Victimology Midterm Flashcards


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1

Uniform Crime Report

Provides information on number of deaths (murders)

2

Characterological self-blame is: a person ascribes blame to modifiable sources such as behavior.

False

3

For PTSD to be diagnosed, certain symptoms must persist for no longer than a month.

False

4

How victims react to victimization depends on his/her interpretation of the event

True

5

Social Learning Theory**** is behavior learned through interactions with other people

False

For that definition to be true it must include: and their environment.

6

Subculture of Violence Theory: is a belief in the acceptability & necessity of violence.

True

7

Who was the first to publish the term "Victimology"?

Fredrick Wertham

8

This rule requires only the most serious offenses in an incident be reported to the UCR.

Hierarchy Rule

9

Routine Activity Theory and Lifestyles Theory argues that offending increases the risk of offenders being Victimized, why?

Offending can be viewed as part of a risky lifestyle

10

Who recognized the overlap between and victimization with in homicide?

Marvin Wolfgang

11

Crime victims may experience loss of productivity in which of the following areas?

School, Work, Place of employment

All of the above

All of the above

12

_________is not a reason victims choose to report crime?

A) To protect others

B) To stop the offender

C) Prevent future violence

D) Fear of Reprisal (retaliation)

13

Female Victims are particularly vulnerable to reductions in self-esteem following victimization.

True

14

Standard of proof needed for civil litigation cases

Preponderance of evidence

15

Most states don't provide for remedies if a victims rights are violated

True

16

the term "victimology" has two elements

Victima (latin)= victim

logos (Greek)= Teaching/ system of knoweldge

consequences of victimization

  • psychological damage-- most severe
  • physical damage
  • financial damage--- most difficult to measure
17

When was the term victimology was first used?

By Benjamin Mendelson in a speech 1947--(but it was not published).

18

Fredrick Wertham was the first to publish the term victimology..

in 1949 in his book "The shadow of Violence"

19

What does Victimology Study?

Victimology, is the scientific study of victims and victimization (and the reactions to both of those).

20

societal reactions to victims & victimization

Informal reactions-- (family, friends, community)

Formal Reactions-- ( victims laws)

...

21

Lex Talionis

An eye for an eye.

victims & their kin handled the problem & were the beneficiaries of any payment

22

Retribution

offender would suffer in proportion to the degree of harm caused

A criminal is punished because he or she deserve it, and the punishment is equal to the harm caused.

23

Restitution

making a payment in an amount sufficient to render the victim "whole" again

Money or services paid to victims of crimes by the offenders.

24

Code of Hammurabi

Early Babylonian code that emphasized the restoration of equality between the offender and the victim.

25

Victim Precipitation

The extent to which a victim is responsible for his her own victimization

26

Victim Facilitation

When a victim unintentionally makes it easier for an offender to commit a crime

27

Victim Provocation

When a person does something that incites another person to commit an illegal act.

28

Hans von Hentig

Developed a victim typology based on characteristics of the victim that increase the risk of victimization

29

Benjamin Mendelsohn

"Father of Victimology" coined the term Victimology in the mid 1940s

30

Stephen Schafer

Argued that victims have a functional responsibility not to provoke others into victimizing or harming them and that they also should actively attempt to prevent that from occurring

31

Marvin Wolfgang

Used philadelphia homicide data to conduct the first empirical investigation of victim precipitation

32

Subintentional homicide

The victim facilitates her or his own death by using poor judgement, placing himself or herself at risk, living a risky lifestyle, or using alcohol or drugs.

33

Menachem Amir

Studied victim provocation in rapes.

34

National Crime Survey

1st ever government-sponsored victimization survey; relied on the victims to recall their own victimization experiences

35

Women's movement

Recognized the need for female victims of crime to receive special attention and help due to fact that victimizations such as sexual assault & domestic violence are by products of sexism, traditional sex roles, emphasis on traditional family values, and the economic subjugation of women.

36

Civil rights movement

Advocated against racism & discrimination, noting that all Americans have rights that are protected by the U.S. constitution.

37

victim's right movement

Movement centered on giving victims a voice in the criminal justice system & providing them rights.

38

costs of crime

Mental, physica, & money loss that victims of crime incur

39

Chapter 2

Uniform Crime Report (UCR)

Annual reports of the amount of crime reported to or known by the police in a year--- reports submitted by the FBI monthly

40

National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)

National survey of households that is used to generate annual estimates of victimization in the U.S.

41

Bounding

Giving a time frame to reference in order to aid recall

42

Screen Questions

Used to cue respondents or jog their memories as to whether they experienced any of 7 types of criminal victimization in the previous six months.

43

Hierarchy Rule

If more than one Part I offense occurs in the same incident report, only the most serious offense will be counted in the reporting process.

