A&P 202 Final Flashcards


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1

Prevents back flow into the left ventricle

Aortic Semilunar Valve

2

Prevents back flow into the right atrium

Tricuspid valve

3

Prevents back flow into the left atrium

Mitral (bicuspid) valve

4

Prevents back flow into the right ventricle

Pulmonary semilunar valve

5

Atrioventricular (AV) valve with two flaps

Mitral (bicuspid) valve

6

Atrioventricular (AV) valve with three flaps

Tricuspid valve

7

True/False:

Auricles slightly increase blood volume in the ventricles

False

8

The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to ________?

A.) Pump blood with greater pressure

B.) Pump blood through a smaller valve

C.) Expand the thoracic cage during diastole

D.) Accomodate a greater volume of blood

D.) Accomodate a greater volume of blood

9

The P wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates ________?

A.) Ventricular repolarization

B.) Ventricular depolorization

C.) Atrial depolarization

D.) Atrial repolarization

C.) Atrial deploarization

10

The foramen ovalae _________?

A.) Is a shallow depression in the interventricular septum

B.) Is a condition in which the heart valves do not completely close

C.) Is a connection between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta in the fetus

D.) Connected the two atria in the fetal heart

D.) Connected the two atria in the fetal heart

11

Which vessel(s) of the heart receive(s) blood from the right ventricle?

A.) Aorta

B.) Pulmonary trunk

C.) Pulmonary veins

D.) Venae cavae

B.) Pulmonary trunk

12

When viewing a dissected heart, it is easy to visually discern the right and left ventricles by _______?

A.) Noticing the thickness of the ventricle walls

B.) Asking Ryan

C.) Finding the papillary muscles

D.) Tracing out where the auricles connect

E.) Locating the base

A.) Noticing the thickness of the ventricle walls

13

Compared to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle ________?

A.) Has gap junctions that allow it to act as a functional syncytium

B.) Has more nuclei per cell

C.) Cells are larger than skeletal muscle cells

D.) Lacks striations

A.) Has gap junctions that allow it to act as a functional syncytium

14

Which of the following transports oxygen- rich blood?

A.) Pulmonary artery

B.) Superior Vena Cava

C.) Pulmonary trunk

D.) Pulmonary vein

D.) Pulmonary vein

15

True/False:

Osmotic pressure is created by the presence in a fluid of small diffusible molecules that easily move through the capillary membrane.

True

16

Reduction in the concentration of albumin in blood plasma would alter capillary exchange by __________?

A.) Increasing hydrostatic pressure and blood volume, blood pressure increases

B.) Decreasing colloid osmotic pressure

C.) Decreasing colloid osmotic pressure and blood volume, blood pressure increases

D.) Increasing hydrostatic pressure and edema will occur

A.) Increasing hydrostatic pressure and blood volume, blood pressure increases

17

If a person stands up suddenly from the prone (lying) position they may feel a sudden dizzy or lightheadedness. Which of the following is the least likely physiological response to this situation?

A.) Increased parasympathetic nerve impulses to the heart

B.) Increased sympathetic output to the heart

C.) Increasing peripheral resistance due to vasoconstriction

D.) Faster heart rate and greater heart contractility

A.) Increased parasympathetic nerve impulses to the heart

18

Which of the following would have the least influence on blood pressure?

A.) Blood volume

B.) Peripheral resistance

C.) Cardiac output

D.) White blood cell count

D.) White blood cell count

19

Which statement best describes arteries?

A.) All cary oxygenated blood to the heart

B.) Only large arteries are lined with endothelium

C.) All carry blood away from the heart

D.) All contain valves to prevent the back flow of blood

C.) All carry blood away from the heart

20

Which of the following is likely during vigorous exercise?

A.) Capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood

B.) Blood flow to the kidneys increase

C.) The skin will be cold and clammy

D.) Blood will be diverted to the digestive organs

A.) Capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood

21

Which of the following is a type of circulatory shock?

A.) Vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone

B.) Hypovolemic, caused by increased blood volume

C.) Circulatory, where blood volume is normal and constant

D.) Cariogenic, which results from any defect in blood pressure

A.) Vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone

22

Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation?

