bio final- test two Flashcards

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match the numbered terms to the description that follows, choose all that apply



genetic variation in bacterial populations cannot result from



photoautotrophs use

light as an energy source and CO2 as a carbon source


which of the following statements about species as defined by the biological species concept is (are) correct?

I and III

biological species are defined by reproductive isolation and the biological species is the largest unit of population in which successful interbreeding is possible


regarding prokaryotic genetics, which statement is correct

mutation is a primary source of variation in prokaryotic populations


theoretically, the production of sterile mules by interbreeding between female horses and male donkeys should

strengthen postzygotic barriers between horses and donkeys


rank the following from most general to most specific


reproductive isolating mechanism, prezygotic isolating mechanism, gametic isolation, sperm-egg incompatibility


what does the biological species concept use as primary criterion for determining species boundaries

gene flow


which of the following statements about speciation is correct?

speciation is a basis for understanding macroevolution


rocky mountain juniper and one-seeded juniper have overlapping ranges. if pollen grains from one species are unable to germinate and make pollen tubes on female ovules of the other species, than which of these terms is applicable

1 and 2, sympatric species and prezygotic isolation


which of the following factors would not contribute to allopatric speciation

gene flow between the two populations is extensive


the most likely explanation for the high rate of sympatric speciation that apparently existed among the birds of paradise of new guinea in the past is

sexual selection


in a hypothetical situation, a certain species of flea feeds only on pronghorn antelopes. in rangelands of the western united states, pronghorns and cattle often associate with one another. if some fleas develop a strong preference for cattle blood and mate only with other fleas that prefer cattle blood, then over time which of these should occur, if the host mammal can be considered the fleas habitat

1-4, reproductive isolation, sympatric speciation, habitat isolation, and prezygotic barriers


speciation can

involve changes to a single gene


there is still some controversy among biologists about whether netherlands should be placed within the same species as modern humans or into a separate species of their own. most DNA sequences data analyzed so fat indicate that there was probably little or no gene flow between the netherlands and homo sapiens. which species concept is most applicable in this example



beetle pollinators of a particular plant are attracted to its flowers' bright orange color. the beetles may not only pollinate flowers, but they mate while inside of the flowers. a mutant version of the plant with red flowers becomes more common with the passage of time. a particular variant of the beetle prefers the red flowers to the orange flowers. over time, these two beetle variations diverge from each other to such an extent that interbreeding is no longer possible. what kind of speciation has occurred in this example, and what has it driven?

sympatric speciation; habitat differentiation


two species of frogs belonging to the same genus occasionally mate, but the offspring fail to develop and hatch. what is the mechanism for keeping the two frog species seperate

the postzygotic barrier called hybrid inviability


the phenomenon of fusion is likely to occur when, after a long period of geographic isolation, two populations meet again and

an increasing number of viable, fertile hybrids is produced over the course of generations


according to the concept of punctuated equilibrium, the "sudden" appearance of a new species is the fossil record means that

speciation occurred rapidly in geologic time


males of different species of the fruit fly drosophila that live in the same parts of the hawaiian islands have different courtship rituals. these rituals involve fighting other males and making stylized movements that attract females. what type of reproductive isolation does this represent

behavioral isolation


a hybrid zone is properly defined as

an area where mating occurs between members of two closely related species, producing viable offspring


the largest unit within which gene flow can readily occur is a



one explanation for the evolution of insect wings suggest that wings begin as lateral extensions of the body that were used as heat dissipaters for thermoregulation. when they had become sufficiently large, these extensions became useful for gliding through the air, and selection later refined them as flight-producing wings. if the hypothesis is correct, modern insect wings could best be described as



fossil evidence indicates that several kinds of flightless dinosaurs possessed feathers. if some of these feather bearing dinosaurs incubated clutches of eggs in carefully constructed nests, this might be evidence supporting the claim that

their feathers originally served as insulation, and only later became flight surfaces


adaptive radiations can be direct consequences of four of the following five factors. select the exception

genetic drift


approximately how far back in time does the fossil record extend

3.5 billion years


which statement about bacterial cell walls is false

cell walls prevent cells from dying in hypertonic conditions


match the numbered terms the description that follows. choose all that apply. an organism that obtains both carbon and energy by ingesting prey

2 and 4. heterotroph and chemotroph


what is true of macroevolution

it is evolution above species level


rank the following from most general to most specific


reproductive isolation mechanism, prezygotic isolating mechanism, gametic isolation, sperm-egg incompatibility in sea urchins


dogs and gray wolves can interbreed to produce viable, fertile offspring. these species shared a common ancestor recently and have a high degree of genetic similarity, although their anatomies vary widely. judging from this evidence, which two species concepts are most likely to place dogs and wolves together in a single species

biological and phylogenetic


which one is not an example of a prezygotic barrier

hybrid breakdown