chp 26

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Campbell Biology
Chapter 26
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1

The evolutionary history of a species or group of related species.

Phylogeny

2

The discipline of ________ classifies organisms and determines their evolutionary relationships.

systematics

3

a scientific discipline concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life.

taxonomy

4

In the 18th century, ________ ________ published a system of taxonomy based on resemblances.

Two key features of his system remain useful today: two-part names for species and hierarchical classification.

Carolus Linnaeus

5

The two-part scientific name of a species is called a:

binomial

6

The first part of the name is the _______. It is unique, no two are the same.

genus

7

The second part, called the ______ _______, is unique for each species within the genus.

specific epithet

8

The first letter of the genus is __________, and the entire species name is _________.

capitalized, italicized.

9

Systematists depict evolutionary relationships in branching _________ _______. A branching diagram that represents a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of a group of organisms.

phylogenetic trees

10

Each ____ _____ of a phylogenetic tree represents the divergence of two species.

branch point

11

______ _____ are groups that share an immediate common ancestor.

sister taxa

12

When constructing a phylogeny, systematists need to distinguish whether a similarity is the result of ________ or ________.

homology or analogy

13

a similarity due to shared ancestry.

homology

14

a similarity due to convergent evolution.

analogy

15

________ structures or molecular sequences that evolved independently are also called homoplasies.

Analogous

16

____________ ________ uses DNA and other molecular data to determine evolutionary relationships.

a scientific discipline that uses neclueic acids or toher molecules to infer evolutionary relationships between different species.

Molecular systematics.

17

groups organisms by common descent.

cladistics

18

a ______ is a group of species that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants.

clade

19

consists of the ancestor species and all its descendants. (clade)

monophyletic group

20

consists of an ancestral species and some, but not all, of the descendants.

paraphyletic group

21

consists of various species that lack a common ancestor.

polyphyletic group

22

a shared ______ character is a character that originated in an ancestor of the taxon.

shared ancestral character

23

a shared ________ character is an evolutionary novelty unique to a particular clade.

shared derived character

24

An ________ is a species or group of species that is closely related to the ingroup, the various species being studied.

outgroup

25

a method for estimating the time required for a given amount of evolutionary change, based on the observation that some regions of genomes evolve at constant rates.

molecular clock

26

More recently, the three-domain system has been adopted:

Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya