BIOL 1406 Chapter 1 Test Review Flashcards


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Chapter one covers chapters 1-5.
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1

Which of the following comprises a logical hierarchy of organization?

atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ system, organism

2

What is a term used for something that is an explanation backed by evidence?

Theory

3

What is the term used for something that is virtually irrefutable?

Law

4

What is the term used for a tentative explanation of some phenomena?

hypothesis

5

The lowest structural level at which all of life's properties occur is:

the cell

6

How many domains are there and what are they?

3; Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

7

Kingdoms are frequently grouped into a more inclusive (higher) category known as:

domains

8

What do a fungus, a tree, and a human have in common?

They are composed of eukaryotic cells

9

What are the two major cell types?

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

10

What is the difference between a Prokaryote and a Eukaryote?

  1. Eukaryotes are 10 times larger
  2. Eukaryotes have intracellular organelles and prokaryotes don't
  3. Eukaryotes have their DNA in paired chromosomes while Prokaryotes are singular circular chromosome

11

What are the two types of prokaryotes?

Archaea and Eubacteria

12

A dog is a member of which domain?

Eukarya

13

What is the order of classifications from most general to most specific?

  • Domain
  • Major Clades
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

14

Two organisms that belong to the same class must also belong to the same:

Phylum

15

Which domain(s) include organisms that are classified as prokaryotes? Check all that apply.

Archaea, Bacteria

16

What is the primary reason for including a control within the design of an experiment?

To ensure that the results are due to a difference in only one variable

17

Which of these is a key feature of science?

Scientific hypothesis must be testable

18

Which scientist put forth the theory of evolution?

Charles Darwin

19

What is the unit of genetic inheritance for all living organisms?

DNA

20

What is the cell membrane of all living organisms made of?

A phospholipid bilayer

21

What did Dr. Marshall discover?

the cause of duodenal ulcers

22

What is the cause of duodenal ulcers?

A spirochete bacterium classified as Helicobacter Pylori

23

Why do giraffes have a long neck?

Sexual Selection Hypothesis

24

One difference between carbon 12 and carbon 14 is that carbon 14 has:

two more neutrons

25

What type of chemical bond is a result of transfer of electron(s) between two atoms, creating an anion and cation?

ionic

26

An ionic bond is one in which:

two oppositely charged ions are electrostatically attracted

27

The reactive/chemical properties of an atom depend on the number of:

electrons in the outer shell of the atom (valence electrons)

28

What are the three types of bonds?

- covalent, ionic, hydrogen

29

Which is the strongest type of bond?

Covalent; each covalent bond represents the sharing of two electrons

30

When observing ions, how do you differentiate between the anion and the cation

-cation is positively charged, anion is negatively charged

- the atom giving an electron away is positive (cation), the one receiving an electron is negative (anion)

31

What is a common example of an ion?

Salts

32

What are examples of non polar covalent bonds?

hydrogen and methane

33

what are examples of polar covalent bonds?

Water and ammonia

34

How many valence electrons does carbon have?

4

35

Each element is unique and different from other elements because of its

atomic number

36

What is an atomic number?

Number of protons, defines an element

37

What is atomic weight/mass number?

weight of an atom in daltons (number of protons and neutrons)

38

What is an isotope?

same atomic number, different atomic weights

39

A covalent bond is one in which

electrons are shared by two different atoms

40

If two atoms are equally electronegative, they will interact to form

nonpolar covalent bonds

41

A hydrogen bond is characteristic of:

hydrophilic molecules

42

Which of the following subatomic particles dictates the types of associations an atom can make?

Electrons

43

How many electrons does hydrogen need to fill its outer shell?

1

44

Which of the following types of chemical bonds results from electrostatic attraction between two partially charged atoms from polar covalently bonded substances?

hydrogen

45

What is "Leo the lion goes grrr" supposed to help you remember?

- Its supposed to remind you or LEO and GER

- Lose electrons = oxidation

- Gain electrons = reduction

46

What is a free radical?

- atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons

- extremely reactive

47

What kind of molecules are soluble in water?

- polar molecules

- ionic molecules

- hydrophilic molecules

48

What is a buffer?

  • A buffer minimizes changes in pH concentration
  • a weak acid or a weak base

49

What is the quantity of heat that must be absorbed by a liquid in order to be converted to a gas?

