Uniform Crime Report
Provides information on number of deaths (murders)
Characterological self-blame is: a person ascribes blame to modifiable sources such as behavior.
For PTSD to be diagnosed, certain symptoms must persist for no longer than a month.
How victims react to victimization depends on his/her interpretation of the event
Social Learning Theory**** is behavior learned through interactions with other people
For that definition to be true it must include: and their environment.
Subculture of Violence Theory: is a belief in the acceptability & necessity of violence.
Who was the first to publish the term "Victimology"?
This rule requires only the most serious offenses in an incident be reported to the UCR.
Routine Activity Theory and Lifestyles Theory argues that offending increases the risk of offenders being Victimized, why?
Offending can be viewed as part of a risky lifestyle
Who recognized the overlap between and victimization with in homicide?
Crime victims may experience loss of productivity in which of the following areas?
School, Work, Place of employment
All of the above
All of the above
_________is not a reason victims choose to report crime?
A) To protect others
B) To stop the offender
C) Prevent future violence
D) Fear of Reprisal (retaliation)
Female Victims are particularly vulnerable to reductions in self-esteem following victimization.
Standard of proof needed for civil litigation cases
Preponderance of evidence
Most states don't provide for remedies if a victims rights are violated
the term "victimology" has two elements
Victima (latin)= victim
logos (Greek)= Teaching/ system of knoweldge
consequences of victimization
- psychological damage-- most severe
- physical damage
- financial damage--- most difficult to measure
When was the term victimology was first used?
By Benjamin Mendelson in a speech 1947--(but it was not published).
Fredrick Wertham was the first to publish the term victimology..
in 1949 in his book "The shadow of Violence"
What does Victimology Study?
Victimology, is the scientific study of victims and victimization (and the reactions to both of those).
societal reactions to victims & victimization
Informal reactions-- (family, friends, community)
Formal Reactions-- ( victims laws)
An eye for an eye.
victims & their kin handled the problem & were the beneficiaries of any payment
offender would suffer in proportion to the degree of harm caused
A criminal is punished because he or she deserve it, and the punishment is equal to the harm caused.
making a payment in an amount sufficient to render the victim "whole" again
Money or services paid to victims of crimes by the offenders.
Code of Hammurabi
Early Babylonian code that emphasized the restoration of equality between the offender and the victim.
The extent to which a victim is responsible for his her own victimization
When a victim unintentionally makes it easier for an offender to commit a crime
When a person does something that incites another person to commit an illegal act.
Hans von Hentig
Developed a victim typology based on characteristics of the victim that increase the risk of victimization
"Father of Victimology" coined the term Victimology in the mid 1940s
Argued that victims have a functional responsibility not to provoke others into victimizing or harming them and that they also should actively attempt to prevent that from occurring
Used philadelphia homicide data to conduct the first empirical investigation of victim precipitation
The victim facilitates her or his own death by using poor judgement, placing himself or herself at risk, living a risky lifestyle, or using alcohol or drugs.
Studied victim provocation in rapes.
National Crime Survey
1st ever government-sponsored victimization survey; relied on the victims to recall their own victimization experiences
Recognized the need for female victims of crime to receive special attention and help due to fact that victimizations such as sexual assault & domestic violence are by products of sexism, traditional sex roles, emphasis on traditional family values, and the economic subjugation of women.
Civil rights movement
Advocated against racism & discrimination, noting that all Americans have rights that are protected by the U.S. constitution.
victim's right movement
Movement centered on giving victims a voice in the criminal justice system & providing them rights.
costs of crime
Mental, physica, & money loss that victims of crime incur
Uniform Crime Report (UCR)
Annual reports of the amount of crime reported to or known by the police in a year--- reports submitted by the FBI monthly
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
National survey of households that is used to generate annual estimates of victimization in the U.S.
Giving a time frame to reference in order to aid recall
Used to cue respondents or jog their memories as to whether they experienced any of 7 types of criminal victimization in the previous six months.
If more than one Part I offense occurs in the same incident report, only the most serious offense will be counted in the reporting process.
