chapter 18: the heart

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Bio 227 (anatomy and physiology)
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1

the first sound of the heart is valuable in diagnosis because it provides information about the function of the heat's pulmonary and aortic valves

true

2

the aortic valves prevent back flow of blood from the aorta into right ventricle

False

3

the visceral and parietal layers of pericardium are the layers of serous pericardium

True

4

Superior and inferior vena cava returns venous blood from the upper and lower half of the body into the right atrium of the heart

True

5

Increase of systemic blood pressure will increase the preload

False

6

Preload is the stretching of right atrium, the greater the venous return more will be the preload

true

7

Foramen ovale connects the two ventricles in fetal heart

False

8

coarctatioin of aorta may increase the afterload and causing left ventricular hypertrophy

True

9

pulmonary stenosis will lead to right ventricular hypertrophy

True

10

cor-pulmonnale is the condition of lung congestion secondary to left ventricular failure

False

11

the dicrotic notch refers to the brief rise in aortic pressure caused by back flow of blood rebounding off semilunar valves of aorta during ventricular diastole

True

12

inotropic drugs can increase the force of cardiac muscle contraction

True

13

abnormal heart sounds are called murmurs

True

14

cardioacceleratory center is located in the medulla oblongata, which innervates SA and AV nodes, heart muscles, and coronary arteries through sympathetic nerves.

false

15

the difference between resting and maximum state of cardiac output is called bainbridge reflex in heart

False

16

anterior interventricular artery is a branch of?

left coronary artery

17

circumflex coronary artery is a branch of?

left coronary artery

18

right marginal artery is a branch of:

right coronary artery

19

posterior interventricular artery is a branch of

right coronary artery

20

endothelial layer of the inner myocardial surface is called

endocardium

21

left ventricle pumps blood into the

aorta

22

the semilunar valve lies between the right atrium and pulmonary trunk is called

pulmonary valve

23

The first heart sound is due to the closure of AV valves

True

24

the second peak in left atrial pressure is due to atrial systole

False

25

hemorrhage with a large loss of blood causes

a lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output

26

the left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to

pump blood with greater pressure

27

blood within the pulmonary veins returns to the

left atrium

28

If cardiac muscle is deprived of its normal blood supply, primarily damage result from

a decreased delivery of oxygen

29

the pericardial cavity

is the region of the thoracic cavity that contains the heart

30

circulation of the blood through the heart

sup/inf vena cava -> right atrium -> through tricuspid valve to the right ventricle -> through pulmonary valve to the pulmonary trunk -> right and left pulmonary artery -> lungs -> right and left pulmonary veins -> left atrium -> through bicuspid valve to left ventricle -> aortic valves into aorta -> body

31

List the layers of the sac around human heart

pericardium, fibrous pericardium, serous pericardium (Parietal and visceral layers)

32

space between the pericardia layers is called what? and the content is called?

pericardial cavity

serous fluid

33

collection of excess amount of fluid int he pericardial space is called

cardiac temponade

34

general term for the arteries that supply blood to the heart is

coronary arteries

35

the major blood vessels entering the right atrium are

superior/interior vena cava, coronary sinus, anterior cardiac vein

36

the right side of the hear is filled with

deoxygenated blood

37

a valve between the right atrium and right ventricle is called

tricuspid valve

38

a valve between the left atrium and left ventricle is called

mitral valve

39

the property of self-stimulation of heart by speacialized tissure in the right atrium is called

autorhythmic

40

what are those autorhythmic tissue in the walls of the right atrium called

SA node

41

SA node generates electrical stimulation about

60-100 times per minute

42

list the ECG waves in the order of occurence

P waves

QRS complex

T waves

43

a wave obtained in the ECG tracing during atrial depolarization is

P wave

44

a wave obtained in ECG tracing during ventricular depolarization is

QRS complex

45

a wave obtained in ECG tracing during ventricular repolarization is

T wav

46

define cardiac output

whats the formula

cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out of each ventricle in one minute

CO = HR x SV

47

define heart rate

number of beats per minute

48

define stroke volume

formula

volume of blood pumped out of each ventricle per beat

SV = EDV - ESV

49

define end diastolic volume

maximum amount of blood ventricles will contain in the cycle

50

define end systolic volume

blood remaining in chambers when ventricles relaxes

51

what is cardiac reserve

difference between resting and maximal CO

52

the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute can be expressed as

stroke volume X heart rate

53

atrial cotraction occurs

following P wave

54

if the vagus nerves to the heart were cut, the result will be that

the heart rate would increase

55

the AV valves are supported by______ so that they do not blow back up into the atria during ventricular contraction

chordae tendineae

56
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normal sinus rhythm

normal ECG trace

57
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Junctional rhythm

The SA node is nonfunctional. As a result:

P waves are absent

AV node paces heart 40-60 beats/minute

58
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second degree heart block

the AV node fails to conduct some SA node impulses. As a result:

there are more P waves than QRS waves

59
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Ventricular fibrillation

electrical activity is disorganized.results in chaotic, grossly abnormal ECG deflections

60

all events associated with blood flow through the heart during systole and diastole is called

cardiac cycle

61

ventricular repolarization wave:

T wave

62

the first sound of the heart s valuable in diagnosis because it provides information about the function of the heat's pulmonary and aortic valves

true

63

the mediastinal cavity

is the region of the thoracic cavity that contains the heart

64

the difference between resting and maximal cardiac output is called

cardiac reserve

65

the apex of the heart is directed towards

the left

66

tetralogy of fallot is a common finding in

infants with down syndrome

67

when the second stimulation is provided to the hear immediately before the ventricular repolarization starts:

second depolarization will not take place

68

cardiac center in the brain is located in

medulla oblongata

69

the direction of the blood flow during ventricular contraction in an infant with ventricular septal defect will be

left ventricle to right ventricle

70

the left coronary arteries arises from the

ascending aorta

71

the coronary arteries arise from the

aorta

72

left coronary artery is a branch of ascending aorta

true

73

all of the structures below are components of conduction system of the heart. Except

fossa ovalis

74

to ausculate the aortic valve, you would place your stethoscope in the

second intercostal space to the right of the sternum

75
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...

76
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coronary arteries

...

77
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Veins of the heart

...

78

volume of blood pumped by each ventricle with each contraction is the

stroke volume

79

the difference between resting and maximal cardiac output is

cardiac reserve

80

increase in the heart rate initiated by the increased blood in atria which in turn causes the stimulation of the SA node is the

bainbridge reflex

81

the degree of stretch of cardiac muscle cells before they contract is

Frank-starling's law

82

relaxation of the ventricular muscle is called

diastole

83

amount of blood collected in a ventricle during full relaxation

end diastolic volume

84

pressure exerted by blood in the large arteries leaving the hear, against which heart must force the blood to eject out the ventricles is the

afterload

85

which of the following occurs as AV valves close and signifies beginning of ventricular contraction

first heart beat

86

all events associated with blood flow through the heart during relaxation and contraction

cardiac cycle

87

which of the following occurs when semilunar valves of great vessels closes at the beginning of the ventricular diastole?

second heart sound

88
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intrinsic conducting system of the heart

...