Chapter 23: The Digestive System Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 6 years ago by Goldie2016
2,148 views
updated 6 years ago by Goldie2016
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:

1

Paneth cells ___.

secrete enzymes that kill bacteria

2

Select the correct statement about absorption.

A) Eighty percent of ingested materials have been absorbed by the end of the large intestine.

B) Amino acid transport is linked to chloride transport.

C) Carbohydrates diffuse across the villus epithelium and are then actively transported into blood capillaries.

D) If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated.

D) If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated.

3
card image

Which teeth are best suited for cutting or nipping off pieces of food in the permanent dentition?

Incisors

4

Gastric juice does not typically cause a burning sensation within the stomach. But reflux of this gastric juice into the esophagus can cause a burning sensation. One reason why this occurs is that the esophagus ______.

secretes mucus that is not identical to stomach mucus

5

The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.

Mesentieries

6

Which component of bile emulsifies fats?

A) bile salts

B) stercobilin

C) cholesterol

D) bilirubin

A) Bile Salts

7

Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?

A) pepsin

B) rennin

C) lipase

D) cholecystokinin

C) lipase

8

What is the major digestive function of the pancreas?

Production of digestive enzymes

9

The primary dentition consists of __________ teeth.

20

10

The __________ is the last segment of the small intestine.

Ileum

11

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?

A) plicae circulares, villi, and microvilli

B) the rugae and haustra

C) Brunner's glands and Peyer Patches

D) the vast array of digestive enzymes

A) plicae circulares, villi, and microvilli

12
card image

What is a major function of pancreatic juice?

Neutralizing chyme entering the small intestine from the stomach

13

Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.

Chief cells of the stomach

14

Which of these is not a component of saliva?

A) lysozyme

B) a cyanide derivative

C) defensins

D) nitric oxide

B) a cyanide derivative

15

An effective way to medically treat diarrhea would be to use a drug that ______.

Inhibits the activity of the myenteric nerve plexus

16

Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth.

A) There are 24 primary teeth, and no new primary teeth appear after 13 months.

B) There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.

C) There are 32 primary teeth, and by 36 months of age, most children have all 32.

D) There are 27 primary teeth, and the molars are permanent.

B) There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.

17
card image

Lesser omentum

Mesentery

Parietal Peritoneum

Transverse Mesocolon

Greater Omentum

Visceral Peritoneum

18

The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to ________.

collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage

19
card image

Right and left colic flexure

Haustrum

Epiploic Appendages

Teniae Coli

Ileocecal Valve

Appendix

20

Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?

Parietal Cells

21

In the __________ phase of gastric secretion, chyme is moved into the duodenum.

Intestinal

22

Cholecystokinin

Increases output of enzymatic-rich pancreatic juice

23

Gastrin

Increases HCI secretion and stimulates contraction of intestinal muscle

24

Secretin

Increases output of pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate ions.

25

Gastric Inhibitory Peptide

Stimulates insulin release and mildly inhibits HCI production

26

Most digestion and absorption of nutrients occur in the __________.

Small Intestine

27

Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?

A) thick coating of bicarbonate-rich mucus

B) production of intrinsic factor

C) tight junctions of epithelial mucosa cells

D) replacing of damaged epithelial mucosa cells

B) production of intrinsic factor

28

Which histological layer of the digestive tract is composed primarily of epithelial tissue?

Mucosa

29

Saliva does NOT __________.

aid in the chemical digestion of proteins

30
card image

Teeth

31
card image

...

32

Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include ________.

Secretin

33

Which organ of the digestive tract is the body's major digestive organ?

Small Intestine

34

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________.

Chemical Digestion

35

Select the correct statement about electrolyte absorption.

A) Potassium moves across the epithelium by active transport.

B) Iron and calcium are absorbed mostly by the duodenum.

C) Chlorine ion absorption is coupled to glucose and amino acid transport.

D) If vitamin B is not present, calcium is not absorbed.

B) Iron and calcium are absorbed mostly by the duodenum.

36

There are some 20 known pathogens found in the large intestine; our Ig ________ antibody-mediated response restricts them from going beyond the mucosa and causing problems.

IgA

37
card image

Stomach

38

Which of the following are mismatched?