- heat of vaporization

50

How does the density of water change, with change in temperature?

- Water expands on cooling, forms ice and becomes less dense

51

What is the temperature in celsius and Fahrenheit when water has maximum density?

- celsius: 4

- Fahrenheit: 39.2

52

Hydrophobic substances are not soluble in water because they are dominated by

- non-ionic and non-polar bonds

53

Which of the following is true about hydrogen bonds?

- when hydrogen bonds break heat is absorbed, and when hydrogen bonds form heat is released.

54

Why does water have a high specific heat?

- due to hydrogen bonding

55

What happens to water when it goes from a liquid to a solid?

- it expands

56

Why is the transport of water possible in very tall trees and plants?

Cohesion

57

All life is composed of what element?

carbon based matter

58

What are functional groups?

molecular components that attach to the skeleton of the organic compound

59

What functional groups should you know for the test?

-methyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl, ketone, aldehyde, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phosphate

60

Describe Methyl

-CH3

-nonpolar

61

Describe Hydroxyl

O-H

-Polar

-Characteristic of alcohols and sugars

62

Describe Carbonyl

C = O

-either ketone or aldehyde

63

Describe a Ketone

- a carbonyl group (C=O) that is NOT on the end of the C skeleton

- for example fructose and acetone

64

Describe an Aldehyde

- a carbonyl group (C=O) that is at the end of the C skeleton

- for example glucose and galactose

65

Describe Carboxyl

= O

C

- OH

- organic acid, proton donor, for ex acetic acid (vinegar)

66

Describe the Amino Group

- H

N

- H

- organic base, proton acceptor, 20 different amino acids

67

Describe Sulfhydryl

- SH
- Polar

68

Describe Phosphate

O

O- P -O

O

-ionic; can result in release or absorption of large quantities of energy

69

What are the three types of isomers?

  • structural
  • geometric
  • enantiomers

70

What are structural isomers?

  • variation in covalent arrangement

71

What are geometric isomers?

  • variation in arrangement about a double bond
  • cis and trans

72

What are Enantiomers?

  • variation in spacial arrangement around an asymmetric carbon; molecules are mirror images

73

What is a polymer?

  • Large molecule formed by linking several small subunits together

74

What is the building block of a polymer?

Monomer

75

What is it called when water is removed for each subunit added to the chain?

dehydration synthesis

76

What is it called when water is added to break a polymer into its individual subunits?

degradation/hydrolysis

77

What are the functional groups of carbohydrates?

OH, Carbonyl (aldehydes and ketones)

78

What is Lactose made out of?

glucose and galactose

79

What is the difference between Amylose/Amylopectin and glycogen?

glycogen is animal starch, amylose/amylopectin is plant starch

80

What are four structural polysaccharides?

  1. cellulose
  2. chitin
  3. pectin
  4. peptidoglycan

81

How are carbohydrates produced?

photosynthesis

82

What elements do nucleic acids contain?

- C H O N and P

83

What is the monomeric unit of the nucleic acid (DNA and RNA)?

nucleotides

84

In DNA, what pyrimidines bind to what Purines?

  • pyrimidines: T and C
  • Purines: A and G
  • C binds with G, T binds with A

85

In RNA what pyrimidines bind to what Purines?

  • pyrimidines: U and C
  • purines: A and G
  • C binds with G, U binds with A

86

What are the three processes of nucleic acids?

  1. Replication: copying of DNA
  2. Transcription: making of RNA
  3. Translation: protein synthesis

87

What functional group is involved with Amino Acids?

- carboxyl

88

What are the four levels of protein structure?

  • primary
  • secondary
  • tertiary
  • Quaternary

89

Briefly describe each of the four structural levels

- Primary: the sequence of amino acids

- Secondary: formation of a helices and b pleated sheets

- tertiary: overall 3D shape of polypeptide

- Quaternary: shaped produced by combinations of polypeptides

90

What are each of the four structural levels stabilized by?

- Primary: peptide bonds

- Secondary: hydrogen bonding

-Tertiary: Bonds between R groups

- quaternary: bonds between R groups

91

What are some functions of proteins?

- chemical messengers, transport, hormones, enzymes, blood clotting, structure and movement, defense/immunity

92

What is denaturation?

- loss of 3D structure of a protein

- results in a loss of function