A&P Chapter 24 Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation

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Professor Brady's Class Ch. 24 Homework Questions, Study Area, Dynamic Study Modules Mastering A&P
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1

To quiz yourself select the cards option from the note card set and good luck with your class.

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https://quizlet.com/57781682/metabolism-flash-cards/

2

The movement of H+ through the ATP synthase is best described as an example of ______.

hydrolysis
facilitated diffusion
simple diffusion
active transport

facilitated diffusion

3
card image

Oxygen is consumed during which of the lettered processes?

A
B
C
D and E
E, F, and G

C

4
card image

Which of the following events is NOT depicted in the figure?

transfer of electrons and hydrogen atoms from a food molecule to a coenzyme
formation of a high energy phosphate-phosphate bond
generation of an electrochemical gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane
the reduction of an oxygen molecule

transfer of electrons and hydrogen atoms from a food molecule to a coenzyme

5

Proton pumps within the electron transport chain transport H+ ions ______.

from matrix to intermembrane space
from intermembrane space to cytoplasm
from cytoplasm to matrix
from matrix to cytoplasm

from matrix to intermembrane space

6
card image

Which of the following describes the event depicted on the right side of the figure?

active transport of H+ ions
oxidative phosphorylation
substrate-level phosphorylation
oxidation of ADP

oxidative phosphorylation

7
card image

Which of the following pathways act as a source for the electrons carried by the NADH and FADH2 molecules shown in this figure?

glycolysis
the krebs cycle
both A and B
neither A nor B

both A and B

8

Which of the following is NOT an end product of the Krebs cycle?
FADH2
NADH
CO2
citric acid

citric acid

9

Most ATP in cellular respiration is generated in glycolysis.
True
False

False

10

The body is able to form glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors.
True
False

True

11

The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells is ________.
protein
acetyl CoA
fat
glucose

glucose

12

It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________.
most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients
very few foods contain vitamins
vitamins provide protection against the common cold
all vitamins are water soluble and pass out of the body too quickly to ensure utilization

most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients

13

Prostaglandins play a role in ________.
skeletal muscle contraction
noninflammatory responses
control of blood volume
control of blood pressure

control of blood pressure

14

Select the correct statement about proteins.
Proteins can be synthesized in the body if most of the amino acids are present.
Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.
Strict vegetarians need not worry about adequate protein intake, as most vegetables are almost perfect sources of amino acids.
Catabolic steroids (hormones) accelerate the rate of protein synthesis.

Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.

15

The term essential nutrient refers to the chemicals that can be interconverted in the liver so that the body can maintain life and good health.
True
False

False

16

The most abundant dietary lipids in the diets of most Americans are triglycerides.
True
False

True

17

Ammonia, which is a byproduct of protein metabolism, is converted to __________ primarily in the __________.
urea; liver
ketones; kidney
ketones; liver
urea; kidney

urea; liver

18

The primary goal during the postabsorptive state is to __________.
maintain blood glucose levels within an adequate range
break down glucose in the liver
form glycogen
build fat reserves

maintain blood glucose levels within an adequate range

19

The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as ________.
fat utilization
gluconeogenesis
lipogenesis
lipolysis

lipolysis

20

When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of ________.
glycogen
amino acids
lactic acid
fatty acids

fatty acids

21

A major means for conserving heat is __________.

vasoconstriction of cutaneous blood vessels
enhanced sweating
increased metabolic rate
increased convective loss

vasoconstriction of cutaneous blood vessels

22

During glycolysis, glucose must be activated by how many ATP molecules?

one
two
three
five
ten

two

23

Most vitamins __________.

are metabolized to make ATP
are used as building blocks for the body
are carbohydrates
function as coenzymes in the body

function as coenzymes in the body

24

One function of vitamin A is to __________.

transfer electrons in cellular respiration
form visual pigments
assist in blood clotting
help with calcium absorption
synthesize DNA

form visual pigments

25

The hormone responsible for setting the basal metabolic rate is __________.

thyroxine
melatonin
insulin
melanin
glucagon

thyroxine

26

The site of electron transport is the __________.

