The microbial world

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Microbiology
Chapter 1
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1

A minute living thing that are too small to be seen with the unaided eyes are generally referred to as

microorganism

2

What are the types of microorganism

Bacteria

fungi

protozoa

archaea

multicellular animal parasites

algae

3

Joseph Lister

performed surgery under aseptic conditions using phenol

4

Give some examples of prokaryotes

bacteria and archaea

5

give some examples of eukaryotes

protozoa, fungi, algae

6

What are some of the shapes of bacteria

spiral, bacillus, coccus

7

The theory that all living things are composed of cells was marked after the discovery of cells of whom

Robert Hooke

8

one of the main composition of the bacterial cell wall is

peptidoglycan

9

Bacteria and archaea reproduce by what method of cell division

binary fission

10

does archaea have peptidoglycan in their cell walls

no

11

list some types of archaea

methane, salty environments, hot sulfurous water

12

is it true that fungus can be unicellular or multicellular

yes

13

most typical fungus occur as

mold or yeast

14

protozoa can move by what structure

pseudopods, cilia, flagella

15

chemicals produced naturally by bacteria and fungus to treat infections are called

antibiotics

16

who discovered penicillin

alexander Fleming

17

what is the name of the fungus from which penicillin was first isolated

P. chrysogenum

18

a field of study of fungus is called

mycology

19

a field of stud of protozoa and other parasitic worms is called

parasitology

20

In the scientific name, escherichia coli, escherichia is the

genus

21

all of the following are examples of biotechnology except which one

bacteria that cause disease

22

In pasteur's swan neck flask experiment, the importance of the S-shaped curves in the flasks was two-fold. The curves allowed entry of air, and yet excluded

airborne bacteria

23

Which is not a characteristic of the normal microbiota (normal flora)

regularly associated with disease

24

which of the following is not true of the archaea

they are commonly associated with human disease

25

pasteurization is used for all of the following purposes except

to remove all microorganism from food

increase shelf-life of food

26

which is not a characteristic of bacteria

bacteria have cell walls containing chitin

27

flagella are appendages that allow locomotion in bacteria

true

28

Methanogens, extreme halophils, extreme themophilis, are the types of

archaea

29

microorganisms whose DNA is not enclosed within a membrane and arranged in a single circular ring are classified as

prokaryotes

30

mad cow disease is caused by a prion which is an infectious

protein

31

all of the following are eukaryotes except

bacteria

32

which of the following groups is not resolved with the light microscope

viruses

33

in 1978 Carl Woese designed a system of classification based on cellular organization of organism. According to this classification all life can be classified into three domains:

bacteria, archaea, eukarya

34

In the bacterial name vibrio cholerae the word cholarae represents the

specific epithet

35

the process by which bacteria reproduce is known as

binary fission

36

which of the following is not a characteristic of bacteria

that they are all pathogenic

37

the first observations of bacteria and protozoa was made by

robert Hooke

38

the germ theory of disease was proven by

Koch

39

Which of the following is a scientific name

Legionella pneumonia

40

Using microbes to clean up pollutants is called

bioremediation

41

which one of the following is an example of bioremediation

use pseudomonas to remove uranium from soil at weapons depots

42

which one of the following was the most significant difference in the experiments that resulted in pasteur's proof of biogenesis being accepted over Needham's proof

air was present

43

pasteurization was first developed to kill

spoilage bacteria in wine

44

robert Koch's studies on bacillus anthracis established a sequence of experimental steps to prove that microbes

cause disease

45

how would you recognize an antibiotic producing soil bacterium on a plate crowded with other bacteria? the bacterial colony producing the antibiotic would be

surrounded by a clear area

46

the usefulness of antibiotics is hampered by

the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria

47

mad cow is caused by a prion which is an infectious

protein

48

in a nomenclature system designed by Carolus Linnaeus each living organism is assigned two names

true

49

examples of fungi include yeast,molds, and mushrooms

true

50

E. coli O157:H7 is part of the normal microbiota in the human large intestine

false

51

Viruses can be only observed with a high power microscopy (+ oil)

false

52

Viruses contain DNA and RNA but not the cytoplasm

false

53

what was the major discovery of Edward Jenner

vaccination/immunity

54

What was the major discovery of Joseph Lister

aseptic techniques

55

Name the fungus identified by Alexander Fleming which produced a specific antibiotic that killed the bacteria on agar plate?

