Campbell Biology 10th Edition: Chapter 7 & 8 Review Flashcards


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1

What does the cell membrane contain?

Phospholipid Bi-layer

2

The head of a phospholipid is__.

Hydrophilic

3

The tail of a phospholipid is__.

Hydrophobic

4

In the Fluid Mosaic Model it says: unsaturated fatty acids are __ than those rich in saturated fatty acid.

more fluid

5

In the Fluid Mosaic Model it says: at warm temperatures (37 Celsius/ 98.6 Fahrenheit), cholesterol__.

restrains movement of phospholipids

6

In the Fluid Mosaic Model it says: at cooler temperatures, a cell membrane__.

switches from a fluid state to a solid state

7

Type of proteins that go all the way through the membrane to the external.

Integral Proteins

8

Type of proteins that adhere only temporarily to the biological membrane with which they are associated and attach to integral proteins

Peripheral Proteins

9

Examples of integral proteins

Transmembrane Proteins, Transport Proteins, Receptor Proteins

10

Blocks the beta receptors from binding with hormones such as adrenaline

Beta blockers

11

Permeability is influenced by__

concentration, gradients, solubility, fluidity

12

Moves ions or molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration (with the concentration gradient) so, it does not require energy.

Passive Transport

13

The types of Passive Transport are __.

Diffusion and Osmosis

14

The types of Diffusion are __.

Simple Diffusion and Facilitated Diffusion

15

Molecules pass directly through the membrane

Simple Diffusion

16

Molecules pass through the membrane with the help of carrier molecules

Facilitated Diffusion

17

In Facilitated Diffusion, the __ have a charged passageway through which water molecules or a specific solute can pass.

Channel Proteins

18

The concentration of solutes outside of the cell relative to inside of the cell

Tonicity

19

Based on the concentration of impermeable molecules (solutes) that make up a solution inside and outside the membrane

Osmolarity

20

When there is a higher amount of solutes outside of cell and more H20 in cell the solution is__.

Hypertonic

21

When there is a lower amount of solutes outside of cell and less H20 in cell the solution is__.

Hypotonic

22

When there is an equal amount of solutes outside of cell and an equal amountof H20 in cell the solution is__.

Isotonic

23

Integral membrane pore proteins that electively conduct water molecules in and out of the cell, while preventing the passage of ions and other solutes, also known as water channels.

Aquaporins

24

Moves ions or molecules from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration (against the concentration gradient), assisted by enzymes so, it does require energy (usually in the form of ATP).

Active Transport

25

Type of Active Transport that uses ATP to pump sodium out of the cell and then bring is able to bring potassium in from outside of the cell

Na+/K+ pumps

26

Type of Active Transport that moves 2 molecules at the same time

Cotransport

27

The type of Active Transport that allows for movement of macromolecules such as proteins or polysaccharides into or out of the cell is called__.

Bulk Transport

28

What are the two types of Bulk Transport?

Endocytosis and Exocytosis

29

What are the types of Endocytosis?

Phagocytosis, Pinocytosis, and Receptor-mediated

30

Type of Endocytosis that does "cell eating"; large particles/cells are engulfed by another cell

Phagocytosis

31

What are some example of phagocytosis?

Protists (amoeba) and White blood cells

32

A process in which a cell engulfs extracellular material through an inward folding of its plasma membrane.

Endocytosis

33

Cellular "drinking"; a type of endocytosis in which the cell takes fluid and dissolved solutes into small membranous vesicles.

Pinocytosis

34

Addition of actin monomers at the plasma membrane interface generates protrusive force that drives eukaryotic motility.

Actin polymerization

35

Type of cells that engulf that whatever foreign cells and molecules they encounter and recognize

Phagocytic

36

Found within the lymph nodes, they are phagocytes that destroy bacteria, cancer cells, and other foreign matter in the lymphatic stream.

Macrophage

37

Intracellular vesicle containing material taken up by phagocytosis.

