chapter 11 Flashcards


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1

Pleomorphic bacteria

A) have a slightly curved rod shape.

B) are flexible.

C) reproduce by snapping division.

D) are roughly spherical.

E) vary in size and shape.

E) vary in size and shape.

2

Which of the following bacterial arrangements is the result of snapping division?

A) tetrads

B) palisades

C) strepto-

D) sarcinae

E) staphylo-

B) palisades

3

Which of the following is NOT associated with Corynebacterium?

A) palisades

B) Gram-negative

C) binary fission

D) diphtheria

E) snapping division

B) Gram-negative

4

What bacterial structure is responsible for separating the daughter DNA molecules after

replication?

A) cross wall

B) cytoplasmic membrane

C) fimbria

D) spindle

E) cytoskeleton

B) cytoplasmic membrane

5

Endospores

A) are bacterial reproductive structures.

B) can be produced when nutrients are scarce.

C) are produced by bacteria, algae, and fungi.

D) are resistant to everything except radiation.

E) can last for only about 100 years.

B) can be produced when nutrients are scarce.

6

Bergey's Manual contains

A) classification schemes for prokaryotes.

B) treatments for bacterial diseases.

C) recipes for bacterial growth media.

D) genetic sequences of prokaryotes.

E) rules for naming new bacterial species.

A) classification schemes for prokaryotes.

7

Which of the following characteristics does NOT distinguish the archaea from the bacteria?

A) the types of transfer RNA used

B) the rRNA sequences present

C) the deoxyribonucleotides

D) cell wall composition

E) cell membrane composition

C) the deoxyribonucleotides

8

The archaea known as halophiles

A) require temperatures above 45C to survive.

B) require salt concentrations of 9% or greater to survive.

C) are members of the phylum Euryarchaeota.

D) are members of the Euryarchaeota and require temperatures above 45C.

E) are members of the Euryarchaeota and require salt concentrations above 9%.

E) are members of the Euryarchaeota and require salt concentrations above 9%.

9

The largest known group of archaea is the

A) thermophiles.

B) halophiles.

C) cyanobacteria.

D) methanogens.

E) hyperthermophiles.

D) methanogens.

10

Which of the following types of microbes might be found in the Dead Sea?

A) hyperthermophiles

B) phototrophic bacteria

C) methanogens

D) actinomycetes

E) halophiles

E) halophiles

11

Which of the following groups of bacteria lives in environments similar to those that may

have existed on the early Earth?

A) deeply branching bacteria

B) cyanobacteria

C) mycoplasmas

D) thermophiles

E) proteobacteria

A) deeply branching bacteria

12

Which of the following statements regarding cyanobacteria is FALSE?

A) They are oxygenic.

B) Many perform nitrogen fixation.

C) They contain chlorophyll a.

D) They may have given rise to mitochondria.

E) Some are motile.

D) They may have given rise to mitochondria.

13

Heterocysts are associated with

A) mycoplasmas.

B) alphaproteobacteria.

C) cyanobacteria.

D) myxobacteria.

E) chlamydias.

C) cyanobacteria.

14

Low G + C Gram-positive bacteria are

A) Mycoplasma.

B) in the phylum Firmicutes.

C) Clostridia.

D) in the phylum Actinobacteria.

E) in the phylum Firmicutes and include Clostridia and Mycoplasma.

E) in the phylum Firmicutes and include Clostridia and Mycoplasma.

15

Which of the following diseases is NOT associated with clostridia?

A) tetanus

B) diarrhea

C) gangrene

D) botulism

E) diphtheria

E) diphtheria

16

Mycoplasmas are pleomorphic because they

A) have no cell walls.

B) are low G + C Gram-positive bacteria.

C) exhibit snapping division.

D) have sterols in their cytoplasmic membranes.

E) produce endospores.

A) have no cell walls.

17

Which of the following bacterial genera produce(s) endospores?

A) Bacillus

B) Clostridium

C) Lactobacillus

D) both Bacillus and Lactobacillus

E) both Bacillus and Clostridium

E) both Bacillus and Clostridium

18

Which of the following bacterial genera includes species that protect areas of the body such

as the intestinal tract and the vagina from invasion by pathogens?

A) Staphylococcus

B) Listeria

C) Lactobacillus

D) Mycobacterium

E) Corynebacterium

C) Lactobacillus

19

Which of the following groups of bacteria is named for its resemblance to fungi?

A) Corynebacterium

B) Actinomyces

C) Clostridium

D) Lactobacillus

E) Staphylococcus

B) Actinomyces

20

Which of the following bacterial genera is used for the degradation of environmental

pollutants?

