one-fourth of the total cardiac output (about 1200 ml) to the kidneys
__________ are the structural and functional units of the kidneys,
which carry out the processes that form urine.
In what part of the nephron is plasma filtered?
in the renal corpuscle
The hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries is the chief force
pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration
In situations in which there is an extreme change of blood pressure
(e.g., mean arterial pressure of less than 80 mm Hg), extrinsic
controls take precedence over intrinsic blood pressure controls.
Which of the following homeostatic imbalances is indicative that
glomerular blood pressure may be too low to cause filtration?
The reason glucose is detected in the urine of individuals with
uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is that __________.
the transport maximum for glucose reabsorption has been exceeded
Water can leave the ascending limb of the nephron loop.
Tubular secretion is important for all EXCEPT which of the
ridding the body of excess glucose
The descending limb of the nephron loop is relatively impermeable to
solutes and freely permeable to water.
Alcohol and many drugs prescribed for hypertension are examples of
Which of the following is NOT a physical characteristic of freshly
voided urine in a healthy person?
It is slightly basic in pH.
The urethra has two functions in men but only one in women.
Which of the following is NOT one of the most common causes of
incontinence in adults?
a side effect after general anesthesia