Chapter 22: The Respiratory System Flashcards


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1

What is the most immediate driving force behind pulmonary ventilation?

Intrapulmonary Pressure Change

2

The larynx contains ___.

The thyroid cartilage

3
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As bicarbonate ions in the plasma

4

Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing?

A) rising blood pressure

B) rising carbon dioxide levels

C) arterial Po2 below 60 mm Hg

D) acidosis resulting from CO2 retention

A) rising blood pressure

5
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Calculate the transpulmonary pressure if atmospheric pressure is 755 mmHg

-1 mm Hg

6

Inspiratory capacity is ________.

the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration

7
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8

The main site of gas exchange is the ________.

Alveoli

9

Gas Exchange: Steps in O2 Transport

1. Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into surrounding capillaries

2. Oxygen enters a red blood cell

3. Oxygen binds to a molecule of hemoglobin

4. Oxygen is carried through blood vessels to a capillary

5. Oxygen diffuses from the blood to the body's tissues.

10
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Which of the following respiratory rates illustrates eupnea for an average, healthy adult at rest?

15 breaths per minute

11
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Which muscles are activated during normal quiet inspiration?

Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles

12
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Which of the following stimuli is the most powerful respiratory stimulant to increase respiration?

Rising carbon dioxide levels

13

Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?

Partial pressure gradient

14

The adenoids normally destroy pathogens because they contain ______.

lymphocytes

15

Which of the following is not possible?

A) The amount of gas flowing in and out of the alveoli is directly proportional to the difference in pressure or pressure gradient between the external atmosphere and the alveoli.

B) Gas flow equals pressure gradient over resistance.

C) Resistance equals pressure gradient over gas flow.

D) Pressure gradient equals gas flow over resistance.

D) Pressure gradient equals gas flow over resistance.

16

Gas Exchange: Carbon Dioxide Transport

1. Carbon Dioxide is released from the mitochondria

2. Carbon Dioxide diffuses into a capillary

3. Carbon Dioxide is carried to the lungs

4. Carbon Dioxide diffuses into an alveolus

5. Air exits through the nose or mouth

17

Select the correct statement about the physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation.

A) A decrease in compliance causes an increase in ventilation.

B) As alveolar surface tension increases, additional muscle action will be required.

C) Surfactant helps increase alveolar surface tension.

D) A lung that is less elastic will require less muscle action to perform adequate ventilation.

B) As alveolar surface tension increases, additional muscle action will be required.

18
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19

Factors that influence the rate and depth of breathing include ________.

voluntary cortical control

20

Which of the following determines lung compliance?

A) muscles of inspiration

B) flexibility of the thoracic cage

C) airway opening

D) Alveolar Surface Tension

D) Alveolar Surface Tension

21

The relationship between gas pressure and gas volume is described by ________.

Boyle's Law

22

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.

Diffusion

23
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During the Valsalva's maneuver, what part of the larynx closes to increase intra-abdominal pressure, such as to help with defecation?

Glottis

24

Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ________.

ciliated mucous lining in the nose

25
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Which of the following conditions or scenarios increases the respiratory rate?

Acidosis

26
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The indentation on the medial surface of each lung through which pulmonary and systemic blood vessels, bronchi, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter and leave is called the ___________.

Hilum

27

During pleurisy, the inflamed parietal pleura of one lung rubs against the inflamed ______.

visceral pleura of the same lung

28
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Which of the following is NOT a function of the nasal conchae?

A) filtering, heating, and moistening incoming air during inhalation

B) increasing the mucosal surface area exposed to air

C) reclaiming heat and moisture from expired air

D) Routing air and food into proper channels

D) Routing air and food into proper channels

29

Which of the following respiratory structures is more commonly known as the "throat"?

Pharynx

30

The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________.

Increase of carbon dioxide

31

Functional Residual Capactiy

ERV + RV

32

Vital Capacity

TV + IRV + ERV

33

Inspiratory Capacity

TV + IRV

34

Total Lung Capacity

TV + IRV + ERV + RV

35

Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.

interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

36

What is the tidal volume of an average adult male?

500 mL

37

Which blood vessels supply oxygenated systemic blood to the lung tissue?

bronchial arteries

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40

Which of the following would NOT be involved in causing bronchiolar constriction during an asthma attack?

A) acetylcholine

B) central nervous system

C) peripheral nervous system

D) adrenal medulla

D) adrenal medulla

41

Which of the following arterial blood levels is the most powerful respiratory stimulant?

A) low CO2 level

B) rising CO2 levels

C) low oxygen level

D) arterial pH

B) rising CO2 levels

42

Which of the following is NOT a function of the larynx?

