Human Anatomy & Physiology: blood vessels Flashcards


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1

three layers of blood vessels from outside to inside

tunica externa:outermost layer, contains collagen fibers

tunica media: middletunic, smooth muscles

tunica intima: endothelium, innermost layer

2

a blood vessel supplying blood to the larger blood vessel is called

vasa vasorum

3

list the types of blood capillaries

continuous:gas exchange, found in brain, testes, lungs etc. least permeable and most common

fenestrated: active filtration and absorption, found in kidneys and small intestines

sinusoid: most permeable, found in liver, spleen, and especially bone marrow, lymphnodes

4

anatomy of capillary bed

arteriole > precapillary sphincter > true capillary and metaarteriole > venule

5

____ are the capacitance blood vessels that holds up to ___ of blood

veins; 65%

6

Normal range of systolic blood pressure is

100 - 140 mmHg

7

when recording pulse, one should note:

rate, rhythm, volume, characteristics of an artery

8

force per unit area exerted on an interior of a vessel wall by the contained blood is called

blood pressure

9

the types of blood vessels circuits

pulmonary and systemic

10

high blood pressure in pulmonary vasculature is called

pulmonary hypertension

11

high blood pressure in systemic vasculature is called

systemic hypertension

12

opposition to the blood flow is called

vascular resistance

13

higher the friction, the higher the:

resistance

14

increase in blood viscosity will increase the ___ and __ the resistance

friction; higher

15

polycythemia will____ the friction and thereby___ resistance

increase; increase

16

anemia will___ the friction and thereby___ resistance

decrease; decrease

17

increase in the length of blood vessel will___ the resistance to blood flow

increase

18

increasing the diameter of blood vessel will___ the resistance to blood flow

decrease

19

Resistance is____ proportional to length of blood vessels

directly

20

Resistance is____ proportional to diameter of blood vessel

inversely

21

Higher the turbulent flow___ the resistance in blood vessels

higher

22

Difference in blood pressure between any two points in a blood vessel is the

blood pressure

23

Rate of flow of blood is___ proportional to the difference of blood pressure at any two points in circulation

directly

24

rate of flow of blood is___ proportional to resistance in a blood vessel

inversely

25

Define pulse pressure

difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure

26

increasing the diameter of blood vessel will___ the resistance to blood flow

decrease

27

blood flow = resistance/blood pressure

false

28

Net filtration rate from a capillary is equal to

NFP = (HPc - HPif) - (OPc - OPif)

29

force per unit area exerted on the wall of a blood vessel by its contained blood is called

blood pressure

30

the blood pressure in the capillaries ranges from to 20 to 40 mmHg

true

31

the coronary arteries arises from the

aorta

32

the inferior vena cava brings blood from the lower regions of the body and empties into the

right atrium

33

the major long term mechanism of blood pressure control is provided by the

kidneys

34

reduction in lumen diameter of a blood vessel as the smooth muscle contracts is known as

vasoconstriction

35

the increase in lumen diameter of a blood vessel as the smooth muscle relaxes is known as

vasodilation

36

exchange of gases and nutrients occurs by diffusion between the

capillaries and tissue cells

37

any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally is called

circulatory shock

38

which of the following regulates blood flow at the entrance of each true capllary

precapilllary sphincter

39

the common hepatic, left gastric, and splenic arteries are the branch of which of the following atery

celiac trunk

40

which of the following types of blood vessels have the thickest tunica media of all vessels

elastic arteries

41

which of the following conditions may not develop the varicose veins

walking on heels with pressure on the calf muscles

42

at any given time, up to 65% of the body's blood supply is found in

veins

43

most neural controls of blood pressure involve the input from baroreceptors that are sensitive to

changes in blood pressure

44

which of the following blood vessels is the most susceptible to atherosclerosis

the aorta

45

the heart produces a hormone called atrial natriuretic peptide that causes blood volume and blood pressure to decline

true

46

the device used to measure blood pressure is called

sphygmomanometer

47

the device used for listening to the breath sound is called___ and the sound produced by the blood flow through the narrow blood vessel during blood pressure measurement is called___ sound

stethoscope; sounds of korotkoff

48

which of the following is a component of short term mechanism of blood pressure control?

baroreceptor control, chemoreceptor control, carotid sinus reflex, aortic body reflex

49

superior vena cava is formed by the union of which of the veins

right and left brachiocephalic vein

50

which of the following arteries gives rise to common hepatic, left gastric, and splenic arteries?

celiac trunk

51

which of the following veins is the longest in the body

great saphenous vein

52

posterior intercostal arteries are branches of

aorta

53

basilic vein (superficial vein) is located

medially in the upper limb

54

which of the following is true of femoral blood vessels

femoral vein is located medial to femoral artery

55

superior and inferior vena cava, coronary sinus, anterior cardiac veins are the major blood vessels entering the

right atrium

56

a thrombus in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the

right side of the head and neck and right upper arm

57

the aorta

ascending aorta

aortic arch

brachiocephalic trunk (right/left)

subclavian artery (left/right)

subclavian carotid artery (right/left)

common carotid artery (right/left)

internal/external carotid artery

card image

external common carotid artery supplies blood to the head and neck

internal common carotid artery supplies the brain

subclavian goes to the upper limb

58

internal/external carotid artery

subclavian artery

axillary artery

brachicephalic trunk

card image

59

middle cerebral artery

internal carotid artery

circle of willis (vertebra artery, pontine artery, basilar artery, post cerebral artery,middle cerebral artery, anterior communicating artery, anterior cerebral artery, internal carotid artery, posterior communicating artery)

card image

60

right subclavian artery

left subclavian artery

brachiocephalic trunk

posteruir intercostal artery

internal thoracic artery

brachial artery

axillary artery

radial artery

ulnar artery

card image

61

celiac trunk

common hepatic artery

gastroduodenal artery

right/left gastric artery

splenic artery

left/right gastroepoploic artery

card image

62

adrenal (suprarenal) gland

middle suprarenal artery

renal artery

superior mesentric artery

gonadal artery

inferior mesenteric artery common artery

card image

63

common iliac artery

internal iliac artery

external iliac artery

femoral artery

popliteal artery

anterior tibial artery

posterior tibial artery

fibular artery

dorasalis pedis artery

card image

64

external jugular vein

internal jugular vein

subclavian vein

superior sagittal sinus

inferior sagittal sinus

straight sinus

transverse sinuses

sigmoid sinus

jugular foramen

right internal jugular vein

card image

external/internal jugular veins combine to give rise to common iliac vein, common iliac vein combines to give rise to inferior vena cava

65

brachiocephalic veins

axillary vein

brachial vein

basilic vein

internal jugular vein

external jugular vein

superior vena cava

median cubital vein

cephalic vein

radial vein

basilic vein

ulnar vein

card image

66

inferior vena cava

right suprarenal vein

left suprarenal vein

renal veins

left gonadal vein

common iliac vein

internal iliac vein

inferior mesenteric vein

superior mesenteric vein

card image

left renal vein is longer, right renal vein is shorter

67

popliteal vein

fibular vein

anterior tibial vein

internal iliac vein

external iliac vein

femoral vein

great saphenous vein

card image

68

portal system

a set of capillaries arising from an organ,, that enters into another organ and breaks down into another set of capillaries