Human Anatomy & Physiology: A&P Chapters 12, 13, and 15 Flashcards


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Human Anatomy & Physiology
Chapters 12, 13, 15
Mastering A&P Human Anatomy & Physiology 10th Edition Marieb
updated 6 years ago by Ash4249
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human anatomy & physiology, education, teaching methods & materials, science & technology, medical, physiology, science, life sciences, anatomy & physiology
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1

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes the brain and spinal cord.

False

2

Which of the following is a characteristic of the lens?

The lens focuses light on the retina.

3

The distance between two consecutive wave crests is the __________.

wavelength

4

Regeneration within the CNS ________.

is prevented due to growth-inhibiting proteins of oligodendrocytes

5

Broca's area ________.

is considered a motor speech area

6

Which of the following is the basic taste quality responsible for the "beef taste" of steak?

umami

7

Problems in balance may follow trauma to which nerve?

vestibulocochlear

8

The brain stem consists of the ________.

midbrain, medulla, and pons

9

Which part of the brain processes inputs received from the cerebral motor cortex, brain stem nuclei, and various sensory receptors, and then uses this information to coordinate somatic motor output so that smooth, well-timed movements occur?

cerebellum

10

Which middle ear ossicle is attached to, and transmits vibratory motion to, the oval window?

stapes

11

All processing at the circuit level going up to the perceptual level must synapse in the ________.

thalamus

12

Which of the following is the correct simple spinal reflex arc?

receptor, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, effector

13

The cerebellum and basal nuclei are involved in regulating motor activity, starting and stopping movements, and coordinating postural movements.

True

14

An essential part of the maculae involved in static equilibrium is (are) the ________.

otoliths

15

There are three layers of neurons in the retina. The axons of which of these neuron layers form the optic nerves?

ganglion cells

16

The anterior chamber of the eye is filled with vitreous humor.

False

17

Somatic reflexes activate __________.

skeletal muscle

18

What part of the eye constitutes the blind spot?

optic disc

19

CNS nerve fibers lack the intrinsic capacity to regenerate, while PNS nerve fibers are able to regenerate.

True

20

The majority of the cranial nerves attach to the __________.

brain stem.

21

What parts of the brain ultimately plan and coordinate complex motor activities?

cerebellum and basal nuclei

22

After axonal injury, regeneration in peripheral nerves is guided by ________.

Schwann cells

23

The arbor vitae refers to ________.

cerebellar white matter

24

If the ventral root of a spinal nerve were cut, what would be the result in the tissue or region that nerve supplies?

a complete loss of voluntary movement

25

What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye?

iris

26

The bending of light rays is called reflection.

False

27

If retinal detachment occurs in the macula lutea, one can predict that there would be a significant loss of ______.

color vision

28

Which photoreceptors respond to very dim light?

rods

29

What is the main function of the rods in the eye?

vision in dim light

30

There are __________ pairs of cranial nerves.

12

31

Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are ________.

afferent nerves

32

Ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are called ________.

gyri

33

Which of the following best describes the hypothalamus?

visceral control center of the body

34

The receptor organ for hearing is the __________.

spiral organ (of Corti)

35

Pressure, pain, and temperature receptors in the skin are ________.

exteroceptors

36

Which of the following generalizations does not describe the cerebral cortex?

The hemispheres are exactly equal in function.

37

Potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by ________.

nociceptors

38

Nerves that only carry impulses away from the central nervous system (CNS) are called __________.

motor nerves

39

Seventy percent of all sensory receptors are located in the ________.

eye

40

Conscious perception of vision probably reflects activity in the ________.

occipital lobe of the cortex

41

Which of the following cranial nerves carries only sensory information?

olfactory

42

Which of the following is NOT an accessory structure of the eye?

retina

43

__________ causes a person to lapse abruptly into REM sleep from the awake state.

Narcolepsy

44

Most taste buds are located __________.

on the tongue

45

Which part of the brain is the "executive suite" for all brain activity?

cerebral cortex

46

Which of the following is NOT a function of the hypothalamus?

secretion of the hormone melatonin

47

Olfactory cells and taste buds are normally stimulated by ________.

substances in solution

48

Which part of the brain stem houses the reflex centers for respiration and cardiovascular functioning?

medulla oblongata

49

The receptors for smell are activated when __________.

dissolved odorants bind to receptor proteins in the cilium membranes

50

Where are equilibrium receptors located?

in the semicircular canals and in the vestibule of the ear

51

Olfactory cells and taste buds are normally stimulated by ________.

substances in solution

52

Which brain nucleus is the body's "biological clock"?

suprachiasmatic nucleus

53

There are __________ pairs of cranial nerves.

12

54

Which of the following is the basic taste quality responsible for the "beef taste" of steak?

umami

55

Tremor at rest, shuffling gait, stooped posture, and expressionless face are characteristics of ________.

Parkinson's disease

56

Which of the following is NOT an accessory structure of the eye?

retina

57

Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are ________.

afferent nerves

58

If retinal detachment occurs in the macula lutea, one can predict that there would be a significant loss of ______.

color vision

59

What part of the eye constitutes the blind spot?

optic disc

60

The bending of light rays is called reflection.

False

61

The anterior chamber of the eye is filled with vitreous humor.

False

62

Which type of white matter fiber tract connects the two cerebral hemispheres?

commissures

63

Which of the following best describes the hypothalamus?

visceral control center of the body

64

Patients who have lesions involving Broca's area __________.

can understand language, but have difficulty speaking

65

The cerebellum and basal nuclei are involved in regulating motor activity, starting and stopping movements, and coordinating postural movements.

True

66

Problems in balance may follow trauma to which nerve?

vestibulocochlear

67

Static equilibrium involves linear acceleration as well as changes in head rotation.

False

68

Spinal nerves are all classified as __________.

mixed nerves

69

The blood-brain barrier is effective against ________.

metabolic waste such as urea

70

Which middle ear ossicle is attached to, and transmits vibratory motion to, the oval window?

stapes

71

Ordinarily, it is not possible to transplant tissues from one person to another, yet corneas can be transplanted without tissue rejection. This is because the cornea ________.

has no blood supply

72

Which fissure separates the cerebral hemispheres?

longitudinal fissure

73

Which part of the cerebral cortex is involved in intellect, cognition, recall, and personality?

prefrontal cortex

74

Where are equilibrium receptors located?

in the semicircular canals and in the vestibule of the ear

75

Seventy percent of all sensory receptors are located in the ________.

eye

76

__________ are collections of neuron cell bodies associated with nerves in the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

Ganglia

77

Which part of the brain is considered the "gateway" to the cerebral cortex?

thalamus

78

Eye color is determined by the amount of brown pigment present in the iris.

True

79

Regeneration within the CNS ________.

is prevented due to growth-inhibiting proteins of oligodendrocytes

80

Which of the following is NOT a function of the hypothalamus?

secretion of the hormone melatonin

81

The arbor vitae refers to ________.

cerebellar white matter

82

Nerves that only carry impulses away from the central nervous system (CNS) are called __________.

motor nerves

83

The structure that allows equalization of the pressure in the middle ear with that outside the body is the external auditory meatus.

False

84

What is the main function of the rods in the eye?

vision in dim light

85

The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the ________.

medulla

86

Dermatomes are skin segments that relate to sensory innervation regions of the spinal nerves.

True

87
card image

Which of these lettered structures serves as the taste cells?

C

88

Which meninx is a delicate connective tissue membrane that clings tightly to the brain like cellophane wrap following its every convolution?

pia mater

89

__________ causes a person to lapse abruptly into REM sleep from the awake state.

Narcolepsy

90

The majority of the cranial nerves attach to the __________.

brain stem.

91

Which of the following generalizations does not describe the cerebral cortex?

The hemispheres are exactly equal in function.

92
card image

In the figure below, which letter points to an afferent neuron?

A

93

Which of the following is the receptor organ for hearing?

spiral organ (of Corti)

94

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes the brain and spinal cord.

False

95

Which part of the brain processes inputs received from the cerebral motor cortex, brain stem nuclei, and various sensory receptors, and then uses this information to coordinate somatic motor output so that smooth, well-timed movements occur?

cerebellum

96

The receptor organ for hearing is the __________.

spiral organ (of Corti)

97

Pressure, pain, and temperature receptors in the skin are ________.

exteroceptors

98

What cells line the ventricles of the brain?

ependymal cells

99

What parts of the brain ultimately plan and coordinate complex motor activities?

cerebellum and basal nuclei

100

Which part of the brain stem houses the reflex centers for respiration and cardiovascular functioning?

medulla oblongata