A) lipase: fat digestion

B) nuclease: DNA and RNA digestion

C) protease: lipid digestion

D) amylase: carbohydrate digestion

C) protease: lipid digestion

39

Chief cells ________.

produce pepsinogen

40

Hyposalivation can be treated with a drug that ______.

stimulates muscarinic receptors in salivary gland serous cells

41

A baby is admitted to the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On examination, it is found that the sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the duodenum is thickened and does not open readily. Because of the baby's loss of gastric juice, his blood probably indicates ________.

Alkalosis

42

How are fats absorbed into the blood?

In the form of chylomicrons

43
card image

Which chemical activates the transformation of trypsinogen to trypsin?

Enteropeptidase

44

Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds?

A) circumvallate and filiform

B) palatine and circumvallate

C) fungiform and circumvallate

D) fungiform, circumvallate, and filiform

C) fungiform and circumvallate

45
card image

Greater Omentum

Mesentery

Transverse Colon

Sigmoid Mesocolon

46

The __________ circulation includes all of the major abdominal arteries that serve the digestive organs.

Splanchnic

47
card image

...

48

What is the function of the bacterial flora that inhabit the large intestine?

A) Bacterial flora release a bicarbonate-rich juice to help neutralize chyme from the stomach.

B) Bacterial flora emulsify fats.

C) Bacterial flora facilitate nutrient absorption.

D) Bacterial flora synthesize B-complex vitamins and some of the vitamin K needed by the liver.

D) Bacterial flora synthesize B-complex vitamins and some of the vitamin K needed by the liver.

49
card image

Structures of the large intestine

50

T/F: The major means of propulsion through the alimentary canal is peristalsis.

TRUE

51
card image

Which major process involves the elimination of indigestible substances from the body via the anus?

Defecation

52

The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ________.

Digestion

53

What role of the stomach is essential to life?

production of intrinsic factor

54
card image

Structures of the mouth

55

What is the opening to the mouth called?

Oral Orifice

56

What muscle forms the labia of the mouth?

Orbicularis Oris

57

If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the ________.

Serosa

58

The ________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure.

Liver

59

Peristaltic waves are ________.

Waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

60

The major function of the large intestine is to __________.

Absorb water

61

Which of the following inhibits salivation?

A) spicy foods

B) sight or smell of food

C) parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

D) sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

D) sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

62
card image

Structures of the mouth

63

The innermost tissue layer of the alimentary canal is the __________.

Mucosa

64

Which of the following is NOT a structural modification of the small intestine to increase surface area?

A) rugae

B) circular folds

C) villi

D) microvilli

A) rugae

65

T/F: Bacteria that reside in the large intestine make vitamin K.

TRUE

66

The __________ is the serous membrane that lines the abdominal body wall.

Parietal Peritoneum

67

The appendix contains masses of lymphoid tissue and therefore has leukocytes capable of attacking bacteria present in the appendix. But during appendicitis, bacteria trapped in the lumen of the appendix are not effectively attacked because ______.

There is an adequate blood supply to the appendix wall

68

Which layer of the alimentary canal contains the nerve supply of the enteric neurons that regulate digestive system activity?

Submucosa

69
card image

Alimentary Canal

70

Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?

A) lipase

B) amylase

C) trypsin

D) dextrinase

C) trypsin

71

Which enzymes are responsible for the final chemical breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids?

Brush Border Enzymes

72

Which duct carries bile out of bile ducts in the liver?

Common Hepatic Duct

73

Hepatocytes do not ________.

produce digestive enzymes

74

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?

B12

75

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.

1. Mucosa

2. Submucosa

3. Muscularis externa

4. Serosa

76

T/F: The soft palate rises reflexively to open the nasopharynx when we swallow food.

FALSE

77

When a baby ingests breast milk, the milk's IgA antibodies may be absorbed into the baby's bloodstream because ______.

many pepsinogen molecules remain unchanged

78
card image

Digestive Tract

79

How are most nutrients absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villa?

Active transport driven directly ot indirectly by metabolic energy

80

Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?

A) Carbohydrates

B) Starches

C) Lipids

D) Proteins

C) Lipids

81

Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ________.

The vagus nerve and enteric plexus