P. chrysogenum

56

who discovered salvarsan

Paul Ehrlich

57

Bacteriology

study of bacteria

58

virology

study of viruses

59

oncology

study of cancerous cells

60

mycology

study of fungi

61

parasitology

study of protozoa and parasitic worms

62

immunology

study of immunity

63

bioremediation

using microbes to clean up pollutants

64

insertion of a missing gene or replacing a defective one with the good gene in a human cell is called

gene therapy

65

Name few of the human genetic disorders which has been successfully treated with the gene therapy technique

duchene's muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis, etc

66

what is the difference between normal microbiota and pathogens

normanl microbiota doesn't harm humans while pathogens harm humans

67

what is the other term used to describe normal microbiota

flora

68

what does MRSA stand for

methicillin-resistant S. aureus

69

what is the scientific name for the mad cow disease

bovine spongiform encephalopathy

70

name the agent of creutzfeldt-jakon disease

prion

71

name the pathogenix strain of E. coli, which cause bloody diarrhea and kidney faillure

E. coli O157:H7

72

what does avirulence mean

less potent

73

what presented the germ theory of disease

that microorganisms might cause disease

74

the preventative measures in any procedure taken to avoid contamination by unwanted microorganisms is called

aseptic techniques

75

who demonstrated that microorganisms are present in the air and can contaminate sterile solutions, but that air itself does not create microbes

Louis Pasteur

76

scientists and philosophers believed that some form of life could arise from nonliving matter, they called the hypothetical process as:

spontaneous generation

77

what are the chemicals produced naturally by bacteria and fungi to act against other microorganisms is called

antibiotics

78

protection from disease provided by vaccination is called

immunity

79

an ability of our bodies to ward off diseases and overcome offensive tactics of microbes is called

resistance

80

what is the scientific term for a bird flu

avian influenza A

81

what is considered as a magic bullet against syphilis

salvarsan

82

prokaryotes

no nucleus

DNA in cells

bacteria and arcahea

83

eukaryotes

has nucleus

fungi, protozoa, algae

84

bacteria

organisms that can live on their own

prokaryotes

single-celled

divides via binary fission

cell wall contains peptidoglycan

85

archaea

three main groups (methanogens, extreme halophile, extreme thermophiles)

prokaryotes

cell wall lack peptidoglycan

found in extreme environments

86

fungi

eukaryotes

nucleus

can't carryout photosynthesis

87

classification of microorganisms

bacteria

archaea

eukarya

88

helminths

major groups of parasitic worms and flatworms

89

cell theory

all livings things are composed of cells

90

biogenesis

living cells arise only from preexisting living cells.

91

aseptic techniques

procedures that prevent contamination by unwanted microorganisms

92

germ theory of disease

microorganisms might cause diseases

93

carolus Linnaeus

system of nomenclature

94

theordore Escherich

discovered escherichia bacteria (E. coli)

95

Cael Woese

devised a system of classification based on cellular organization of organisms

96

Robert Hooke

discovery marked beginning of the cell theory

97

anton van leeuwenhoek

first to observe live microorganisms

98

francesco Redi

decaying meat experiment

99

rudolf virchow

theory of biogenesis

100

Louis Pasteur

microorganisms are present in the air and can contaminate sterile solutions

101

Joseph Lister

performed surgery under aseptic conditions using phenol

102

Koch's postulate

experimental steps for directly relating a specific microbe to a specific disease

103

Edward Jenner

discovered vaccination/immunity

104

chemotherapy

treatment of disease by using chemical substances

105

Paul Ehrlich

discovered salvarsan

speculated about "'magic bullet"

106

microbial ecology

study of the relationship between microorganism and their environment

107

gene therapy

inserting a missing gene or replacing a defective one in human cells