Detailed questions about a victimization experience
Routine Activities and Life-styles theory***
A persons routine activities & lifestyle place him/her at risk of being victimized. Risk is highest when motivated offenders, lack of capable guardianship, & suitable targets coalesce in time & space.
Generally, a set of testable propositions designed to explain why a person is victimized.
People who will commit crime if given an opportunity
Victims chosen by offenders based on their attractiveness in the situation/ crime
Means by which a person or target can be effectively guarded to prevent a victimization from occurring.
Principle of homogamy
People who share characteristics of offenders are more at risk of victimization, given that they are more likely to come into contact with offenders
Features of neighborhoods that impact risk for victimization
Areas that are crime prone
Household style or shape
The % of units in structures of five or more units
The % of persons 5years & older living in a different house from 5 years before.
People involved in delinquency with whom a person spends time, having such peer increases one's likelihood of victimization
The amount control one possess over others and the amount of control to which one is subject, the ratio of control influences the risk of engaging in deviant behavior.
Control surplus and control deficit considered.
When the control one has exceeds the amount of control one is subject to
When the amount of control a person exercises is outweighed by the control he or she is subject to
social interactionist perspective
proposes that distressed individuals behave aggressively, which then elicits an aggressive response from others
examines the development of and desistance from offending and other behaviors over time
general-theory of crime
Proposes that a person with low self-control will engage in crime if given the opportunity
age-graded theory of adult social bonds
proposes that marriage and employment can help one desist from criminal behavior.
gene x environment interaction
Genes interact with environmental features to shape behavior.
physical harm suffered that may include bruises, soreness, scratches, cuts, broken bones, contracted diseases, and stab or gunshot wounds.
a mood disorder characterized by sleep disturbances, changes in eating habits, feelings of guilt and worthlessness, and irritability. These symptoms interfere with a person's everyday life.
a person's own perception of his or her worth or value.
beliefs and emotions about a person's own self-worth or value.
an affective disorder or state often experienced as irrational & excessive fear and worry, which may coupled with feelings of tension and restlessness, vigilance, irritability and difficulty concentrating.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Psychiatric anxiety disorder caused by experiencing traumatic events such as war, violence, etc.
a traumatic event
Reexperienceing trauma through recurring or intrusive recollections or nightmares, feelings as though the event were recurring, and/or intense psychological distress when exposed to cues that symbolize or resemble a component of the traumatic event.
avoidance/ numbing symptoms
Regular avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event & numbness of response
persistent arousal symptomology; for example, not being able to sleep, being hyper-vigilant , and having problems concentrating.
victims believe they are responsible for their own victimization
person ascribes blame to a non-modifiable source, such as one's character.
When a person believes she or he did something to cause victimization
victims believe they are unable to change the situation & stop trying to resist
Financial costs associated with victimization
direct property losses
When victims' possessions are taken or damaged
medical care costs
costs associated with treating victims of crime
mental health care costs
psychiatric care required as a result of being victimized
being unable to work, go to school, or complete everyday tasks because of being victimized
costs paid by society in response to victimization (e.g., law enforcement, insurance costs).
when a person or place is victimized more than once in any way
when person is victimized more than once in the same way
when a person is victimized more than once over the course of the life span
characteristics about a person that, if left unchanged, place him or her at greater risk of being victimized repeatedly
the way a victim and offender respond to an incidence of victimization effects their likelihood of being involved in future victimization
the effect one person's victimization has on others
people whose love ones have been murdered
disclosing the victimization to the police
fear of crime
an emotional response to being afraid of being victimized
the perceived likelihood that a person will be victimized
low-level breaches of community standards that show that conventionally accepted norms and values have eroded in an area
disorderly physical surroundings in an area
disruptive social behaviors in an area
avoidance behaviors (constrained behaviors)
regular avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event and numbness of response
defensive behaviors/ (protective behaviors)
behaviors to guard against victimization, such as purchasing a weapon
when a person, usually in childhood or during the same developmental time period, experiences multiple forms of victimization (generally happening w/in the same time period)
a victimization that occurs near a place that was recently victimized
characteristics about a person that, if left unchanged, place him or her at greater risk of being victimized repeatedly.