mitochondrial matrix
mitochondrial inner membrane (cristae)
cytoplasm
Golgi body
mitochondrial outer membrane

mitochondrial inner membrane (cristae)

27

The main integrating center for thermoregulation is located in the __________.

thymus gland
spinal cord
liver
mitochondrion
hypothalamus

hypothalamus

28

Which coenzyme is reduced in both glycolysis and the Krebs cycle?

manganese
NAD
coenzyme A
FAD
vitamin A

NAD

29

Which element below is considered a trace mineral?

sodium
phosphorus
potassium
chlorine
chromium

chromium

30

Which lipoprotein contains the most cholesterol?

LDL
chylomicron
VLDL
IDL
HDL

LDL

31

Nutritionally incomplete proteins are low in __________.

one or more of the major vitamins
one or more of the coenzymes
one or more of the essential fatty acids
one or more of the essential amino acids

one or more of the essential amino acids

32

Most of the ATP produced during cellular respiration is produced by __________.

substrate-level phosphorylation
oxidative phosphorylation during the chemiosmotic process
glycolysis
the Krebs cycle
gluconeogenesis

oxidative phosphorylation during the chemiosmotic process

33

A function of the liver during the postabsorptive state is __________.

lipogenesis
to store excess glucose by glycogenesis
electron transport to release glucose
to mobilize glucose reserves by glycogenolysis
glycolysis

to mobilize glucose reserves by glycogenolysis

34

The hormone that controls essentially all events of the absorptive state is __________.

thyroxine
glucagon
ADH
insulin
calcitonin

insulin

35

Which of the following factors makes it harder for an obese person to lose weight?

an increase in taste receptors
an increase in thyroxine levels as fat levels accumulate
an increase in alpha receptors (the kind that favors fat accumulation) in fat cells
an increase in heat loss from the body that requires more food intake
an increase in metabolism that increases appetite

an increase in alpha receptors (the kind that favors fat accumulation) in fat cells

36

Which of the following is the amount of energy the body needs in order to perform only the most essential activities and is often referred to as the “energy cost of living”?

BMR
BMI
TMR
MR

BMR

37

Which of the following is NOT a physiological response to hypothermia?

reduced respiratory rate
shivering
drowsiness
dehydration
reduced heart rate

dehydration

38

A kilocalorie is the amount of energy __________.

stored in 1 kilogram of water
needed to heat 1 kilogram of water 1°C
needed to move 1 kilogram of water 1 meter
needed to heat 1 kilogram of water 1°F

needed to heat 1 kilogram of water 1°C

39

Essential nutrients refer to nutrients that are __________.

stored in the body for times of starvation
synthesized every day in the body
only found in grains
limited in synthesis and therefore must be consumed

limited in synthesis and therefore must be consumed

40

Prolonged high protein intake can lead to __________.

loss of bone mass
a negative nitrogen balance
kidney damage
muscle building

loss of bone mass

41

Which of the following substances is considered a provitamin?

niacin
beta-carotene
iron
vitamin D

beta-carotene

42

Which of the following fat-soluble vitamins is NOT stored in the body?

vitamin E
vitamin K
vitamin A
vitamin D

vitamin K

43

The final product of glycolysis is __________.

two molecules of pyruvic acid, two molecules of NAD+, and a net gain of two ATP
two FAD molecules
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
two molecules of acetyl coenzyme A and two molecules of carbon dioxide

two molecules of pyruvic acid, two molecules of NAD+, and a net gain of two ATP

44

Cyanide acts as a poison by __________.

blocking glycolysis
interfering with the flow of electrons in the electron transport chain
abolishing the proton gradient by making the cristae membrane permeable to H+
irreversibly binding to oxygen

interfering with the flow of electrons in the electron transport chain

45

During fasts lasting several weeks, blood glucose is maintained by __________.

glycogenolysis
gluconeogenesis
glycolysis
lipolysis

gluconeogenesis

46

A low-density lipoprotein contains __________.

