Human Anatomy & Physiology: Endocrine system Flashcards


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1

Classify the types of glands

Exocrine: produce sweat and saliva, etc. and have ducts

Endocrine: produce hormones and are ductless. They release their hormones directly into capillaries to be carried all over the body

2

What is the secretion of endocrine glands called

hormones

3

List some of the endocrine glands

Thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, adrenal, pineal, thymus

4

Chemicals that exerts their effect on the same cells that secrete them are?

autocrines

5

write the chemical classification of hormones

amino acid based and steroids

6

List the changes produced by the hormones in the target cells

-alters plasma membrane permeability or membrane potential by opening or closing ion channels

-stimulates synthesis of proteins or enzymes within the cell

- activates or deactivates enzymes

- induces secretory activity

-stimulates mitosis

7

List the mechanism of hormone action

-cAMP signaling mechanism

-PIP- calcium signal mechanism

- Steroid hormones-direct gene activation

8

The target cells respond to a hormone only due to the presence of specific

protein receptors

9

List the factors involved in the activation of hormone receptor complex

- Blood levels of the hormone

- Relative number of receptors for that hormone on or in the target cells

- Affinity of the bond between the hormone and the receptor

10

Rising level of specific hormone acting on specific type of cell increases the production of the specific receptors in that cell is the phenomenon as

up-regulation

11

The concentration of hormone at any time in the blood reflects

- its rate of release

- the speed at which it is inactivated and removed from the body

12

List the ways hormones interact with each other

- Permissiveness

-synergism

- antagonism

13

Hormones producing amplified effects when working together on a target cell is what type of hormonal interaction

synergism

14

What are the three major types of endocrine gland stimuli

hormonal

humoral

neural

15

List the hormones released by the anterior pituitary gland

Growth Hormone

thyroid stimulating hormone

adrenocorticotropic hormone

follicle stimulating hormone

Luteinizing hormone

Prolactin

16

List the hormones of posterior pituitary gland

Antidiuretic hormone

oxytocin

17

Function of ADH

made in supraoptic nucleus.

prevents urine formation.

prevents wide swings in water balance, helping the body avoid dehydration and water balance

18

Function of oxytocin

released in higher amounts during childbirth and in nursing women

acts as a hormonal trigger for milk ejection

19

Function of Growth Hormone (somatrotopin cells)

increases blood levels of fatty acids

decreases rate of glucose uptake and metabolism

encourages glycogen breakdown in liver

stimulates most body cells to enlarge and divide.

20

Function of thyroid hormone (thyrotropin cells)

increases basal metabolic rate and body heat production

regulates tissue growth and development

maintains blood pressure by increasing the number of adrenergic receptors in blood vessels

21

disorders associated with growth hormone

dwarfism, gigantism, and acromegaly

22

disorders associated with thyroid hormone

myxedema, goiter, grave's disease

23

Growth hormone releasing hormone

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24

hypercortisolism

A syndrome caused by an increased production of ACTH

excessive intake of glucocorticoids

25

corticotrophic releasing hormone

card image
26

Gonadaltropin releasing hormone (FSH and LH)

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27

Prolactin releasing hormone

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28

supraoptic nucleus of hypothalamus release____ hormone, and paraventricular nucleus in hypothalamus secretes____ hormone

ADH; oxytocin

29

A set of capillaries arising in the hypothalamus forming a vein which enters into the pituitary gland and breaks down into another set of capillaries, this system is called ___

hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system

30

catabolic hormone

Adrenaline, cortisol, and glucagon

31

anabolic hormone

stimulate protein synthesis, muscle growth, and insulin.

ex. growth hormone, testosterone and estrogen

32

diabetogenic hormone

ADH deficiency ( diabetes insipidus)

insulin dificiency (diabetes mellitus)

