26 notecards = 7 pages (4 cards per page)
The evolutionary history of a species or group of related species.
The discipline of ________ classifies organisms and determines their evolutionary relationships.
a scientific discipline concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life.
In the 18th century, ________ ________ published a system of taxonomy based on resemblances.
Two key features of his system remain useful today: two-part names for species and hierarchical classification.
The two-part scientific name of a species is called a:
The first part of the name is the _______. It is unique, no two are the same.
The second part, called the ______ _______, is unique for each species within the genus.
The first letter of the genus is __________, and the entire species name is _________.
Systematists depict evolutionary relationships in branching _________ _______. A branching diagram that represents a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of a group of organisms.
Each ____ _____ of a phylogenetic tree represents the divergence of two species.
______ _____ are groups that share an immediate common ancestor.
When constructing a phylogeny, systematists need to distinguish whether a similarity is the result of ________ or ________.
homology or analogy
a similarity due to shared ancestry.
a similarity due to convergent evolution.
________ structures or molecular sequences that evolved independently are also called homoplasies.
____________ ________ uses DNA and other molecular data to determine evolutionary relationships.
a scientific discipline that uses neclueic acids or toher molecules to infer evolutionary relationships between different species.
groups organisms by common descent.
a ______ is a group of species that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants.
consists of the ancestor species and all its descendants. (clade)
consists of an ancestral species and some, but not all, of the descendants.
consists of various species that lack a common ancestor.
a shared ______ character is a character that originated in an ancestor of the taxon.
shared ancestral character
a shared ________ character is an evolutionary novelty unique to a particular clade.
shared derived character
An ________ is a species or group of species that is closely related to the ingroup, the various species being studied.
a method for estimating the time required for a given amount of evolutionary change, based on the observation that some regions of genomes evolve at constant rates.
More recently, the three-domain system has been adopted:
Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya