Human Anatomy & Physiology: 22.5 Flashcards


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created 7 years ago by mmiyakooo
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education, teaching methods & materials, science & technology, medical, physiology, science, life sciences, human anatomy & physiology, anatomy & physiology
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1

lung collapse due to air or too much fluid entering pleural space

pneumothorax

2

what is pneumothorax caused by

  • spontaneous
  • trauma

3

how do you treat pneumothorax ?

removing air or fluid

  • restores negative pressure
  • needle or chest tube

4

each lung is independent

true

5

breathing in

inspiration

6

Diaphragm contracts

inspiration

7

flattens and moves inferiorly

diaphragm contracts

8

external intercostal muscles contract

inspiration

9

lifts the rib cage

external intercostal muscles contract

10

inspiration increases volume of thoracic cavity

true

11

air flows into lungs

inspiration

12

during inspiration Ppul < Patm (by 1 mmHg)

true

13

what muscles are used during forced inspiration ?

scalene, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis minor

14

when is forced inspiration needed?

vigorous exercise, disease, and lab experiments

15

breathing out

expiration

16

normal expiration is passive

true

17

inspiratory muscles relax

expiration

18

elasticity of lungs decreases volume

expiration

19

as volume goes down, pressure goes up

true

20

in expiration Ppul > Pulatm (by 1 mmHg)

true

21

air flows out of lungs

expiration

22

forced expiration is active process

true

23

contraction of abdominal wall muscles

forced expiration

24

what muscles contract during forced expiration ?

  • obliques
  • transverse abdominals
  • internal intercostals

25

when is forced expiration needed?

  • singing
  • COPD
  • lab experiments

26

paralyzing toxins kill due to suffocation

paralysis

27

cannot change volume of thoracic cavity

paralysis

28

air will not flow

paralysis

29

what is an example of a paralyzing toxin

tetrodotoxin

30

what does tetrodotoxin do?

blocks voltages gated Na+ channels in skeletal muscles

31

formation of non-elastic tissue in lungs

pulmonary fibrosis

32

lungs do not recoil after inspiration due to

pulmonary fibrosis

33

what causes pulmonary fibrosis

  • infection
  • smoking
  • pollutants

34

equation resistance to air flow

R= viscocity (length)/ radius4

35

resistance to air flow is normally low, why?

because viscosity of air is low, compared to blood

36

radius of airway is easily changed

true

37

what changes the radius of the airway

bronchodilation or bronchoconstriction

38

radius of bronchioles increase

bronchodilation

39

increase air flow by decreasing resistance

bronchodilation

40

what is bronchodilation caused by?

activation of sympathetic nervous system

41

radius of bronchioles decreases

bronchoconstriction

42

decreases air flow increasing resistance

bronchoconstriction

43

what is bronchoconstriction caused by ?

activation of parasympathetic nervous system