the way a victim & offenders respond to an incidence of victimization effects their likelihood of being involved in future victimization
delayed repeat victimization
repeat victimization incident that occurs more then 30 days after the initial incident
rights given to victims to enhance their privacy, protection, & participation
the right of victims to be kept apprised of key events in their cases
participation & consultation
rights given to victims to encourage participation in the CJS; also provide victims rights to discuss their cases with the prosecutor and/or judge before key decisions are made
right to protection
safety measures provided to victims
right to a speedy trial
victims' interest are considered when judges rule on postponement of trial dates
Federal victim Witness Protection Act (1982)
developed & implemented guidelines for how officials respond to victims & witnesses
Victims of Crime Act (1984)
Created the Office for Victims of Crime and provided funds for victim compensation
Child Victims' Bill of Rights (1990)
gave victims' rights to children who were victims & witnesses
Crime Control Act (1990)
created a federal bill of rights for victims
Victims' Rights & Restitution Act (1990)
guaranteed victims the right to restitution
Violent Crime Control & Law Enforcement Act (1994)
increased funds for victim compensation & created the national sex offender registry
Violence Against Women Act (1994)
provided funding for rape prevention & education & domestic violence victims & included Internet Stalking as a crime
Antiiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (1996)
required restitution for violent crimes and increased funds available to victims of terrorism
Victims' Right Clarification Act (1997)
allowed victims to make impact statements & attend their offenders' trial
Violence Against Women Act (2000)
gave $$ to programs for prevention & treatment of female victims
Justice for All Act (2004)
enforced victims' rights & provided funds to test the backlog of rape kits
the right of victims to have monies that they lost due to victimization repaid to them by the state
money or services paid to victims of crimes by the offenders
victims may sue their offenders in civil court to recoup costs & to compensate for emotional harm
Victim impact statement (VIS)
statement made to the court by the victim or his or her family about the harm caused and the desired sentence for the offender
Victim/ Witness assistance programs (VWAPs)
provide aid to victims during the investigation & criminal justice process
a movement recognizing that crime is a harm caused not just to the state but to the victim & his or her community. It seeks to use all entities in response to crime & allows for input from the offender, the victim, & community members harmed by the offense in making a determination of how to repair the harm caused by the offender.
family or community group conferencing
victim, offender, family, friends, and supporters talk about the impact & consequences of a crime.
gathering of victim, offender, community members, and sometimes criminal justice officials to promote healing.
gathering of victim, offender, community members, &
victim-offender mediation programs
sessions led by a 3rd party in which the victim & offender meet face-to-face to come to a mutually satisfactory agreement as to what should happen to the offender--often through the development of a restitution plan
offender not formally charged if she/he completes required programs
social learning theory****
Robert Akers (1973)
Behavior is learned through our interactions with other people and our environment.
social learning theory argues that criminal behavior is learned behavior (4 components)
ex:intimate partner violence
Differential Association- spending time with criminals
Definition- meaning & attitudes to certain behaviors
Reinforcement- rewards vs punishment
Imitation- behavior after observation of similar behavior
Psychological damages of victimization
- victims. react differently to different victimization
psychological damage is the most serious
3 common responses
- reduced self esteem, anxiety
Theoretical explanations of recurring victimization
- Risk heterogeneity
- state/event dependence explanation
Risk heterogeneity (diverse in character content)
focuses on qualities or characteristics of the victim, (that initially place the victim @ risk will keep that person at risk of subsequent victimization)
state/event dependent explanation
the characteristics of the victim are not important, but how the reactions of both offender and victim after the event are important
treated with dignity & respect
notification of all rights (vic is provided info about their case) date & location of court proceedings
compensation & or restitution
victim impact statement before sentencing
attend court & sentencing hearings
consult with court personnel
protection (physical & employment)
NOT ALL STATES AWARD ALL RIGHTS TO VICTIMS
Table 5.1 Timeline of Federal Legislation