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The movement of H+ through the ATP synthase is best described as an example of ______.
Oxygen is consumed during which of the lettered processes?
Which of the following events is NOT depicted in the figure?
transfer of electrons and hydrogen atoms from a food molecule to
transfer of electrons and hydrogen atoms from a food molecule to a coenzyme
Proton pumps within the electron transport chain transport H+ ions ______.
from matrix to intermembrane space
from matrix to intermembrane space
Which of the following describes the event depicted on the right side of the figure?
active transport of H+ ions
Which of the following pathways act as a source for the electrons carried by the NADH and FADH2 molecules shown in this figure?
both A and B
Which of the following is NOT an end product of the Krebs
Most ATP in cellular respiration is generated in glycolysis.
The body is able to form glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors.
The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available
fuel for neurons and blood cells is ________.
It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in
vitamins because ________.
most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients
Prostaglandins play a role in ________.
control of blood pressure
Select the correct statement about proteins.
Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.
The term essential nutrient refers to the chemicals that can be
interconverted in the liver so that the body can maintain life and
The most abundant dietary lipids in the diets of most Americans are triglycerides.
Ammonia, which is a byproduct of protein metabolism, is converted to
__________ primarily in the __________.
The primary goal during the postabsorptive state is to
maintain blood glucose levels within an adequate range
The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty
acids is known as ________.
When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large
amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of
A major means for conserving heat is __________.
vasoconstriction of cutaneous blood vessels
During glycolysis, glucose must be activated by how many ATP
Most vitamins __________.
function as coenzymes in the body
One function of vitamin A is to __________.
form visual pigments
The hormone responsible for setting the basal metabolic rate is
The site of electron transport is the __________.
mitochondrial inner membrane (cristae)
The main integrating center for thermoregulation is located in the
Which coenzyme is reduced in both glycolysis and the Krebs
Which element below is considered a trace mineral?
Which lipoprotein contains the most cholesterol?
Nutritionally incomplete proteins are low in __________.
one or more of the essential amino acids
Most of the ATP produced during cellular respiration is produced by
oxidative phosphorylation during the chemiosmotic process
A function of the liver during the postabsorptive state is
to mobilize glucose reserves by glycogenolysis
The hormone that controls essentially all events of the absorptive
state is __________.
Which of the following factors makes it harder for an obese person to
an increase in alpha receptors (the kind that favors fat accumulation) in fat cells
Which of the following is the amount of energy the body needs in
order to perform only the most essential activities and is often
referred to as the “energy cost of living”?
Which of the following is NOT a physiological response to
A kilocalorie is the amount of energy __________.
needed to heat 1 kilogram of water 1°C
Essential nutrients refer to nutrients that are __________.
limited in synthesis and therefore must be consumed
Prolonged high protein intake can lead to __________.
loss of bone mass
Which of the following substances is considered a provitamin?
Which of the following fat-soluble vitamins is NOT stored in the
The final product of glycolysis is __________.
two molecules of pyruvic acid, two molecules of NAD+, and a net gain of two ATP
Cyanide acts as a poison by __________.
interfering with the flow of electrons in the electron transport chain
During fasts lasting several weeks, blood glucose is maintained by
A low-density lipoprotein contains __________.
a high lipid content
The role of __________ is to transport excessive cholesterol from
peripheral tissue to the liver, where it is broken down and becomes
part of bile.
The official medical measurement of obesity is the __________.
body mass index
__________ acts to suppress appetite by inhibiting __________, which
is the most powerful known appetite stimulant.
Leptin; neuropeptide Y
Which of the following statements about “redox” reactions in human
metabolism is correct?
Coenzymes accept hydrogen.
Which of the following is a micronutrient?
exclusive energy source for neurons
serves as a precursor to hormones and maintains the fluidity of the plasma membrane
used to build enzymes
can function as coenzymes
may be incorporated into structures to make them stronger
A person who is starving is likely to exhibit __________.
negative nitrogen balance
Fat-soluble vitamins can be toxic if consumed in large
Which of the following is an example of catabolism?
A substance that is reduced has lost an electron.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of glycolysis?
Glycolysis requires oxygen.
Which of the following is a characteristic of the citric acid (Krebs)
The citric acid cycle generates a rich supply of the reduced coenzymes, NADH and FADH2.
The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is
the formation of glycogen to store glucose
the cleavage of glycogen to release glucose
the process of forming glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules
the initial phase of fatty acid breakdown
As proteins are broken down for energy, __________ is generated; the
liver then converts this potentially toxic intermediate into
In the absorptive state, __________.
insulin serves as the main regulatory hormone
In the postabsorptive state, __________.
glycogen is broken down to release glucose
__________ are considered "good" cholesterol; high blood
levels of this cholesterol are thought to be beneficial.
Which of the following is considered a long-term regulator of feeding
The body's overall rate of energy output is called the basal
Which of the following would raise body temperature?