A.) Tunica externa

B.) Tunica media

C.) Tunica intima

D.) Tunica adventitia

B.) Tunica media

23

Which of the following is the most significant source of blood flow resistance?

A.) Blood vessels type

B.) Blood viscosity

C.) Blood vessel diameter

D.) Total blood vessel length

C.) Blood vessel diameter

24

The term ductus venosus refers to ________?

A.) Damage to the valves in the veins, leading to varicose veins

B.) A special deal vessel that allows umbilical blood to bypass the liver

C.) A fetal shunt that bypasses the lungs

D.) A condition of the aged in which the arteries lose elasticity

B.) A special deal vessel that allows umbilical blood to bypass the liver

25

Which of the following is least involved in pulmonary circulation?

A.) Left atrium

B.) Pulmonary arteries and veins

C.) Right ventricle

D.) Superior vena cava

D.) Superior vena cava

26

Factors that aid venous return include all except?

A.) Pressure changes in the thorax

B.) Urinary output

C.) Venous valves

D.) Activity of skeletal muscles

B.) Urinary output

27

A thrombus (blood clot) in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the ______?

A.) Left upper arm

B.) Left side of the head and neck

C.) Myocardium of the heart

D.) Right side of the head and neck and right upper arm

D.) Right side of the head and neck and right upper arm

28

The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to which of the following?

A.) A decrease in oxygen levels

B.) A decrease in carbon dioxide

C.) Changes in arterial pressure

D.) An increase in oxygen levels

C.) Changes in arterial pressure

29

Which is NOT a major function of the blood?

A.) Protection against disease infection

B.) Production of oxygen

C.) Transportation of nutrients

D.) Transportation of heat

E.) Regulation of blood pH

B.) Production of oxygen

30

Which of the following plasma proteins plays a role in disease resistance?

A.) Myoglobin

B.) Fibrinogens

C.) Hemoglobin

D.) Globulins

E.) Albumins

D.) Globulins

31

A megakaryocytic will develop into ______?

A.) Both b and c

B.) Red blood cell

C.) A wicked STD that will keep you from ever getting a date again

D.) Platelet

E.) White blood cell

D.) Platelet

32

Which of the following promotes inflammation?

A.) Eosinophil

B.) Monocyte

C.) Basophil

D.) Neutrophil

E.) Lymphocyte

C.) Basophil

33

Which of the following is not an agranular leukocyte?

A.) Basophil

B.) Monocytes

C.) Macrophage

D.) Lymphocyte

E.) All of the above

A.) Basophil

34

What antibodies does a person with type O blood have in their plasma?

A.) Not enough information to answer

B.) No antibodies

C.) B

D.) A

E.) A & B

E.) A & B

35

True/False:

Contractile cardiac muscle cells are found in the AV node

Falsa

36

True/False:

Contractile cardiac muscle cells have action potentials that can last as long as 300 sec

True

37

True/False:

Autorhythmic cardiac muscle cells depolarize mainly due to calcium ions

True

38

Athletes abuse erythropoietin (EPO) because it...

A.) Increases the red blood cell supply, which brings more oxygen to muscle cells

B.) Increases the white blood cell supply, which prevents infection

C.) Increases the red blood cell supply, which depletes oxygen from muscle cells

D.) Decreases the red blood cell supply, which brings more oxygen to muscle cells

A.) Increases the red blood cell supply, which brings more oxygen to muscle cells

39

A blood clot that forms abnormally in a blood vessel is a(n)

A.) Thrombus

B.) Platelet plug

C.) Embolus

D.) Aneurysm

A.) Thrombus

40

The final step in the formation of a blood clot is....

A.) The formation of prothrombin activator

B.) That thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin

C.) That prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin

D.) Tissue damage

B.) That thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin

41

Which of the following elements is included in hemoglobin molecules?

A.) Copper

B.) Cobalt

C.) Iodine

D.) Iron

D.) Iron

42

True/False:

Blood is a type of epithelial tissue.

False

43

True/False:

A platelet plugs formed when fibrinogen is converted to fibrin.

False

44

When the ventricular walls contract,

A.) The mitral valve opens and the tricuspid valve closes

B.) The mitral and tricuspid valves close

C.) The mitral and tricuspid valves open

D.) The tricuspid valve opens and the mitral valve closes

B.) The mitral and tricuspid valves close

45

Which of the following would NOT be classified as a lymphoid organ?

