Human Anatomy and Physiology II Final Exam
Respiratory acidosis can occur when ________.
a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction
Catabolism would be best described as a process that ________.
breaks down complex structures to simpler ones
Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?
The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.
Gluconeogenesis is the process in which ________.
glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors
Chemical digestion of starch begins in the _____.
Which of the following is not a chemical buffer system?
The renal ___________ is continuous with the ureter.
Acidosis results in increasing levels of what ion?
The site of electron transport is the:
mitochondrial inner membrane (cristae)
The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.
The gall bladder stores and releases bile, but does not produce it.
Cholesterol, though it is not an energy molecule, has importance in the body because it ________.
is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones
In order to prevent self-digestion of the pancreas, activation of pancreatic proteases occurs in the:
Urine passes through the ________.
pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra
The filtration membrane includes all except ________.
The presence of glucose and ketone bodies in the urine can indicate:
untreated diabetes mellitus.
The blood supply to the nephron is the:
Infants are more likely to experience problems regulating acid-base balance because of several factors, including ____________________.
inefficiency of infant kidneys.
The term metabolism is best defined as ________.
biochemical reactions involved in building cell molecules or breaking down molecules for energy
Which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters?
They are trilayered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia).
Peristaltic waves are ________.
waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another
Lipogenesis occurs when ________.
cellular ATP and glucose levels are high
Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly. Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the following is most likely?
A major stimulus for the release of antidiuretic hormone is:
reduced blood volume.
Any arterial pH between _________ is considered physiological acidosis.
7.0 - 7.35
The dental formula for an adult is 2-1-2-3. What does the 1 stand for?
You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?
Essential nutrients refer to nutrients that are:
obtained from an outside source because the body cannot make them.
Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the ________.
conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.
1. major calyx
2. minor calyx
6. collecting duct
3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4
Anabolism includes reactions in which ________.
larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones
Which gland sits atop each kidney?
In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all of the following except ________.
production of energy
During deglutition, the bolus passes into the stomach from the esophagus through the:
You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk. Which of the following glands would be active in helping you to digest this food?
Which of the following is not a method for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in blood?
The colon includes all of the following regions EXCEPT____.
Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________.
Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system?
eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat
After food is mixed with digestive juices in the stomach, it is referred to as _____.
All of the following functions are carried out in the renal tubules, except:
Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.
inhibits the release of ADH
Normal arterial blood pH is:
between 7.35 and 7.45
Which statement is correct?
Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled.
Which of the following is not true of saliva?
contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins
Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)?
the stretching of the bladder wall
The primary reason elderly people should decrease their caloric intake is that ________.
muscle mass and metabolism decline with age
The Bowman's capsule and glomerulus make up the:
When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________.
Annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted french fries, some pickled eggs, and some cheese. How will consuming this much salt affect her physiology?
There will be a temporary increase in blood volume.
Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It ________.
is longer than the small intestine
A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.
The descending limb of the loop of Henle ________.
contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla
The major source of water loss from the body is: