Chapters 10-12 Review questions

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1

Blood volume during pregnancy

increases

2

Pregnant mothers taking high doses of iron supplements are potentially at risk for deficiencies of which of the following minerals because of nutrient interactions?

Zinc

3

Which of the following foods has the highest iron content to help meet the need for increased iron during pregnancy?

Liver

4

The increased need for vitamin A during pregnancy may be met by increased use of foods such as

carrots

5

Which of the following hormones is responsible for milk let-down during lactation?

Oxytocin

6

The World Health Organization and American Academy of Pediatrics recommend breastfeeding for at least

12 months

7

At birth, the reflexes an infant has are

rooting, sucking, and swallowing

8

Foods for infants should be prepared without added

sugar and salt

9

The phase that shows the most erratic growth is

childhood

10

During a check-up at the clinic, a child's growth is evaluated by using

growth charts

11

A good nutrient source of energy for children is

whole wheat crackers

12

In the growing years, the greatest need for calories is for

basal metabolic needs

13

An example of a food that provides building material for tissue growth is

cheese

14

An 8-lb 1-month old infant requires an approximate daily fluid requirement of___mL.

436

15

Compared with adults, infants and young children have more body fluid

outside of cells

16

An important function of calcium for the growing child is

bone and tooth development

17

An adequate source of iron for a breastfed infant at 6 months of age is

enriched rice cereal

18

Hypervitaminosis of vitamins A and D is most likely to occur because of

overuse of vitamin supplements

19

It is important for the infant ot develop a snese of

trust

20

A full-term infant is an infant born

at approximately 40 week's gestation

21

The most suitable first solid food for infants is

infant rice cereal

22

The ideal first food for newborns is

breastmilk

23

The first milk secreted by a new mother is called

colostrum

24

The approximate age for adding solid food to an infant's diet is___months.

6

25

Babies should not be put to sleep with a bottle of formula because

this could lead to early tooth decay

26

Cow's milk is not recommended for infants during the early months because it

has a high solute load and may cause gastointestinal bleeding

27

Young children should be offered

small portions so they can ask for more if hungry

28

Failure to thrive may be caused by

over-dilution of formula

29

Food intake may decrease after the first year of life and caloric need is not as great because

the growth rate slow down

30

During the school-age years, the rate of growth

is slow and irregular

31

The final growth spurt of childhood occurs

with the onset of puberty

32

The age range of 20 to 44 years is called___adulthood

young

33

Young adults are increasingly

independent

34

The focus of health care for milddle adults is turnign to

health promotion and reduction of disease

35

Chronic disease most often begins to appear during

middle adulthood

36

Biologic processes associated with aging may cause

an increased ratio of adipose to muscle tissue

37

Prescription and over-the-counter drugs can affect nutritional status because they

may affect appetite or absorption of nutrients

38

Energy requirements decrease as adults age because

the number of functioning body cells decreases with age

39

Each decade basal energy needs decrease

5% to 8%

40

If an older adult is losing weight, his or her caloric intake is

less than energy needs

41

Adults tend to have the longest life span if they

are slightly overweight

42

The percentage of energy intake that should be supplied as carbohydrate for older adults is

45% to 65%

43

The older adult's diet should include adequate carbohydrates

support normal brain function

44

It may be advisable for an older adult to take a vitamin or mineral supplement

if he or she has been ill

45

Two mierals that often are low in diets of the elderly are

calcium and iron

46

Physiologic problems of older adults include

decrease thirst and taste sensations

47

An older adult is most likely to have inadequate nutrient intake if he or she lives

alone

48

The Older American Act provides home-delivered meals for those who

are isolated

49

The Older Americans Act Title III provides

congregate and home-delivered meals

50

Congregate meals are most often served at a

senior citizens center

51

The congregate meal for seniors is

the noon meal

52

Factors that contribute to malnutrition is older adults include

loss of teeth or poorly fitting dentures

53

Protein needs of an older adult are influenced by the adequacy of ___intake

caloric

54

Dehydration is more common in older adults than in younger adults because

the thirst mechanism diminishes

55

Factors that influence the nutrition needs of young adults include

physical activity

56

Older adults may be encouraged not to restrict their fat intake because

some higher fat foods may provide needed kilocalories