Introduction to Radiologic & Imaging Sciences & Patient Care Chapter 1-4

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1

What is radiation?

Energy that is transmitted by waves through space or through a medium (matter).

2

Define Energy

Capacity to operate or work.

3

List five forms of energy.

Mechanical, electrical, heat, nuclear, and electromagnetic.

4

Define Ionization.

Any process by which a neutral atom gains or loses an electron, thus acquiring a net charge.

5

Why are x-rays potentially dangerous?

X-rays have the ability to ionize atoms in matter, disrupting its composition, as a result it is capable of disrupting life processes.

6

Sound is a type of which classification of energy?

Mechanical energy

7

What field of of study uses sound waves to create anatomic images by recording reflected sound waves?

Diagnostic Medical Sonography

8

Sound waves are a form of what type of radiation?

Non-ionizing

9

What is the method of imaging the electrical activities of the heart?

Electrocardiography

10

What is the method of imaging the electrical activities of the brain?

Electroencephalography

11

What is a thermogram?

images produced for diagnostic purposes using the body's naturally emitted heat energy, useful for demonstrating conditions such as changes in the body's circulation.

12

What is nuclear energy?

Energy emitted by the nucleus of an atom.

13

Define Nuclear Medicine Technology.

Branch of radiology that involves the introduction of radioactive substances into the body for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

14

Give an example of electromagnetic radiation that has the ability to ionize atoms.

Gamma Rays

15

What is an X-ray

Man-made electromagnetic radiation of short wavelength produced when electrons moving only at the speed of light are suddenly stopped.

16

What is another term for x-ray?

Roentgen rays

17

Who discovered the x-ray and in what year?

Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen 1895 (November 8th)

18

Define Radiography.

The making of records of internal structures of the body by passage of x-rays or gamma rays through the body to act on specially sensitized film or an imaging plate system.

19

Give an example of electromagnetic energy used in medicine that is non-ionizing.

Radio waves

20

Define Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

The process of using a magnetic field and radio-frequencies to create sectional images of the body.

21

What is the term used for radiation or radiologic sciences that use a non-ionizing form of radiation, such as MRI and diagnostic medical sonography?

Imaging sciences

22

What term is used by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) to encompass all individual diciplines in the field?

Radiologic Technology

23

Who is the Greek physician considered the Father of Western Medicine?

Hippocrates (c. 460-370 BC)

24

What is the Hippocratic Corpus?

60 medical treatises emphasizing rational and natural explanations for the treatment of disease and reject sorcery and magic.

25

What did Hippocrates emphasize and demonstrate in relation to healing and medicine?

The importance of careful observation of the patient, the power of of nature to heal over time, and the prevention of disease through a regimen of diet and exercise.

26

What document still in use today governs the ethical conduct of physicians, provides guidelines for physician-patient relationships, the rights of patients to privacy, and the use of treatment for curative purposes only?

The Hippocratic Oath

27

What physician is considered by many scholars to have laid the foundation of modern medicine?

William Harvey (1578-1657)

28

Who was the first to demonstrate the function of the heart and the circulation of blood?

William Harvey (1578-1657)

29

Who described bacteria after isolating the microorganism with a microscope he made?

Dutch zoologist, Anton Van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)

30

During which century did the following developments in medicine occur?

Surgery becomes an experimental science.

Large numbers of reform in the area of mental health.

Heart drug digitalis introduced.

Small pox vaccine

18th Century

31

When and by who was a vaccine to prevent small pox introduced?

1796 by Edward Jenner

32

What discovery served as the foundation for the field of immunology?

Edward Jenner inoculated an 8 year old by proving cowpox provided an immunity against small pox.

33

In what century was the theory that germs cause disease established?

19th Century

34

Who worked with bacteria to prove the germ theory of infection which led to the development of pasteurization?

French chemist, Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)

35

Who established the bacterial cause for many infections, such as anthrax, tuberculosis, and cholera; who also received a Nobel Prize for his work in developing tuberculin as a test for tuberculosis?

Robert Koch (1843-1910)

36

Who developed the foundations for modern nursing?

Florence Nightingale (1820-1910)

37

During which century did the scientific method develop?

The 20th Century

38

Who invented the first antibiotics?

Sir Alexander Fleming (1889-1955)

39

Who claimed to discover the Secret of Life and what was it?

Francis Crick (1916-2004) and James Watson (b. 1928)

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

40

When was DNA discovered?

1953 at Cambridge University in England.

41

Name the significant 13 year international research project devoted to the field of genetics.

The Human Genome Project (HGP)

42

What two organizations coordinated the HGP?

U.S. Department of Energy

National Institutes of Health

43

What was the very first Radiologic image captured by Rontgen?

His own skeleton

44

What occurred for Rontgen to be deemed the first radiographer?

He produced a series of photographs of radiographic images, most notably the image of his wife's hand.

45

What does "X" mean in X-ray?

Unknown

46

What is the name of the credentialing organization for medical imaging?

American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT)

47

Name the disciplines the ARRT identifies.

Radiography, nuclear medicine technology, radiation therapy, MRI, cardiovascular-interventional radiography, mammography, computed tomography (CT), quality management, sonography, bone densitometry (BD).

48

Define Radiologic Technologist (RT).

A general term applied to persons qualified to use x-rays (radiography) or radioactive substances (nuclear medicine) to produce images of the body for interpretation by a radiologist. Or persons qualified to use x-rays or radioactive substances for treatment of disease (radiation therapy).

49

Approximately how many ARRT recognized programs are there in the United States?

740

50

What initials does a registered radiographer use after his or her name?

RT(R)(ARRT) (registered technologist (radiography)

51

What is cardiovascular interventional technology?

...