44

Incident Report

Detailed questions about a victimization experience

45

Routine Activities and Life-styles theory***

A persons routine activities & lifestyle place him/her at risk of being victimized. Risk is highest when motivated offenders, lack of capable guardianship, & suitable targets coalesce in time & space.

46

Victimization Theory

Generally, a set of testable propositions designed to explain why a person is victimized.

47

Motivated Offenders

People who will commit crime if given an opportunity

48

Suitable Targets

Victims chosen by offenders based on their attractiveness in the situation/ crime

49

Capable Guardianship

Means by which a person or target can be effectively guarded to prevent a victimization from occurring.

50

Principle of homogamy

People who share characteristics of offenders are more at risk of victimization, given that they are more likely to come into contact with offenders

51

neighborhood context

Features of neighborhoods that impact risk for victimization

52

hot spots

Areas that are crime prone

53

family structure

Household style or shape

54

structural density

The % of units in structures of five or more units

55

residential mobility

The % of persons 5years & older living in a different house from 5 years before.

56

delinquent peers

People involved in delinquency with whom a person spends time, having such peer increases one's likelihood of victimization

57

control-balance theory

The amount control one possess over others and the amount of control to which one is subject, the ratio of control influences the risk of engaging in deviant behavior.

58

Control ratio

Control surplus and control deficit considered.

59

Control Surplus

When the control one has exceeds the amount of control one is subject to

60

Control deficit

When the amount of control a person exercises is outweighed by the control he or she is subject to

61

social interactionist perspective

proposes that distressed individuals behave aggressively, which then elicits an aggressive response from others

62

life-course perspective

examines the development of and desistance from offending and other behaviors over time

63

general-theory of crime

Proposes that a person with low self-control will engage in crime if given the opportunity

64

age-graded theory of adult social bonds

proposes that marriage and employment can help one desist from criminal behavior.

65

gene x environment interaction

Genes interact with environmental features to shape behavior.

66

Chapter 3

Physical injury

physical harm suffered that may include bruises, soreness, scratches, cuts, broken bones, contracted diseases, and stab or gunshot wounds.

67

depression

a mood disorder characterized by sleep disturbances, changes in eating habits, feelings of guilt and worthlessness, and irritability. These symptoms interfere with a person's everyday life.

68

self-worth

a person's own perception of his or her worth or value.

69

self-esteem

beliefs and emotions about a person's own self-worth or value.

70

anxiety

an affective disorder or state often experienced as irrational & excessive fear and worry, which may coupled with feelings of tension and restlessness, vigilance, irritability and difficulty concentrating.

71

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Psychiatric anxiety disorder caused by experiencing traumatic events such as war, violence, etc.

72

stressor

a traumatic event

73

intrusive recoollection

Reexperienceing trauma through recurring or intrusive recollections or nightmares, feelings as though the event were recurring, and/or intense psychological distress when exposed to cues that symbolize or resemble a component of the traumatic event.

74

avoidance/ numbing symptoms

Regular avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event & numbness of response

75

hyperarousal

persistent arousal symptomology; for example, not being able to sleep, being hyper-vigilant , and having problems concentrating.

76

self-blame

victims believe they are responsible for their own victimization

77

characterological self-blame

person ascribes blame to a non-modifiable source, such as one's character.

78

behavioral self-blame

When a person believes she or he did something to cause victimization

79

learned helplessness

victims believe they are unable to change the situation & stop trying to resist

80

economic costs

Financial costs associated with victimization

81

direct property losses

When victims' possessions are taken or damaged

82

medical care costs

costs associated with treating victims of crime

83

mental health care costs

psychiatric care required as a result of being victimized

84

lost productivity

being unable to work, go to school, or complete everyday tasks because of being victimized

85

system costs

costs paid by society in response to victimization (e.g., law enforcement, insurance costs).

86

recurring victimization*

when a person or place is victimized more than once in any way

87

repeat victimization*

when person is victimized more than once in the same way

88

revictimization*

when a person is victimized more than once over the course of the life span

89

risk heterogeneity

characteristics about a person that, if left unchanged, place him or her at greater risk of being victimized repeatedly

90

state dependence

the way a victim and offender respond to an incidence of victimization effects their likelihood of being involved in future victimization

91

vicarious victimization

the effect one person's victimization has on others

92

homicide survivors

people whose love ones have been murdered

93

reporting

disclosing the victimization to the police

94

fear of crime

an emotional response to being afraid of being victimized

95

perceived risk

the perceived likelihood that a person will be victimized

96

incivilities

low-level breaches of community standards that show that conventionally accepted norms and values have eroded in an area

97

physical incivilities

disorderly physical surroundings in an area

98

social incivilities

disruptive social behaviors in an area

99

avoidance behaviors (constrained behaviors)

regular avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event and numbness of response

100

defensive behaviors/ (protective behaviors)

behaviors to guard against victimization, such as purchasing a weapon

101

Chapter 4

ploy-victimization**

when a person, usually in childhood or during the same developmental time period, experiences multiple forms of victimization (generally happening w/in the same time period)

102

near-repeat victimization

a victimization that occurs near a place that was recently victimized

103

crime-switching

pg 65

104

victim proneness

pg 65

105

risk heterogeneity

characteristics about a person that, if left unchanged, place him or her at greater risk of being victimized repeatedly.

