Introductory terminology and orientation to anatomy Flashcards


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1

Visual inspection with the naked eye of the liver and gallbladder during surgrery is associated with which subdiscipline of anatomy?

gross anatomy

2

Which of the following is most inferior?

Mediastinum

Pleural cavity

Diaphragm

Pelvic cavity

Cranial cavity

Pelvic cavity

3

The level of organization when different primary tissues are combined together and work together to perform a common function is called the _______ level.

chemical

cellular

tissue

organ

organismal

organ

4

What kind of cut would you make in a specimen to create anterior and posterior parts?

coronal

5

Describe anatomical position

facing forward, head level, thumbs out, feet together and forward

6

A patient or cadaver lying flat on his/her back is said to be in the __________ position.

supine

7

what is histology?

subdiscipline of anatomy; the study of the microscopic structure of tissues

8

What are the subdivisions of gross anatomy?

surface anatomy, regional anatomy, and systemic anatomy

surface = anatomical structures visible on the surface of the body

regional = bones muscles nerves vessels of an entire region

systemic = all muscles of the entire body or all bones of entire body

9

put in order levels of structural organization from smallest to biggest

chemical (atoms --> molecules --> organelles)

cellular

tissue

organ

organ system (we have 11)

organismal

10

what are the different tissue types of the human body?

epithelial, muscle, connective, and nervous

11

define anterior and posterior and name another word for each

anterior is toward the front of the body (ventral) and dorsal is toward the back of the body (posterior)

12

define superior vs inferior and name another word for each

superior (cranial) is toward the head, inferior is toward the bottom of the body (caudal)

13

define medial vs lateral

medial is toward the midline of the body and lateral is further from the midline

14

define superficial vs deep

superficial is toward the surface of the body and deep is toward the center

15

define proximal vs distal

proximal is closer to the attachment of the limb, distal is further away

16

Be able to label unilateral, ipsilateral, bilateral, and contralateral

card image

17

how do transverse, coronal (frontal) and midsagittal planes divide the human body?

transverse plane cuts through waist so body is divided in top and bottom

coronal cuts so there is an anterior and posterior half

midsagittal cuts body into two symmetric halves

18

which body cavity contains brain and spinal cord?

dorsal

19

in which body cavity is the heart housed?

inferior mediastinum

20

in which body cavity are the trachea and esophagus housed?

superior mediastinum

21

the ventral body cavity includes which two other body cavities?

the thoracic and abdominopelvic body cavities

22

what does the pleural cavity house?

the lungs

23

what are the eleven systems of the body?

skeletal

muscular

cardiovascular

lymphatic

nervous

endocrine

respiratory

digestive

urinary

reproductive

integumentary

24

what are the major components and functions of the skeletal system?

bones, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and joints

support, protection, leverage, hematopoiesis, mineral storage, and energy storage

25

what are the major components and functions of the muscular system?

skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle

heat production, movement

26

what are the major components and functions of the cardiovascular system?

heart, blood vessels, blood

transportation of oxygen and nutrients, removal of waste and carbon dioxide, and hormone transportation

27

what are the major components and functions of the lymphatic system?

lymph vessels, lymph nodes, thymus gland, tonsils, and spleen

fluid control, filtration, immunity

28

what are the major components and functions of the nervous system?

brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs

communication and homeostasis

29

what are the major components and functions of the endocrine system?

hormone producing glands and cells

communication and homeostasis

30

what are the major components and functions of the respiratory system?

nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

gas exchange

31

what are the major components and functions of the digestive system?

alimentary canal, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas

mechanical and chemical breakdown of food, absorption, solid waste removal

32

what are teh major components and functions of the urinary system?

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

filtration and elimination

33

what are the major components and functions of the reproductive system?

male: testes, duct system glands

female: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, and external genitalia

production of hormones, production of germ cells, housing developing fetus

34

what are the major components and functions of the integumentary system?

skin, sebaceous (oil) glands, sudoriferous glands (sweat), hair, nails

protection, temperature regulation, waste elimination, sensation