Nutrition review for chpts 5-9

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created 9 years ago by tnlnc
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updated 9 years ago by tnlnc
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1

The process of digestion involves a __and__actions.

mechanical, chemical

2

The rhythmic contractions of the stomach and intestine that propel food along are called

peristalsis

3

An example of a gastric secretion is

hydrochloric acid

4

A pizza slice is being consumed by a hungry teen. The first actions of biting, chewing, and breaking up the slice into smaller particles is called

mastication

5

A food that begins digestion in the mouth is

bread

6

After a period of mixing and churning of the ingested food with the gastric secretions, the semifluid mass called

bolus

7

The release of gastric secretions is stimulated by

nerves, hormones, and the presence of food in the stomach

8

One type of movement in the small intestine is

segmentation

9

Compared with the pH in the stomach, the pH in the small intestine is

higher

10

The lining of the stomach and intestine is protected from strong acid by

mucus

11

The primary nutritional function of the large intestine is

absorption of water

12

Gas formation in the colon is the result of

bacterial action on undigested items

13

Digestion of dietary fiber occurs in the

NOT stomach, small intestine, large intestine
NONE of the above

14

The sum total of all the chemical changes that an organism performs to maintain its life and produce energy is the result of

metabolism

15

Two organs that work with the small intestine in digestion are the

pancreas and liver

16

Conversion of amino acids to glucose is called

gluconeogenesis

17

A beverage that may cause intestinal gas in adults is

milk

18

A nutrient that doesn't provide energy for the body is

vitamins

19

Energy is lost from the body as

heat

20

The unit of measurement used to refer to the amount of energy in food is the

kilocalorie

21

The total number of kilocalories in a snack that contains 10g carbohydrate, 2 g protein, and 5g fat is ____ kcal.

93

22

The external energy cycle includes

growing plants

23

After foods are eaten, they are converted into which of the following body fuels?

fatty acids and glucose

24

Fever causes the metabolic rate to

increase

25

The amount of energy the body needs to maintain life while at digestive, physical, and emotional rest is called the

basal metabolism

26

Metabolically active tissues in the body include

the heart, muscles, and intestine

27

In clinical practice, basal or resting energy expenditure is estimated by using

indirect calorimetry

28

The term for the effect of food intake on metabolic rate is

thermic effect of food

29

The sum of basal metabolism, energy, expended in physical activity, and thermic effect of food is known as

total energy requirement

30

When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure, the result can be

obesity

31

An activity that results in increased energy expenditure is

cleaning house

32

The body's sources of stored energy include

adipose tissue

33

Basal metabolic rate is controlled by the hormone

thyroxine

34

The first source of stored energy to be used during a period of fasting is

glycogen

35

Nutrient density means the

concentration of nutrients in a given amount of food

36

In cases of extreme starvation, the energy substrate most likely to be used as a last resort would be

muscle mass

37

Fever increases basal metabolic rate approximately ___ for each_____rise

7%, 1 F

38

Energy expenditure is increased by

physical exercise

39

Energy needs per pound of body weight

decrease with age

40

The person requiring the highest energy needs per unit of body weight is a

15-year-old boy

41

For a compound to be classified as a vitamin, it must

perform a vital function

42

A vitamin that behaves more like a hormone that a vitamin is vitamin

D

43

Spinach, carrots, and sweet potatoes are good sources of

beta carotene

44

A rich source of vitamin A(retinol) is

liver

45

An important function of vitamin A is to

help form the visual pigment rhodopsin in the eye

46

A deficiency of vitamin A may result in

night blindness

47

An excellent natural food source of vitamin D is

fish liver oils

48

Two foods that are commonly fortified with vitamin D are

milk, margarine

49

The primary function of vitamin D is to regulate the absorption and metabolism of the mineral

calcium & phosphorus

50

A vitamin D deficiency in growing children that results in the malformation of skeletal tissue, especially the long bones is referred to as

rickets

51

A toxic level of vitamin D is most likely to result in

calcification of soft tissue

52

A rich source of vitamin E is

sunflower oil

53

Vitamin E protects because it acts as

antioxidant

54

The fat-soluble vitamin for the synthesis of blood-clotting factors by the liver is vitamin

K

55

A good source of vitamin K is

spinach

56

An alcoholic is most likely to be deficient in

thiamin

57

The vitamin that is destroyed by light is

riboflavin

58

The most important source of riboflavin

milk

59

The disease with niacin deficiency is

pellagra

60

Which of the following diets can help ensure adequate and balanced vitamins intake?

a varied diet composed of all food groups eaten in controlled portions

61

The person most at risk for vitamin D deficiency is a

62 year old woman who lives in cold climate

62

The best source of folic acid is

broccoli

63

A folic acid deficiency induces a form of anemia called _____anemia

megaloblastic

64

Vitamin C deficiency is associated with

scurvy

65

A 62-year old woman who smokes 1 pack a day and whose food intake record indicate a minimal intake of vitamin C may be at risk for

easy bruising

66

An example of a meal high in vitamin C is

bacon, lettuce, tomato sandwich, and strawberries

67

A young woman who is interested in becoming pregnant should be counseled on healthy eating choices, especially regarding folate-containing foods, which may help

neural tube defects

68

A food ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond its nutritional value is called

functional food

69

Overall calcium balance is mostly maintained by which two balanced regulatory agents?

Vitamin D and PTH

70

Optimal levels of body iron are controlled at the point of absorption, interrelated with a system of transport and storage. Which of the following statements correctly describes this iron regulating process

The iron form in foods requires an acid medium to reduce it to the form necessary for absorption

71

The only know function of fluoride in human nutrition is for dental heal. Which of the following statements correctly describes this relation?

fluoridation of the public water supply in small amounts helps prevent dental caries

72

Cretinism is a disorder in children to mother who had a deficiency of____during adolescence and pregnancy.

Iodine

73

Which mineral has the following functions: blood clotting, muscle and nerve action, and bone and teeth formation?

Calcium

74

Which of the following minerals is a trace amount mineral?

Iron

75

Chief electrolyte guarding the water outside cells

sodium

76

An ion carrying a negative electrical charge

anion

77

Sodium-conserving mechanism or control agent

active transport

78

Simple passage of water molecules through a membrane separating solutions of different concentrations from the side of lower concentration of solute particles to that of higher concentration of particles, thus tending to equalize the solutions

osmosis

79

A substance (element or compound) that, in solution, conducts an electrical current and is dissociated into cations and anions

electrolyte

80

Particles in solution, such as electrolytes and protein

solutes

81

State of dynamic equilibrium maintained by an organism among all its parts and controlled by many finely balanced mechanisms

homeostasis

82

Chief electrolyte guarding the water inside cells

potassium

83

Major plasma protein that guards and maintains blood volume

albumin

84

Fluid located inside the cell wall

ICF

85

An ion carrying a positive electrical charge

cation

86

The body's method of maintaining tissue water circulation by opposing fluid pressures

capillary fluid shift mechanism

87

Force exerted by a contained fluid

hydrostatic pressure

88

Movement of particles throughout a solution and across membranes outward from the area of denser concentration of particles to all surrounding spaces

diffusion

89

A type of fluid outside of cells

interstitial fluid

90

Movement of particles in solution across cell membranes and against normal osmotic pressures, involving a carrier and energy for the work

active transport