A) Actinomyces

B) Streptomyces

C) Corynebacterium

D) Rhizobium

E) Nocardia

E) Nocardia

21

Which of the following is NOT associated with bacteria in the genus Streptomyces?

A) the "musty" smell of soil

B) nutrient recycling in soil

C) antibiotic production

D) microbial antagonism

E) protection of plants against caterpillars

E) protection of plants against caterpillars

22

Which of the following characteristics is the basis for distinguishing classes of

proteobacteria?

A) outer membrane carbohydrates

B) cell wall structure

C) G + C ratio

D) ribosomal RNA sequences

E) cytoplasmic membrane lipid composition

D) ribosomal RNA sequences

23

Proteobacteria, which are facultative anaerobes commonly found in mammalian intestines,

are members of the

A) alphaproteobacteria.

B) betaproteobacteria.

C) gammaproteobacteria.

D) deltaproteobacteria.

E) epsilonproteobacteria.

C) gammaproteobacteria.

24

Members of which of the following genera are the most common sexually transmitted

bacteria in the United States?

A) Bacteroides

B) Rickettsia

C) Chlamydia

D) Helicobacter

E) Treponema

C) Chlamydia

25

Which of the following genera does NOT include intracellular parasites of other cells?

A) Bdellovibrio

B) Chlamydia

C) Rickettsia

D) Borrelia

E) Legionella

D) Borrelia

26

Unusual cellular extensions called prosthecae are associated with which of the following

groups of proteobacteria?

A) alpha

B) beta

C) gamma

D) delta

E) epsilon

A) alpha

27

Which of the following bacterial genera plays an important role in environmental nitrogen

cycles?

A) Nitrobacter

B) Rhizobium

C) Azospirillum

D) both Nitrobacter and Rhizobium

E) Nitrobacter, Rhizobium, and Azospirillum

E) Nitrobacter, Rhizobium, and Azospirillum

28

Microbes growing in boiling hot mineral springs are generally

A) methanogens.

B) halophiles.

C) hyperthermophiles.

D) purple sulfur bacteria.

E) cyanobacteria.

C) hyperthermophiles.

29

Classification of bacteria into different phyla is based on comparisons involving which of the

following?

A) DNA sequences

B) cell wall composition

C) protein sequences

D) both DNA and protein sequences

E) DNA and protein sequences, as well as cell wall composition

D) both DNA and protein sequences

30

Bacteria that require hydrogen sulfide are generally members of the

A) green phototrophic bacteria.

B) cyanobacteria.

C) halophiles.

D) methanogens.

E) thermophiles

A) green phototrophic bacteria.

31

Which of the following statements regarding pseudomonads is FALSE?

A) They are Gram-negative rods.

B) They are symbiotic with plants for nitrogen fixation.

C) They often contaminate food products.

D) They include Pseudomonas and Azotobacter.

E) They cause urinary tract infections.

B) They are symbiotic with plants for nitrogen fixation.

32

Which of the following bacterial genera is useful for sewage treatment?

A) Burkholderia

B) Thiobacillus

C) Neisseria

D) Zoogloea

E) Nitrosomonas

D) Zoogloea

33

A flexible, spiral-shaped bacterium is called a

A) spirochete.

B) vibrio.

C) coccobacillus.

D) spirillum.

E) sarcina.

A) spirochete.

34

The "giant" bacterium Epulopiscium reproduces by means of

A) binary fission.

B) snapping division.

C) budding.

D) sexual reproduction.

E) viviparity.

E) viviparity.

35

Which of the following statements regarding mycoplasmas is FALSE?

A) They are low G + C bacteria.

B) They stain Gram-positive.

C) They are pleomorphic.

D) They exhibit a "fried egg" appearance on solid media.

E) They are the smallest free-living cells.

B) They stain Gram-positive.

36

The anaerobic Clostridium species are troublesome pathogens largely because of their

capacity for

A) endospore production.

B) rapid reproduction.

C) oxygen production.

D) biofilm production.

E) high salt tolerance.

A) endospore production.

37

Prokaryotes of the genus Pyrodictium are

A) endospore formers.

B) intracellular parasites.

C) members of the deeply branching bacteria.

D) halophiles.

E) thermophiles.

E) thermophiles.

38

The __________ include the genus Aquifex.

A) archaea

B) proteobacteria

C) deeply branching bacteria

D) high G + C Gram-positive bacteria

E) clostridia

C) deeply branching bacteria

39

The bacterium Bacillus cereus is

A) an endospore former.