Phagosome

38

Protein that can assemble into a basket-like network that gives budding vesicles their shape during Endocytosis and Exocytosis

Clathrin

39

A highly specific cellular uptake type of Endocytosis that makes the molecule that are to be taken, bind to cell surface receptor found in a clathrin-coated pit

Receptor-mediated

40

A process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane.

Exocytosis

41

Sum of all metabolic pathways

Cellular Metabolism

42

The two types of pathways in the the Metabolism are

Catabolic and Anabolic

43

The type of metabolic pathways that break down big molecules and release energy that was contained in the chemical bonds

Catabolic

44

The type of metabolic pathways that consume and store energy in the bonds when building large molecules

Anabolic

45

the study of the transformation of energy in living organisms.

Bioenernergetics

46

Energy of an object when in motion

Kinetic

47

Energy of an object when not in motion

Potential

48

Energy stored in chemical bonds

Chemical

49

Energy can never be created nor destroyed

First Law of Thermodynamics

50

Entropy of any isolated system always increases.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

51

a measure of disorder that increases when there is a conversion of energy that is not perfectly efficient

Entropy

52

A type of reaction that breaks down bigger molecules into smaller ones and also release energy

Exergonic

53

A type of reaction that forms bigger molecules from the intake of energy and smaller molecules

Endergonic

54

When an exergonic reaction powers the endergonic reaction

Coupled reaction

55

When energy goes from kinetic to potential

ΔG+

56

When energy goes from potential to kinetic

ΔG-

57

Performs work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system

Gibbs Free Energy (G)

58

Type of molecule that is made in mitochondria from adenine, ribose, and phosphate group. Provides energy for reactions, activate other molecules in cell. (the free-floating rechargeable batteries in all living things)

ATP

59

Some functions that require ATP are

Chemical work, transport work, mechanical work

60

ATP is made from

ADP, Phosphate Group, and Energy

61

Proteins that initiate and speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy

Enzymes

62

Substrates enter the active site, substrates and active site change shape to promote a reaction between the substrates, the substrates, bonded together, leave enzyme: the enzyme is ready for a new set of substrates

Enzymatic process

63

Enzymatic reactions are limited by

Amount of time and Amount of substrate

64

2 types of cellular regulation of enzymes

feedback inhibition and allosteric regulation

65

uses a metabolic pathway to turn off/on the activity of an enzyme, the body sends the signal to the cell to turn off/on activity

Feedback Inhibition

66

molecules bind to the activator or inhibitor sites on the enzyme to temporarily regulate its activity (drugs/poisons)

Allosteric Regulation

67

What are the to types of Allosteric Regulation?

Competitive Inhibition and Noncompetitive Inhibition

68

Type of Allosteric Regulation that goes into the active site to block entry of the substrate

Competitive Inhibition

69

Type of Allosteric Regulation that blocks the active site by changing the shape of the site by pushing it from outside so substrates no longer fit

Noncompetitive Inhibition

70

When there is a higher affinity and the active site is able to bind the substrate better, easier and for longer there is an Allosteric __ present

Activator

71

When there is a lower affinity and the active site is not able to bind the substrate as efficiently there is an Allosteric __ present

Inhibitor

72

Type of allosteric activation which changes conformation of all active sites so reactions can occur

Cooperativity

73

The Enzyme that breaks down ATP into ADP and P to release energy to the cell

ATPase

74

The process of breaking down ATP into ADP and Phosphate to release energy to the cell is called

ATP Hydrolysis

75

The Enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of ADP and Phosphate to create ATP is called

ATP Synthase

76

The process of catalyzing the reaction of ADP and Phosphate to create ATP is called

ATP Dehydration Synthesis

77

Require activation energy(usually in the form of ATP)

Enzymatic reactions

78

molecules that help to make enzymatic reactions occur

Coenzymes

79

An example of an Endergonic reaction

Synthesis of DNA

80

An example of an Exergonic reaction

Glycolysis