a low cholesterol content
a high lipid content
a high amino-acid content
a high protein content

a high lipid content

47

The role of __________ is to transport excessive cholesterol from peripheral tissue to the liver, where it is broken down and becomes part of bile.

very low-density lipoproteins
high-density lipoproteins
chylomicrons
low-density lipoproteins

high-density lipoproteins

48

The official medical measurement of obesity is the __________.

proportion of bone density to weight
body mass index
basal metabolic rate
proportion of LDLs to body weight

body mass index

49

__________ acts to suppress appetite by inhibiting __________, which is the most powerful known appetite stimulant.

Growth hormone; lipase
Leptin; neuropeptide Y
Serotonin; adrenaline
Insulin; glucagon

Leptin; neuropeptide Y

50

Which of the following statements about “redox” reactions in human metabolism is correct?

Coenzymes accept hydrogen.
The substance being reduced loses an electron.
Oxidized substances gain energy.
Oxidized substances lose oxygen.

Coenzymes accept hydrogen.

51

Which of the following is a micronutrient?

protein
carbohydrate
mineral
lipid

mineral

52

glucose

exclusive energy source for neurons

53

cholesterol

serves as a precursor to hormones and maintains the fluidity of the plasma membrane

54

protein

used to build enzymes

55

vitamins

can function as coenzymes

56

minerals

may be incorporated into structures to make them stronger

57

A person who is starving is likely to exhibit __________.

negative nitrogen balance
positive nitrogen balance
neutral nitrogen balance
nitrogen balance

negative nitrogen balance

58

Fat-soluble vitamins can be toxic if consumed in large quantities.
True
False

True

59

Which of the following is an example of catabolism?

absorbing nutrients into the blood from the intestines
using amino acids to make a protein
cellular respiration
lipid synthesis

cellular respiration

60

A substance that is reduced has lost an electron.
True
False

False

61

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of glycolysis?

Glycolysis requires oxygen.
Glycolysis produces a net gain of 2 ATP molecules per glucose molecule.
Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol of a cell.
The final products of glycolysis include two molecules of pyruvic acid.

Glycolysis requires oxygen.

62

Which of the following is a characteristic of the citric acid (Krebs) cycle?

The citric acid cycle is an anaerobic pathway.
The citric acid cycle occurs in the cytosol of the cell.
Pyruvic acid directly enters the citric acid cycle.
The citric acid cycle generates a rich supply of the reduced coenzymes, NADH and FADH2.

The citric acid cycle generates a rich supply of the reduced coenzymes, NADH and FADH2.

63

The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is __________.

NADH
oxygen
water
CO2

oxygen

64

glycogenesis

the formation of glycogen to store glucose

65

glycogenolysis

the cleavage of glycogen to release glucose

66

gluconeogenesis

the process of forming glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules

67

beta oxidation

the initial phase of fatty acid breakdown

68

lipogenesis

triglyceride synthesis

69

As proteins are broken down for energy, __________ is generated; the liver then converts this potentially toxic intermediate into __________.

urea; water
ammonia; glucose
ammonia; urea
acid; ammonia

ammonia; urea

70

In the absorptive state, __________.

insulin serves as the main regulatory hormone
fats are the main energy fuel
catabolism exceeds anabolism
glycogen is broken down to release glucose

insulin serves as the main regulatory hormone

71

In the postabsorptive state, __________.

anabolism exceeds catabolism
insulin serves as the main regulatory hormone
glucose is the main energy source
glycogen is broken down to release glucose

glycogen is broken down to release glucose

72

__________ are considered "good" cholesterol; high blood levels of this cholesterol are thought to be beneficial.

HDLs
LDLs
VLDLs
Chylomicrons

HDLs

73

Which of the following is considered a long-term regulator of feeding behavior?

blood concentrations of amino acids and fatty acids
cholecystokinin (CCK) levels
stimulation of stretch receptors
leptin levels

leptin levels

74

The body's overall rate of energy output is called the basal metabolic rate.
True
False

False

75

Which of the following would raise body temperature?

evaporation
dilation of cutaneous blood vessels
thyroxine
sweating

thyroxine