B) a frequent contaminant of milk and meat.

C) responsible for food poisoning from rice.

D) the cause of gastric ulcers.

E) an endospore former responsible for food poisoning from rice.

E) an endospore former responsible for food poisoning from rice.

40

Listeria is responsible for

A) gastric ulcers.

B) contaminated milk and meat.

C) urinary tract infections.

D) tuberculosis.

E) "flesh-eating" bacterial infections.

B) contaminated milk and meat.

41

One species of the genus Streptococcus is the leading cause of

A) tuberculosis.

B) urinary tract infections.

C) contaminated milk and meat.

D) "flesh-eating"; bacterial infections.

E) food poisoning from rice.

D) "flesh-eating"; bacterial infections.

42

The genus Mycobacterium includes species responsible for

A) tuberculosis.

B) urinary tract infections.

C) food poisoning from contaminated dairy products.

D) gastric ulcers.

E) food poisoning from rice.

A) tuberculosis.

43

The genus Helicobacter is responsible for

A) food poisoning from contaminated meat.

B) food poisoning from rice.

C) gastric ulcers.

D) tuberculosis.

E) urinary tract infections.

C) gastric ulcers.

44

Members of the genus Chlamydia are

A) thermophiles.

B) intracellular parasites.

C) classified with the deeply branching bacteria.

D) endospore-formers.

E) Gram-positive bacteria.

B) intracellular parasites.

45

Pseudomonas species are occasional causes of

A) food poisoning from contaminated meat.

B) food poisoning from rice.

C) food poisoning from dairy products.

D) "flesh-eating" bacterial infection.

E) urinary tract infections.

E) urinary tract infections.

46

The majority of archaea are extremophiles.

FALSE

47

When an endospore germinates, it gives rise to two daughter cells called vegetative cells.

FALSE

48

Members of the Streptomyces are environmentally important because they can degrade a wide

range of compounds including lignin from trees, chitin and keratin from animals, and latex.

TRUE

49

Halophiles grow equally well in the presence or absence of high salt concentrations.

FALSE

50

Cyanobacteria contain chlorophyll a and carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis.

FALSE

51

Cocci can be spherical as well as kidney-shaped.

TRUE

52

Some strains of Staphylococcus aureus can invade the body and cause diseases such as

pneumonia and bacteremia.

TRUE

53

Mycoplasmas are named for the large quantities of mycolic acid in their cell walls.

FALSE

54

Most of the methane produced by methanogens is oxidized by other types of bacteria before it

affects the Earth's climate.

TRUE

55

Myxobacteria exhibit traits, such as cooperation and differentiation, that are not normally

observed in prokaryotes.

TRUE

56

A bacterial cell that produces an endospore is called a(n) ___________ cell.

Answer: vegetative

57

Bacteria that can colonize and spoil meats preserved with high concentrations of salt are

called __________.

Answer: halophiles

58

Bacteria that use chlorophyll a and engage in oxygenic photosynthesis, just like plants and

algae, are called __________.

Answer: cyanobacteria

59

Thick-walled spores produced by some species of cyanobacteria are called ___________.

Answer: akinetes

60

Regular clusters of cocci that resemble a square are called __________.

Answer: tetrads

61

The G+C ratio is a ______ determination used in classifying the different taxa of Gram-

positive bacteria.

Answer: genetic

62

The ___________ are a group of Gram-positive bacteria that form branching filaments

resembling those of fungi.

Answer: actinomycetes

63

The genus of pathogenic cocci responsible for a wide range of human disease and whose

members grow in chains is ___________. (Be sure your answer is italicized.)

Answer: Streptococcus

64

Unusual structures associated with the alphaproteobacteria that consist of an extension of the

cytoplasm surrounded by the cytoplasmic membrane and cell wall are called __________.

Answer: prosthecae

65

The reduction of nitrogen gas to ammonia is called nitrogen __________.

Answer: fixation

66

Slow-growing bacteria in the genus ___________ are able to withstand long exposure to air

because of the presence of mycolic acid in their cell wall structure. (Be sure your answer is

italicized.)

Answer: Mycobacterium

67

Plant tumors caused by Agrobacterium infections are called ___________.

Answer: galls

68

The ___________ are a group of Gram-negative bacteria that include obligate anaerobes

normally found in the intestinal tracts of animals and humans.

Answer: bacteroids

69

The infective stage of chlamydia is called the __________ body.

Answer: elementary

70

Burkholderia is a common __________ pathogen of patients with cystic fibrosis.

Answer: opportunistic