Human Anatomy & Physiology: Lymphatic System and Immunity Flashcards


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1

What is lymph?

Fluid inside lymphatic vessels.

2

Where does lymph come from?

It enters lymphatic vessels from interstitial fluid. Interstitial fluid is a filtrate of blood plasma.

3

Two lymphatic ducts

Right Lymphatic Duct

Thoracic Duct

4

Five types of Trunks

Lumbar Trunks

Intestinal Trunk

Bronchomediastinal Trunk

Subclavian Trunk

Jugular Trunk

5

Where does the lumbar trunk gather lymphatic fluid from?

Pelvis and Legs

6

Where does the intestinal trunk gather lymphatic fluid from?

Abdomen

7

Where does the Bronchomediastinal trunk gather lymphatic fluid from?

Right and Left Thorax

8

Where does the subclavian trunk gather lymphatic fluid from?

Right and Left shoulder and arm

9

Where does the jugular trunk gather lymphatic fluid from?

Right and Left head and neck

10

What's trunks deliver to the right lymphatic duct?

Right Jugular Trunk

Right Subclavian Trunk

Right Bronchomediastinal Trunk

11

What's trunks deliver to the Thoracic Duct?

Left Jugular Trunk

Left Subclavian Trunk

Left Bronchomediastinal Trunk

Right and Left Lumbar Trunk

Intestinal Trunk

12

Macrophages

Engulf and destroy

13

Pathogens

Disease causing micro organisms

14

Where is the spleen located?

Upper left abdominal cavity

15

What do lymphatic trunks do?

Drain lymph from the body

16

What do T cells and B cells protect against?

Antigens of foreign pathogens.

Bacteria and their toxins; viruses

mismatched RBCs or cancer cells

17

T Cells

Manage the immune response.

Attack and destroy foreign cells

18

B Cells

Produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies

19

T cells (T lymphocytes) differentiate...

Thymus Gland

20

B cells (B lymphocytes) differentiate...

Red Bone Marrow

21

Macrophages

phagocytize foreign substances and help activate T cells

22

Dendritic cells

Capture antigens and deliver them to lymph nodes

23

Reticular cells

Produce reticular fibers that support lymphoid organs

24

White pulp

One of two distinct areas in the spleen around central arteries. Mostly lymphocytes on reticular fibers and involved in immune functions.

25

Red pulp

One of two distinct areas in the spleen. In venous sinuses and splenic cords. Rich in RBCs macrophages for disposal of worn-out RBCs and blood-borne.

26

Palatine Tonsils

Posterior end of the oral cavity

27

Lingual Tonsils

Grouped at the base of the tongue

28

Pharyngeal Tonsil

Posterior wall of the nasopharynx

29

Tonsillar Crypts

Overlying epithelium in the tonsils that traps and destroys bacteria and particulate matter.

Produces and stores lymphocytes

30

Peyer’s Patches

Clusters of lymphoid follicles in the wall of the distal portion of the small intestine

31

Peyer’s Patches and the Appendix

Destroy bacteria, preventing them from breaching the intestinal wall. Generate “memory” lymphocytes

32

Lymphatic Follicles

Type of lymphoid tissue, solid, spherical bodies of tightly packed reticular elements and cells

Germinal center composed of dendritic and B cells

May form part of larger lymphoid organs

33

Diffuse Lymphatic Tissue

Type of lymphoid tissue comprises of scattered reticular tissue elements in every body organ

Larger collections in the lamina propria of mucous membranes and lymphoid organs

34

Lymph is propelled by the same forces that assist venous return

Skeletal muscle pumps

Respiratory pumps

Valves to prevent backflow

Vasoconstriction and vasodilation of smooth muscle in walls of lymphatic vessels

35

Lymphocytes main warriors of the immune system

Two Main Varieties

T cells (T lymphocytes)

B cells (B lymphocytes)

36

Empties lymph into venous circulation at the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins on its own side of the body

Ducts

37

Right lymphatic Duct

Drains the right upper arm and the right side of the head and thorax

38

Thoracic Duct

Arises from the cisterna chyli and drains the rest of the body

39

How do Lymphatic collecting vessels differ from veins?

Have thinner walls, with more internal valves

Anastomose more frequently

Collecting vessels in the skin travel with superficial veins

Deep vessels travel with arteries

40

Lacteals

Specialized lymph capillaries present in intestinal mucosa. That absorb digested fat and deliver fatty lymph (chyle) to the blood

41

How do pathogens travel throughout the body

lymphatics

42

Lymph Nodes

Principal lymphoid organs of body

43

Germinal center

Part of Composed of dendritic and B cells. May form part of larger lymphoid organs

44

Embedded in connective tissue, in clusters along lymphatic vessels. Near the body surface in inguinal, axillary, and cervical regions of the body

Lymph Nodes

45

Spleen

Functions:

Site of lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response

Cleanses the blood of aged cells and platelets and macrophages remove debris

Stores breakdown products of RBCs (e.g., iron) for later reuse

Stores blood platelets and monocytes

Site of fetal erythrocyte production (normally ceases after birth)

46

Largest lymphoid organ. Served by splenic artery and vein, which enter and exit at the hilum

Spleen

47

Entry of lymph in to the lymphatic capillaries is promoted by?

one-way mini valves

48

Circulation of lymph in the lymph nodes

  1. Enters convex side via afferent lymphatic vessels
  2. Travels through large subscapular sinus and smaller sinuses to medullary sinuses
  3. Exits the node at the hilum via efferent vessels

49

What allows Lymphocytes and macrophages time to carry out functions?

Fewer efferent vessels, causing flow of lymph to stagnate

50

Where does the left and right lumbar trunk drain before the thoracic duct?

Cisterna Chyli

51

What trunk drains into the Cisterna Chyli first?

Intestinal Trunk

52

When B lymphocytes are dividing rapidly, what lymphoid tissue enlarges?

Germinal Center

53

Trabeculae are extensions of

The capsule

54

Lymph sinuses

Large lymph capillaries in a lymph node spanned by crisscrossing reticular fibers

55

Areas of lymphocytes suspended by reticular fibers in the spleen are known as

White pulp