33

Marked retention of fluid, edema, weight gain, and hypo-osmolarity of the blood due to excessive secretion of ADH is a syndrome called

syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion

34

deficiency of iodine will cause which hormone deficiency condition

goiter

35

deficiency of thyroxine since birth will cause mental retardation and the condition is called

cretinism

36

which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus

enzyme

37

oxytocin

is an example of positive feedback control mechanism during labor

stimulated by suckling of infant at breast and labor

inhibited by lack of appropriate neural stimuli

38

ADH

is inhibited by alcohol and hydrationn

stimulated by pain, some drugs, low blood pressure

39

The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on

the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ

40

a patient with normal kidney function test came with polyuria and polydipsia complains and you identified the low urine osmolality and no blood or pus in the urine. The most probable diagnosis is

pituitary diabetes insipidus

41

Insulin, a small protein, is released in response to

when the body's glucose level rises

42

insulin, a small protein, is synthesized by

beta cells of pancreas

43

Hormone that regulates the blood calcium level by enhancing the reabsorption of calcium from the gut, kidney, and bones by increasing the osteoclast activity is

parathyroid hormone

44

Growth hormones act via

somatomeidin

45

Which of the following is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid-base hormones?

calcium

46

in the event of prolonged fasting the blood sugar can be maintained by increased release of which of the following hormones causing glycogenolysis from the liver and gluconeogenesis

glucagon

47

suckling stimulates the release of which hormone that encourages the continued milk production

prolactin releasing hormone

48

from where is PRH and PIH released

hypothalamus

49

Which neurotransmitter is now recognized as prolactin and inhibitor

dopamine

50

The hormone responsible for setting basal metabolic rate is

thyroid hormones

51

the terminology for posterior pituitary gland is

neurohypophysis

52

leukotrienes and prostaglandins are classified as

eicosanoids

53

define half life

it is the duration from the time of release of a hormone to the time when its concentration is reduce by 50%

54

superior thyroid artery is a branch of internal carotid artery

false

55

locally acting chemicals that affect cells other than those that secrete them is classified as paracrines

true

56

eicosanoids, which inhibits the production of blood clots are called prostaglandin PGE2

false

57

corticotrophic releasing hormone is released from the hypothalamus

true

58

one hormone cannot exert its effect without another hormone being present is antagonism

false

59

superior thyroid artery is a branch of

external carotid artery

60

Name the structures present in spermatic cord

nerve fibers, blood vessels, and lymphatic

61

Which of the following statements is applicable to antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

is released by neurohypophysis

62

Which of the following is true of neurohypophysis

it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release

63

In the event of a high blood sugar level, the increased release of which of the following hormones is anticipated

glucagon

64

ACTH

is secreted by corticotropic cells

stimulates adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones.

its release is elicited by hypothalamic CRH.

65

Which of the following is true about calcium homeostasis

high calcium levels cause bone resorption

66

Which of the following statement is true for aldosterone

production is greatly influenced by rennin angiotensin system activation

67

an infant born with ambiguous genitalia is most likely to have which of the following condition in the blood

high androgen

68

which of the following does not stimulate endocrine glands

enzyme

69

addison's disease

over secretion of cortisol

increase in ACTH

70

gigantism

over secretion of hormone from pituitary somatotrophs

71

pheochromocytoma

hypoadrenalism

72

diabetes insipidus

deficiency of ADH

73

cushing's disease

malignant hypertension

74

supraoptic nucleus

antidiuretic hormone

75

paraventricular nucleus

oxytocin

76

oral mucosa

adenohypophysis

77

hypercortisolism

A syndrome caused by an increased production of ACTH from a tumor of the adrenal cortex or of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, or by excessive intake of glucocorticoids

78

diabetes mellitus

results from either hyposecretion or hypoactivity of insulin

79

type I diabetes mellitus

absent of insulin

80

type II diabetes mellitus

insulin is present but effects are deficient

81

hyperadrenalism

marked by the presence of high cortisol levels in the blood

82

hyperthyroidism

Grave's disease

overactivity of the thyroid gland, resulting in a rapid heartbeat and an increased rate of metabolism

83

hypothyroidism

cretinism in infants when it is due to iodine deficiency and congenital hypothyroidism when it's due to congenital abnormality of the thyroid gland.