A) providing a patent airway

B) serving as part of the respiratory zone

C) voice production

D) routing air and food into the proper channels

B) serving as part of the respiratory zone

43

What part of the larynx covers the laryngeal inlet during swallowing to keep food out of the lower respiratory passages?

A) epiglottis

B) vocal folds

C) glottis

D) thyroid cartilage

A) epiglottis

44

The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________.

Inspiratory Reserve

45

Which cartilage belonging to the larynx anchors the vocal cords?

Arytenoid Cartilages

46
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47

The smallest subdivisions of the lung visible with the naked eye are the __________, which appear to be connected by black carbon in smokers.

Lobules

48

In which region are the palatine tonsils found?

Oropharynx

49

Which form of CO2 transport accounts for the least amount of CO2 transported in blood?

Dissolved in Plasma

50
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51
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52

What is the amount of air that can be exhaled with the greatest possible exhalation after the deepest inhalation called?

vital capacity

53

Which of the following is the primary factor in oxygen attachment to, or release from, hemoglobin?

A) temperature

B) blood pH

C) partial pressure of oxygen

D) partial pressure of carbon dioxide

C) partial pressure of oxygen

54
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Which of the following initiates inspiration?

A) ventral respiratory group (VRG)

B) dorsal respiratory group (DRG)

C) diencephalon

D) pontine respiratory centers

A) ventral respiratory group (VRG)

55

For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________.

0.5 to 1 micrometer thick

56

Hypocapnia causes ______.

Hypoxia

57

Which of the following gives the relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas?

A) Henry's law

B) Haldane effect

C) Dalton's law of partial pressures

D) Boyle's law

D) Boyle's law

58

Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood:

A) Increased BPG levels in the red blood cells enhance oxygen-carrying capacity.

B) During normal activity, a molecule of hemoglobin returning to the lungs carries one molecule of O2.

C) During conditions of acidosis, hemoglobin is able to carry oxygen more efficiently.

D) A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal.

D) A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal.

59

Why is a patient with tuberculosis often noncompliant with treatment?

Due to the time length of treatment, the pt may stop taking the medication when they start to feel better

60
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61

In babies born prematurely, pulmonary surfactant may not be present in adequate amounts ______.

due to insufficient exocytosis in the type II alveolar cells

62

T/F: The alveoli are also known as alveolar sacs.

False

63

Patients with rhinitis often have "watery eyes" because ______.

the infection has caused inflammation of the nasolacrimal ducts

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65

Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?

internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract

66

The loudness of a person's voice depends on the ________.

force with which air rushes across the vocal folds

67

Which of the following represents all of the processes involved in respiration in the correct order?

A) pulmonary ventilation; external ventilation; internal ventilation; transport of respiratory gases

B) external respiration; internal respiration; transport of respiratory gases

C) pulmonary respiration; external ventilation; transport of respiratory gases; internal ventilation

D) pulmonary ventilation; external respiration; transport of respiratory gases; internal respiration

D) pulmonary ventilation; external respiration; transport of respiratory gases; internal respiration

68

Which of the choices below is not a role of the pleura?

A) helps divide the thoracic cavity into three chambers

B) allows the lungs to inflate and deflate without friction

C) helps limit the spread of local infections

D) aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs

D) aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs

69

Gas Exchange: Path of Air

1. Air enters through the nose or mouth

2. Air travels down the trachea and then enters the bronchi

3. Air travels down smaller and smaller bronchioles

4. Air reaches small sacs called alveoli

70

The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the ________.

concetration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes

71

Which of the following pressures must remain negative to prevent lung collapse?

A) intrapleural pressure

B) atmospheric pressure

C) intrapulmonary pressure

D) transpulmonary pressure

A) intrapleural pressure

72

Which of the following pressures rises and falls with the phases of breathing, but eventually equalizes with the atmospheric pressure?

A) atmospheric pressure

B) intrapleural pressure

C) intrapulmonary pressure

D) transpulmonary pressure

C) intrapulmonary pressure

73

Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs?

A) compliance and transpulmonary pressures

B) the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and transpulmonary pressures

C) the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid

D) compliance and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid

C) the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid

74

The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ________.

Vital Capacity

75

Since mucus-producing cells and cilia are sparse in the bronchioles and alveoli, how does the body remove microorganisms that make their way into the respiratory zone?

alveolar macrophages crawl freely along internal alveolar surfaces

76

What type of epithelial tissue forms the walls of the alveoli?

simple squamous epithelium

77

Which parts of the respiratory system function as the main sites of gas exchange?

Alveoli

78

The local matching of blood flow with ventilation is ________.

Ventilation-perfusion coupling