106

flag explanation

...

107

state dependence

the way a victim & offenders respond to an incidence of victimization effects their likelihood of being involved in future victimization

108

boost explanation

...

109

delayed repeat victimization

repeat victimization incident that occurs more then 30 days after the initial incident

110

Chapter 5

victims's rights

rights given to victims to enhance their privacy, protection, & participation

111

notification

the right of victims to be kept apprised of key events in their cases

112

participation & consultation

rights given to victims to encourage participation in the CJS; also provide victims rights to discuss their cases with the prosecutor and/or judge before key decisions are made

113

right to protection

safety measures provided to victims

114

right to a speedy trial

victims' interest are considered when judges rule on postponement of trial dates

115

Federal victim Witness Protection Act (1982)

developed & implemented guidelines for how officials respond to victims & witnesses

116

Victims of Crime Act (1984)

Created the Office for Victims of Crime and provided funds for victim compensation

117

Child Victims' Bill of Rights (1990)

gave victims' rights to children who were victims & witnesses

118

Crime Control Act (1990)

created a federal bill of rights for victims

119

Victims' Rights & Restitution Act (1990)

guaranteed victims the right to restitution

120

Violent Crime Control & Law Enforcement Act (1994)

increased funds for victim compensation & created the national sex offender registry

121

Violence Against Women Act (1994)

provided funding for rape prevention & education & domestic violence victims & included Internet Stalking as a crime

122

Antiiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (1996)

required restitution for violent crimes and increased funds available to victims of terrorism

123

Victims' Right Clarification Act (1997)

allowed victims to make impact statements & attend their offenders' trial

124

Violence Against Women Act (2000)

gave $$ to programs for prevention & treatment of female victims

125

Justice for All Act (2004)

enforced victims' rights & provided funds to test the backlog of rape kits

126

Victim Compensation

the right of victims to have monies that they lost due to victimization repaid to them by the state

127

Restitution*

money or services paid to victims of crimes by the offenders

128

Civil Litigation

victims may sue their offenders in civil court to recoup costs & to compensate for emotional harm

129

Victim impact statement (VIS)

statement made to the court by the victim or his or her family about the harm caused and the desired sentence for the offender

130

Victim/ Witness assistance programs (VWAPs)

provide aid to victims during the investigation & criminal justice process

131

Restorative justice

a movement recognizing that crime is a harm caused not just to the state but to the victim & his or her community. It seeks to use all entities in response to crime & allows for input from the offender, the victim, & community members harmed by the offense in making a determination of how to repair the harm caused by the offender.

132

family or community group conferencing

victim, offender, family, friends, and supporters talk about the impact & consequences of a crime.

133

Peacemaking circle

gathering of victim, offender, community members, and sometimes criminal justice officials to promote healing.

134

sentencing circle

gathering of victim, offender, community members, &

135

victim-offender mediation programs

sessions led by a 3rd party in which the victim & offender meet face-to-face to come to a mutually satisfactory agreement as to what should happen to the offender--often through the development of a restitution plan

136

diversion

offender not formally charged if she/he completes required programs

137

social learning theory****

Robert Akers (1973)

Behavior is learned through our interactions with other people and our environment.

138

social learning theory argues that criminal behavior is learned behavior (4 components)

ex:intimate partner violence

Differential Association- spending time with criminals

Definition- meaning & attitudes to certain behaviors

Reinforcement- rewards vs punishment

Imitation- behavior after observation of similar behavior

139

Psychological damages of victimization

  • victims. react differently to different victimization
  • internalize
  • externalize

psychological damage is the most serious

3 common responses

  • depression
  • reduced self esteem, anxiety
140

Theoretical explanations of recurring victimization

  • Risk heterogeneity
  • state/event dependence explanation

Risk heterogeneity (diverse in character content)

focuses on qualities or characteristics of the victim, (that initially place the victim @ risk will keep that person at risk of subsequent victimization)

141

state/event dependent explanation

the characteristics of the victim are not important, but how the reactions of both offender and victim after the event are important

142

victims rights

treated with dignity & respect

notification of all rights (vic is provided info about their case) date & location of court proceedings

compensation & or restitution

victim impact statement before sentencing

victims rights

attend court & sentencing hearings

consult with court personnel

protection (physical & employment)

speedy trial

NOT ALL STATES AWARD ALL RIGHTS TO VICTIMS

143
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Table 5.1 Timeline of Federal Legislation

...