Which of the following comprises a logical hierarchy of organization?
atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ system, organism
What is a term used for something that is an explanation backed by evidence?
What is the term used for something that is virtually irrefutable?
What is the term used for a tentative explanation of some phenomena?
The lowest structural level at which all of life's properties occur is:
How many domains are there and what are they?
3; Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Kingdoms are frequently grouped into a more inclusive (higher) category known as:
What do a fungus, a tree, and a human have in common?
They are composed of eukaryotic cells
What are the two major cell types?
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
What is the difference between a Prokaryote and a Eukaryote?
- Eukaryotes are 10 times larger
- Eukaryotes have intracellular organelles and prokaryotes don't
- Eukaryotes have their DNA in paired chromosomes while Prokaryotes are singular circular chromosome
What are the two types of prokaryotes?
Archaea and Eubacteria
A dog is a member of which domain?
What is the order of classifications from most general to most specific?
- Major Clades
Two organisms that belong to the same class must also belong to the same:
Which domain(s) include organisms that are classified as prokaryotes? Check all that apply.
What is the primary reason for including a control within the design of an experiment?
To ensure that the results are due to a difference in only one variable
Which of these is a key feature of science?
Scientific hypothesis must be testable
Which scientist put forth the theory of evolution?
What is the unit of genetic inheritance for all living organisms?
What is the cell membrane of all living organisms made of?
A phospholipid bilayer
What did Dr. Marshall discover?
the cause of duodenal ulcers
What is the cause of duodenal ulcers?
A spirochete bacterium classified as Helicobacter Pylori
Why do giraffes have a long neck?
Sexual Selection Hypothesis
One difference between carbon 12 and carbon 14 is that carbon 14 has:
two more neutrons
What type of chemical bond is a result of transfer of electron(s) between two atoms, creating an anion and cation?
An ionic bond is one in which:
two oppositely charged ions are electrostatically attracted
The reactive/chemical properties of an atom depend on the number of:
electrons in the outer shell of the atom (valence electrons)
What are the three types of bonds?
- covalent, ionic, hydrogen
Which is the strongest type of bond?
Covalent; each covalent bond represents the sharing of two electrons
When observing ions, how do you differentiate between the anion and the cation
-cation is positively charged, anion is negatively charged
- the atom giving an electron away is positive (cation), the one receiving an electron is negative (anion)
What is a common example of an ion?
What are examples of non polar covalent bonds?
hydrogen and methane
what are examples of polar covalent bonds?
Water and ammonia
How many valence electrons does carbon have?
Each element is unique and different from other elements because of its
What is an atomic number?
Number of protons, defines an element
What is atomic weight/mass number?
weight of an atom in daltons (number of protons and neutrons)
What is an isotope?
same atomic number, different atomic weights
A covalent bond is one in which
electrons are shared by two different atoms
If two atoms are equally electronegative, they will interact to form
nonpolar covalent bonds
A hydrogen bond is characteristic of:
Which of the following subatomic particles dictates the types of associations an atom can make?
How many electrons does hydrogen need to fill its outer shell?
Which of the following types of chemical bonds results from electrostatic attraction between two partially charged atoms from polar covalently bonded substances?
What is "Leo the lion goes grrr" supposed to help you remember?
- Its supposed to remind you or LEO and GER
- Lose electrons = oxidation
- Gain electrons = reduction
What is a free radical?
- atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons
- extremely reactive
What kind of molecules are soluble in water?
- polar molecules
- ionic molecules
- hydrophilic molecules
What is a buffer?
- A buffer minimizes changes in pH concentration
- a weak acid or a weak base
What is the quantity of heat that must be absorbed by a liquid in order to be converted to a gas?
- heat of vaporization
How does the density of water change, with change in temperature?
- Water expands on cooling, forms ice and becomes less dense
What is the temperature in celsius and Fahrenheit when water has maximum density?
- celsius: 4
- Fahrenheit: 39.2
Hydrophobic substances are not soluble in water because they are dominated by
- non-ionic and non-polar bonds
Which of the following is true about hydrogen bonds?
- when hydrogen bonds break heat is absorbed, and when hydrogen bonds form heat is released.
Why does water have a high specific heat?
- due to hydrogen bonding
What happens to water when it goes from a liquid to a solid?
- it expands
Why is the transport of water possible in very tall trees and plants?
All life is composed of what element?
carbon based matter
What are functional groups?
molecular components that attach to the skeleton of the organic compound
What functional groups should you know for the test?
-methyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl, ketone, aldehyde, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phosphate
-Characteristic of alcohols and sugars
C = O
-either ketone or aldehyde
Describe a Ketone
- a carbonyl group (C=O) that is NOT on the end of the C skeleton
- for example fructose and acetone
Describe an Aldehyde
- a carbonyl group (C=O) that is at the end of the C skeleton
- for example glucose and galactose
- organic acid, proton donor, for ex acetic acid (vinegar)
Describe the Amino Group
- organic base, proton acceptor, 20 different amino acids
O- P -O
-ionic; can result in release or absorption of large quantities of energy
What are the three types of isomers?
What are structural isomers?
- variation in covalent arrangement
What are geometric isomers?
- variation in arrangement about a double bond
- cis and trans
What are Enantiomers?
- variation in spacial arrangement around an asymmetric carbon; molecules are mirror images
What is a polymer?
- Large molecule formed by linking several small subunits together
What is the building block of a polymer?
What is it called when water is removed for each subunit added to the chain?
What is it called when water is added to break a polymer into its individual subunits?
What are the functional groups of carbohydrates?
OH, Carbonyl (aldehydes and ketones)
What is Lactose made out of?
glucose and galactose
What is the difference between Amylose/Amylopectin and glycogen?
glycogen is animal starch, amylose/amylopectin is plant starch
What are four structural polysaccharides?
How are carbohydrates produced?
What elements do nucleic acids contain?
- C H O N and P
What is the monomeric unit of the nucleic acid (DNA and RNA)?
In DNA, what pyrimidines bind to what Purines?
- pyrimidines: T and C
- Purines: A and G
- C binds with G, T binds with A
In RNA what pyrimidines bind to what Purines?
- pyrimidines: U and C
- purines: A and G
- C binds with G, U binds with A
What are the three processes of nucleic acids?
- Replication: copying of DNA
- Transcription: making of RNA
- Translation: protein synthesis
What functional group is involved with Amino Acids?
What are the four levels of protein structure?
Briefly describe each of the four structural levels
- Primary: the sequence of amino acids
- Secondary: formation of a helices and b pleated sheets
- tertiary: overall 3D shape of polypeptide
- Quaternary: shaped produced by combinations of polypeptides
What are each of the four structural levels stabilized by?
- Primary: peptide bonds
- Secondary: hydrogen bonding
-Tertiary: Bonds between R groups
- quaternary: bonds between R groups
What are some functions of proteins?
- chemical messengers, transport, hormones, enzymes, blood clotting, structure and movement, defense/immunity
What is denaturation?
- loss of 3D structure of a protein
- results in a loss of function