A.) Pancreas

B.) Peyer's patches of the intestine

C.) Tonsils

D.) Spleen

A.) Pancreas

46

The thymus is most active during _______.

A.) Middle age

B.) Fetal development

C.) Old age

D.) Childhood

D.) Childhood

47

Select the correct statement about lymphocytes:

A.) T cells are the only form of lymphocyte found in lymphoid tissue

B.) The two main types are T cells and macrophages

C.) T cells are the precursors of B cells

D.) B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood

D.) B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood

48

First line of defense is.....?

Intact skin and mucous membranes

49

Second line of defense is....?

Inflammatory response

50

Third line of defense is.....?

Immune response

51

Innate defense system....?

Inflammatory response

52

Adaptive defense system....?

Inflammatory response

53

True/False:

The directional movement of cells in response to chemicals is called chemotaxis

True

54

True/False:

Some immunocompetent cells will never encounter an antigen to which they can bind and therefore will never be called to service in our lifetime

True

55

Plasma cells ________?

A.) Are small so that they slip between endothelial cells of capillaries to fight infection in the surrounding tissues

B.) Are large so that they can envelope their prey by phagocytosis

C.) Have a great deal of rough endoplasmic reticulum reflecting the fact that they secrete a tremendous amount of protein (antibody)

D.) Have a great deal of rough endoplasmic reticulum to dispose of ingested pathogens

C.) Have a great deal of rough endoplasmic reticulum reflecting the fact that they secrete a tremendous amount of protein (antibody)

56

B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the _______

A.) Bone marrow

B.) Lymph nodes

C.) Thymus

D.) Spleen

A.) Bone marrow

57

The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II alveolar cells. The function of type II alveolar cells is to __________?

A.) Replace mucous in the alveoli

B.) Secrete surfactant

C.) Trap dust and other debris

D.) Protect the lungs from bacterial invasion

B.) Secrete surfactant

58

Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is ________?

A.) Equal to the pressure in the atmosphere

B.) Less than the pressure in the atmosphere

C.) Greater than the pressure in the atmosphere

D.) Greater than the intra- alveolar pressure

C.) Greater than the pressure in the atmosphere

59

Which of the following is true regarding normal quiet expiration of air?

A.) It is driven by increased blood CO2 levels

B.) It is a passive process that depends on the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration

C.) It requires contraction of abdominal wall muscles

D.) It depends on the complete lack of surface tension on the alveolar wall

D.) It depends on the complete lack of surface tension on the alveolar wall

60

Which of the following maintains the potency (openness) of the trachea?

A.) Surface tension of water

B.) Surfactant production

C.) C- shaped cartilage rings

D.) Pseudostratified ciliated epithelium

C.) C- shaped cartilage rings

61

Intrapulmonary pressure is the _________

A.) Pressure within the pleural cavity

B.) Pressure within the alveoli of the lungs

C.) Difference between atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure

D.) Negative pressure in the intrapleural space

B.) Pressure within the alveoli of the lungs

62

Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by _______?

A.) Protecting the surface of alveoli from dehydration and other environmental variations

B.) Warming the air before it enters

C.) Humidifying the air before it enters

D.) Interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

D.) Interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

63

In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ______

A.) Greater than the oxygen combined with hemoglobin

B.) About equal to the oxygen combined with hemoglobin

C.) Not present except where it is combined with carrier molecules

D.) Only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in blood

D.) Only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in blood

64

Which of the following riders to the movement of air into and out of the lungs?

A.) Gas exchange

B.) Internal respiration

C.) Pulmonary ventilation

D.) External respiration

A.) Gas exchange

65

Tidal volume is ______?

A.) Forcibly expelled after normal expiration

B.) Inhaled after normal inspiration

C.) Exchanged during normal breathing

D.) Remaining in the lungs after forced expiration

C.) Exchanged during normal breathing

66

Possible causes of hypoxia includes.....?