84

hyperparathyroidism

excessive calcium

kidney stones and arteriosclerosis

excess PTH

85

hypoparathyroidism

tripod sign. diminishing concentration of parathyroid hormone in the blood

PTH deficiency

86

autocrines

chemicals that exerts their effect on the same cells that secrete them

87

paracrines

acts within the same tissue but affects cell types other than those releasing them

88

amino acid base

water soluble and can't cross plasma membrane

89

steroids

synthesized from cholesterol

gonadal and adrenocortical hormones

lipid soluble and can cross plasma membrane

90

target cells

hormones influences the activity of only those tissue cells that have receptors for it

91

humoral stimuli

hormone release caused by altered levels of certain critical ions or nutrients

stimulus: low concentration of Ca in blood

response: parathyroid glands secrete PTH which increases Ca

92

Neural stimuli

hormone released caused by neural input

stimulus: action potentials in preganglionic sympathetic fibers to adrenal medulla

response: adrenal medulla cells secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine

93

hormonal stimuli

hormone release caused by another hormone

stimulus: hormones from hypothalamus

response: anterior pituitary gland secretes hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands to secrete hormones

94

upregulation

target cells form more receptors in response to low hormone levels

95

down regulation

target cells lose receptors in response to high hormone levels

96

permissiveness

situation in which one hormone can't exert its full effect without another hormone

97

synergism

more than one hormone produces same effects at the target cell and combined effects are amplified

98

antagonism

one hormone opposes the action of another

99

Thyroid gland

largest endocrine gland

2 lobes connected by the isthmus

composed of follicles that produce glycoprotein thyroglobulin

100

thyroid hormone

the body's major metabolic hormone. consist of T3 and T4

101

T3

formed by conversion of T4. has two tyrosines with 3 bound iodine atoms

102

T4 Thyroxine

has two tyrosines with 3 bound iodine atoms

the major hormone secreted by the thyroid follicles

103

Thyroid hormone is concerned

glucose oxidation

increasing metabolic rate

heat production

104

Thyroid hormone plays a role in

maintaining blood pressure

regulating tissue growth

developing skeletal and nervous system

maturation and reproductive capabilities

105

calcitonin

produced by parafollicular cells

lowers blood calcium levels in children

antagonist action to parathyroid hormone

targets skeleton, where it inhibits osteoclast activity

mechanism of release is regulated by humoral.

106

effects of parathyroid hormone

PTH release increases Ca in blood

enhances the reabsorption of Ca

increases absorption of Ca

raising of Ca in blood inhibits PTH release

107

adrenal cortex

synthesizes corticosteroids

  1. zona glomerulosa
  2. zona fasciculata
  3. zona reticularis
108

Zona glomerulosa

produce mineralocorticoids.

109

aldosterone

card image

in the zona glomerulosa

stimulates Na absorption (increasing blood volume and blood pressure)

causes K secretion into the tubules for elimination from body

produced by mineralocorticoid

110

zona fasciculata

produces glucocorticoids

111

cortisol

in the zona fasciculata

stress hormone

produced by glucocorticoids

pure anti-inflamatory

increases blood glucose levels

112

glycogenolysis

breakdown glycogen and make sugar

113

glucogenesis

convert protein/aminos acids to glucose

114

zona reticularis

produces gonadocorticoids

115

Androgen (gonadocorticoids)

male sex hormones

secreted by adrenal cortex

contributes to sex drive in women.

116

adrenal medulla

synthesizes epinephrine and norepinephrine

fight or flight response.

117

pancreas

beta cells -> insulin -> decrease blood glucose

alpha cells -> glucagon -> increase blood glucose

118

polyuria

huge urine output that decreases blood volume and causes dehydration

119

polydipsia

excessive thirst

120

polyphagia

excessive hunger and food consumption

121

glucagon

major target is liver

promotes breakdown of glycogen to glucose

synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and from noncarbohydrate molecules

release of glucose to the blood by liver cells causing blood glucose levels to rise

122

insulin

main effect is to lower blood glucose levels but also promotes protein synthesis and fat storage.

it enhances membrane transport of glucose

inhibits the breakdown of glycogen to glucose

it inhibits the conversion of amino acids or fats to glucose.