Bio II - Test I

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Campbell Biology
Chapters 22-25
Chapters 22-25
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1

Advocated catastrophism, speculating that each boundary between strata represents a catastrophe

Cuvier

2

The theory that changes in the earth's crust during geological history have resulted chiefly from sudden violent and unusual events

Catastrophism

3

Lyell's principle that states that the mechanisms of change are constant over time

Uniformitarianism

4

Proposed by Hutton and Lyell, this theory states that changes in Earth’s surface can result from slow continuous actions still operating today

Gradualism

5

The geographic distribution of species

Biogeography

6

Perceived age of Earth before Darwin and Lyell

Few thousand years old

7

Descent with modification by natural selection explains the adaptations of organisms and the unity and diversity of life

Mechanism of evolution

8

Evolution is supported by

1. Direct observations of evolutionary change

2. Homolog

3. Fossil record

4. Biogeography

9

What did Darwin learn from the writings of Malthus?

Species are capable of overpopulation, but are kept in check by mechanisms such as disease, which causes certain organisms to struggle to survive - many don't

10

What are the conditions that promote natural selection on a population?

1. Overproduction of species

2. Variability of characteristics

3. Variation is inherited

4. Differences in reproduction and survival are due to variations among organisms

11

Similarity resulting from common ancestry

Homology

12

Anatomical resemblances that represent variations on a structural theme present in a common ancestor

Homologous structures

13

What inference would you draw from an observation that two modern organisms share very few homologous structures?

Their shared common ancestor occurred long ago

14

If all organisms use essentially the same genetic code what does that suggests to you about the origin of all life on earth?

All organisms share a common ancestor

15

A change in allele frequencies in a population over generations

Microevolution

16

Three mechanisms cause allele frequency change:

1. Natural selection

2. Genetic drift

3. Gene flow

17

Occurs when the probability that two individuals in a population will mate is not the same for all possible pairs of individuals

Nonrandom mating

18

Variation in the relative frequency of different genotypes in a small population, owing to the chance disappearance of particular genes as individuals die or do not reproduce

Genetic drift

19

Three sources of genetic variation

1. mutations

2. gene flow

3. sex

20

A change in one base in a gene

Point mutation

21

A change in nucleotide sequence of DNA

Mutation

22

Consists of the movement of alleles among populations; tends to reduce variation over time

Gene flow

23

The proportion of a particular allele (variant of a gene) among all allele copies being considered

Allelic frequency

24

Number of alleles present

Allele variation

25

Five conditions for Hardy-Weinberg Theory to prove a population is non-evolving

1. No mutations

2. Random mating

3. No natural selection

4. Large population

5. No gene flow

26

Why is the 2 in the term 2pq necessary in the formula for determining a population's genotype frequencies?

It represents both "Aa" and "aA"

27

The broad pattern of evolution over time

Macroevolution

28

Defines a species in terms of its ecological niche, the set of environmental resources that a species uses, and its role in a biological community

Ecological species concept

29

The oldest and still most practical, defines a species by body shape, size, and other structural features

Morphological species concept

30

Defines a species as the smallest group of individuals that share a common ancestor and form one branch on the tree of life

Phylogenetic species concept

31

States that a species is a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring; they do not breed successfully with other populations

Biological species concept

32

First-generation hybrids are viable and fertile. When first-generation hybrids mate with either parent species or with each other, however, the next generation is feeble or sterile

Hybrid breakdown

33

Closely related species may attempt to mate but fail because they are anatomically incompatible and transfer of sperm is not possible

Mechanical isolation

34

Species use unique and elaborate courtship behaviors to attract mates

Behavioral isolation

35

The gametes of two species do not form a zygote because of incompatibilities preventing fertilization

Gametic isolation

36

Two species that breed during different times of day, different seasons, or different years cannot mix gametes

Temporal isolation

37

Two organisms that use different habitats (even in the same geographic area) are unlikely to encounter each other to even attempt mating

Habitat isolation

38

Genetic incompatibility between the two species may abort the development of the hybrid at some embryonic stage or produce frail offspring

Reduced hybrid viability

39

Even if the hybrid offspring are vigorous, the hybrids may be infertile, and the hybrid cannot backbreed with either parental species. This infertility may be due to problems in meiosis because of differences in chromosome number or structure

Reduced hybrid fertility

40

Sympatric speciation scheme in which mutations in a population allow individuals to exploit different conditions within the same environment

Habitat differentiation

41

Geographic separation of populations restricts gene flow

Allopatric speciation

42

Speciation occurs in geographically overlapping populations when biological factors, such as chromosomal changes and nonrandom mating, reduce gene flow

Sympatric speciation

43

The process by which one species splits into two or more species

Speciation

44

Among known plant species, which have been the two most commonly occurring phenomena leading to the origin of new species?

Sympatric speciation & Polyploidy

45

A mutant condition stemming from accidents during cell division that result in extra sets of chromosomes

Polyploidy

46

An individual that has more than two chromosome sets, all derived from a single species

Autopolyploidy

47

The difference between geographic isolation and habitat differentiation is:

the relative locations of two populations as speciation occurs

48

The hypothesis that evolutionary development is marked by isolated episodes of rapid speciation between long periods of little or no change

Punctuated equilibrium

49

How were conditions on the early Earth of more than 3 billion years ago different from those on today's Earth?

Only early Earth was bombarded with large space debris

50

What is true of the amino acids that might have been delivered to Earth within carbonaceous chondrites?

There were more kinds of amino acids on the chondrites than are found in living organisms today

51

What defining characteristics did all protobionts (protocells) have in common?

a surrounding membrane or membrane-like structure

52

The first genes on Earth were probably …

RNA

53

Why do we suspect the first genes on Earth were RNA?

  • RNA molecules called ribozymes have been found to catalyze many different reactions
  • Natural selection has produced self-replicating RNA molecules
  • RNA molecules that were more stable or replicated more quickly would have left the most descendent RNA molecules
  • The early genetic material might have formed an “RNA world” Vesicles with RNA capable of replication would have been protocells
  • RNA could have provided the template for DNA, a more stable genetic material
54

Which measurement(s) would help determine absolute dates by radiometric means?

The accumulation of daughter isotopes and loss of parent isotopes

55

Approximately how far back in time does the fossil record extend?

3.5 billion years

56

Characteristics of the fossil record of mammalian origins

It includes transitional forms with progressively specialized teeth

57

What are the early consequences of the release of oxygen gas by plant and bacterial photosynthesis?

Cause iron in ocean water and terrestrial rocks to rust (oxidize)

58

What is/are the strongest evidence that prokaryotes evolved before eukaryotes?

The oldest fossilized cells resemble prokaryotes

59

Oldest known fossils made of rocks formed by the accumulation of sedimentary layers on bacterial mats; resemble structures formed by bacterial communities that are found today in some warm, shallow, salty bays

Fossilized stromatolites

60

The oxygen revolution changed Earth's environment dramatically. Which events took advantage of the presence of free oxygen in the oceans and atmosphere?

The evolution of cellular respiration, which used oxygen to help harvest energy from organic molecules

61

A shift in the function of a trait during evolution. For example, a trait can evolve because it served one particular function, but subsequently it may come to serve another

Exaptation