A.) Obstruction of the esophagus

B.) Getting very cold

C.) Too little oxygen in the atmosphere

D.) Taking several rapid deep breaths

C.) Too little oxygen in the atmosphere

67

The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ______

A.) Tidal volume

B.) Vital capacity

C.) Inspiratory capacity

D.) Expiratory reserve volume

B.) Vital capacity

68

Respiratory control centers are located in the ______

A.) Upper spinal cord and medulla

B.) Medulla and pons

C.) Midbrain and medulla

D.) Pons and midbrain

B.) Medulla and pons

69

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by _______?

A.) Osmosis

B.) Filtration

C.) Diffusion

D.) Active transport

A.) Osmosis

70

How is the bulk of carbon dioxide transported in blood?

A.) As carbonic acid in the plasma

B.) Chemically combined with the amino acids of hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin in the red blood cells

C.) Chemically combined with the heme portion of hemoglobin

D.) As bicarbonate ions in plasma after first entering the red blood cells

C.) Chemically combined with the heme portion of hemoglobin

71

This class of cells includes macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells

A.) RBC

B.) Primary lymphocytes

C.) T cells

D.) Antigen presenting cells

E.) Epitope cells

D.) Antigen presenting cells

72

These display CD 4 in their membrane and are associated with MHC class II molecules

A.) Cytotoxic T cells

B.) B cells

C.) Memory T cells

D.) Helper T cells

E.) NWA cells (in people from Compton)

D.) Helper T cells

73

This action makes microbes more susceptible to phagocytosis

A.) Inflammation

B.) If there's a stink on them

C.) Opsonization

D.) Complement

E.) Cytolysis

C.) Opsonization

74

Of the following which is involved n the body's second line of defense?

A.) Germ cells

B.) None of the above

C.) Lymphocytes

D.) Mucous cells

E.) Natural killer cells

E.) Natural killer cells

75

Which type of immunity defends against any type of invader?

A.) None of the above, but only if its the 3rd Tuesday of the month

B.) Nonspecific

C.) Specific

D.) Antibody mediated immunity

E.) Cell mediated

B.) Nonspecific

76

Using your anatomical terminology, disease- causing agents are called....

A.) Pathogens

B.) Germs

C.) Antibodies

D.) Bugs

A.) Pathogens

77

The structure of a lymphatic vessel is most similar to that of a(n)...

A.) Vein

B.) Capillary

C.) Arteriole

D.) Artery

B.) Capillary

78

Henry has a cut on his thigh that becomes infected (we won't ask him why, it is a sordid story). The lymph nodes in his ______ enlarge.

A.) Supratrochlear region

B.) Inguinal region

C.) Cervical region

D.) Thoracic region

B.) Inguinal region

79

Interferon is a group of hormone- like peptides that cells produce in response to....

A.) Chemical irritants

B.) Bacteria

C.) Viruses

D.) Fungi

C.) Viruses

80

The type of resistance that is acquired as a result of developing a disease is....

A.) Naturally acquired active immunity

B.) Artificially acquired active immunity

C.) Artificially acquired passive immunity

D.) Naturally acquired passive immunity

A.) Naturally acquired active immunity

81

Following a primary immune response, the cells that give rise to memory cells are.....

A.) T cells only

B.) B cells only

C.) Neither B cells nor T cells

D.) Both B cells and T cells

C.) Neither B cells nor T cells

82

Cytotoxic T cells destroy...

A.) Cytotoxic cells

B.) T cells

C.) All antigen- bearing cells

D.) Cancer cells and virus- containing cells

D.) Cancer cells and virus- containing cells

83

In an autoimmune disease, the immune response is directed toward...

A.) All antibodies

B.) Foreign cells

C.) Cells of the body ("self")

D.) All antigens

C.) Cells of the body ("self")

84

B cells divide and differentiate into ______ which produce and secrete antibodies

A.) Plasma cells

B.) T cells

C.) Antibodies

D.) Megakaryocytes

A.) Plasma cells

85

The dental formula for an adult is 2-1-2-3. What does the 1 stand for?

A.) Canine tooth

B.) Incisor tooth

C.) Premolar tooth

D.) Molar tooth

A.) Canine tooth

86

Which of the following is least involved in the mechanical breakdown of food, digestion or absorption of nutrients?

A.) Large intestine

B.) The oral cavity

C.) The small ingestion

D.)The esophagus

D.)The esophagus

87

True/False:

The pancreas has both an endocrine and an exocrine function

True

88

Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?

A.) There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge

B.) The number of permanent teeth is always equal to the number of primary teeth

C.) There are 27 permanent teeth, and the first molars are usually the last to emerge

D.) The number of upper permanent teeth is not equal to the number of lower permanent teeth

A.) There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge

89

Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth

A.) There are 24 primary teeth, and no new primary teeth appear after 13 months

B.) There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20

C.) There are 27 primary teeth, and the molars are permanent

D.) There are 32 primary teeth, and by 36 months of age, most children have all 32

B.) There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20

90

The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called _______

A.) Digestion

B.) Ingestion

C.) Secretion

D.) Absorption

A.) Digestion

91

Bile salts bind at their hydrophobic regions to large fat globules within the chyme that enters the duodenum. Bile salts break up the fat globule into smaller fat droplets. This role of bile salts is best described as ______?

A.) Lipid ingestion

B.) Lipid digestion

C.) Lipid emulsification

D.) Lipid absorption

C.) Lipid emulsification

92

Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds?

A.) Circumvallate and filiform

B.) Palatine and circumvallate

C.) Fungiform and circumvallate

D.) Fungiform, circumvallate, and filiform

C.) Fungiform and circumvallate

93

Generally the hormone secretin and cholecystokinin which are released by duodenal enteroendocrine cells will _______

A.) Slow the activities of the stomach

B.) Speed the churning of the stomach

C.) Speed the activity of the jejunum

D.) Increases the output of stomach acid

A.) Slow the activities of the stomach

94

True/False:

Dentin anchors the tooth in place

False

95

You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?

A.) Amylase

B.) Gastrin

C.) Trypsin

D.) Cholecystokinin

A.) Amylase

96

Pepsinogen, an inactive digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________

A.) Brunner's glands

B.) Chief cells of the stomach

C.) Goblet cells of the small intestine

D.) Parietal cells of the duodenum

B.) Chief cells of the stomach

97

A doctor consulting a patient that recently has had their gall bladder removed would likely advise....?

A.) Eating foods that are low in fat

B.) A low to no carb diet

C.) Increasing unsaturated fats while eliminating trans fats in their diets

D.) Fewer, but larger meals

A.) Eating foods that are low in fat

98

The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to ______?

A.) Collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing in the liver

B.) Increase my sympathetic response because i forgot to study it

C.) Carry toxins to the kidney for disposal through the urinary tract

D.) Return glucose to the general circulation when blood sugar is low

A.) Collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing in the liver

99

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.

A.) Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

B.) Serosa, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis externa

C.) Submucosa, serosa, muscularis externa, and mucosa

D.) Muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa

A.) Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

100

Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.

1.) major calyx
2.) minor calyx
3.) nephron
4.) urethra
5.) ureter
6.) collecting duct

A.) 3,6,1,2,5,4

B.) 6,3,2,1,5,4

C.) 2,1,3,6,5,4

D.) 3,1,2,6,5,4

A.) 3,6,1,2,5,4

101

If the diameter of the afferent arterioles leading to the glomerulus increases (vasodilation) which of the following is not likely to occur?

A.) Urine output will increase

B.) Glomerular filtration rate will increase

C.) Net filtration pressure will increase

D.) Systemic blood pressure will go up

D.) Systemic blood pressure will go up

102

True/False:

The position of the kidneys behind the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is described by the term retroperitoneal

True

103

The mechanism for water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ______

A.) Active transport

B.) Filtration

C.) Cotransport with sodium ions

D.) Osmosis

D.) Osmosis

104

The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the _______

A.) Glomerular filtration membrane

B.) Distal convoluted tubule

C.) Collecting duct

D.) Nephron loop

D.) Nephron loop

105

Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it....

A.) Inhibits the release of ADH

B.) Makes me feel overconfident in my conversational abilities at the bar

C.) Increases secretion of ADH

D.) Is not reabsorbed by the tubule cells

A.) Inhibits the release of ADH

106

An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is ______

A.) Less than water

B.) The same as water

C.) Much higher than water

D.) Slightly higher than water

D.) Slightly higher than water

107

The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ______

A.) Capsular space

B.) Nephron loop

C.) Nephron

D.) Glomerular capsule

C.) Nephron

108

The presence of protein in the urine indicates which of the following?

A.) Too much protein in the diet

B.) Damage to the renal tubules

C.) High levels of transcription and translation by the bodies tissues

D.) Damage ti the filtration membrane

D.) Damage ti the filtration membrane

109

What is the best explanation for the microvilli on the apical surface of the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)?

A.) Their movements propel the filtration through the tubules

B.) They hold on to the enzymes that cleanse the filtrate before reabsorption

C.) They increase the amount of surface area that comes in contact with the blood's plasma to help actively excrete toxins

D.) They increase the surface area and allow for a greater volume of filtrate components to be reabsorbed

D.) They increase the surface area and allow for a greater volume of filtrate components to be reabsorbed

110

What is the most direct function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

A.) Help regulate blood pressure and the rate of excretion by the kidneys

B.) Help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

C.) Help regulate water and electrolyte excretion by the kidneys

D.) Help regulate urea absorption by the kidneys

B.) Help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

111

The _____ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney

A.) Arcuate

B.) Lobar

C.) Interlobar

D.) Cortical radiate

A.) Arcuate

112

Which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate control method?

A.) Neural regulation

B.) Electrolyte levels

C.) Renal autoregulation

D.) Hormonal regulation

B.) Electrolyte levels

113

Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle?

A.) A fenestrated capillary

B.) A vasa recta

C.) An efferent arteriole

D.) A podocyte

B.) A vasa recta

114

The urinary bladder is compose of _______ epithelium

A.) Transitional

B.) Pseudostratified columnar

C.) Simple squamous

D.) Stratified squamous

A.) Transitional

115

Brittany has just eaten a large order of heavily salted French fries, some pickled eggs, and some cheese. How will consuming this much salt affect her physiology?

A.) She will experience hypotension

B.) It will cause a prolonged increase in the osmolality of the blood

C.) It will negatively affect her reproductively biology as no sane individual will want to date her after a meal like that

D.) There will be a shift in the pH of her body fluids to the higher side of the pH scale

E.) There will be a temporary increase in blood volume

E.) There will be a temporary increase in blood volume

116

When antidiuretic hormone (ADH) levels are low _______

A.) Most of the water reaching the collecting ducts is not absorbed

B.) A small volume of concentrated urine is excreted

C.) Aquaporins are inserted into the principal cell apical membranes

D.) Nearly all of the filtered water is reabsorbed

D.) Nearly all of the filtered water is reabsorbed

117

True/False:

Dehydration can be caused by endocrine disturbances such as diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus.

True

118

Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid?

A.) Aldosterone

B.) Renin

C.) Erythropoietin

D.) Antidiuretic hormone

A.) Aldosterone

119

The fluid link between the external and internal environment is ______

A.) Cerebrospinal fluid

B.) Intracellular fluid

C.) Plasma

D.) Interstitial fluid

C.) Plasma

120

The movement of fluids between cellular compartments _______

A.) Requires active transport

B.) Always involves filtration

C.) Is a bit unsettling

D.) Requires ATP for the transport to take place

E.) Is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces

E.) Is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces

121

Which of the following is NOT a chemical buffer system?

A.) Nucleic acid

B.) Protein

C.) Bicarbonate

D.) Phosphate

A.) Nucleic acid

122

The most important force causing net outward water flow across capillary walls is ______

A.) Hydrostatic pressure of interstitial fluid

B.) Osmotic pressure of plasma proteins

C.) Hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood

D.) Intracellular hydrostatic pressure

C.) Hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood

123

A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates ______

A.) Metabolic acidosis

B.) Respiratory acidosis

C.) Respiratory alkalosis

D.) Metabolic alkalosis

B.) Respiratory acidosis

124

Whereas sodium is food mainly in the extracellular fluid, most ______ is found in the intracellular fluid

A.) Iron

B.) Potassium

C.) Chloride

D.) Bicarbonate

B.) Potassium

125

________ absorption is hormone controlled water reabsorption that takes place in the DCT and collecting tubule

Facultative

126

A ________ is a compound that prevents large changes in pH by binding or releasing hydrogen ions

Buffer

127

Lower potassium is also known as _________

Hypokalemia

128

The cytosol is also known as ________ fluid or that found inside the cell

Intracellular