Microbiology: microbiology, Principles and Explorations Flashcards
- The beauty of specific immunity is the production of ___ that provides long lasting protection:
- Helper T cells:
Activate B cells and other T cells
- Which lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells:
Natural Killer Cells
- Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis:
- The region of each antibody molecule where amino acid composition is highly varied from one clone of B lymphocytes to another is the:
- Gamma globulin can be given as immunotherapy to confer artificial passive immunity:
- The secondary response to an antigen is faster and bigger than the primary response:
- What type of cells secrete antibodies:
- Protective features of the skin include all but:
- An example of natural active immunity would be:
Chickenpox infection is followed by lifelong immunity
A foreign molecule that causes a specific immune response is a/an:
An example of artificial active immunity would be:
Chickenpox vaccine triggers extended immunity to to chickenpox
Bacterial Toxins that activate T cells at a 100 times greater rate than other antigens
The progeny cells of a B cell clone are called:
Each of the following can result in acquired immune dificiencies except
An example of artificial passive immunity would be Giving a person
immune serum globulins to chickenpox virus after exposure to the disease
- Plasma cells
- After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells.
- Which process involves antibodies cross-linking cells or particles into large aggregates?
Each of the following are physical barriers to pathogens except
Which type of white blood cells are particularly attracted to sites of parasitic worm infections?
Endogenous infectious agents arise from microbes that are
the patients own normal biota
- Which protein can be produced by a virus-infected cell, in order to communicate with other cells that need to produce antiviral proteins?
- The initial, brief period of early, general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches is the
- Which is mismatched?
Coagulase-dissolve fibrin clots
An infectious agent that originates from outside the body is called
Nonspecific chemical defenses include
All of the choices are correct
Which is not terminology used for resident biota?
Infection occurs when
Pathogens enter and multiply in body tissues
What structures are found along lymphatic vessels are are heavily clustered in the armpit, groin and neck?
The chemical found in tears and saliva that hydrolyzes bacterial cell walls is
A symptom is a
Subjective indication of disease
Which of the following is not an anti-phagocytic factor?
Adhering to the host
Which of the following is an example of a sequelae?
Permanent arthritis from a previous Lyme disease infection
The most numerous WBC’s, that have multi-lobed nuclei and are very phagocytic are
Each of the following are granulocytes except
Components of the first line of defense include all of the following except
Phagocytic white blood cells
- Local edema, swollen lymph nodes, fever, soreness and abscesses are indications of
- The human body typically begins to be colonized by its normal biota
during and immediately after birth
Which of the following lymphoid organs or tissues has the immunological function of filtering pathogens from the blood?
Pathogenic microbes that cause disease in healthy people are called
Which gland shrinks in size during adulthood and has horomones that function in the maturation of T-lymphocytes?
Which of the following is not a normal portal of exit of an infectious disease?
All of these are normal exit portals
Once a microbe has entered a host, what process performed by certain white blood cells will attempt to destroy the microbes?
Which is mismatched?
Secondary infection-localized infection spreads to several tissue sites
A ___ is the presence of small numbers of bacteria in the blood.
Microbial hyaluronidase, coagulase and streptokinase are examples of
Which of the following is mismatched when dealing with inflammation?
Resident biota are found in/on the
All of the choices are correct
- The four classic signs and symptoms of inflammation include all of the following except
- The minimum amount of microbes that a person can be exposed to that will lead to infection is the:
- An endotoxin is
Indicative of gram negative organisms
- Opportunistic pathogens
Cause disease in only compromised individuals
A person gets a fungal pathogen that infects the brain on their hands. The salt on the hands prevents the fungus from growing and there is no cut for the fungus to get through to access the blood supply, so the person doesn’t get sick. These are examples of which of the following defenses?
Innate, first line of defense
Innate immunity ______ and acquired immunity ____:
- A child gets strep throat and takes antibiotics to eliminate the infection. The antibiotics kill of some of her E. coli in her gut allowing the C. difficile bacteria in her gut to overgrow. Due to the overgrowth of the C. difficile she gets severe stomach cramps. The term that best describes the scenario is
Secondary C. difficile infection
- A little girl gets chicken pox after breathing in the virus. This leads to open sores that ooze the virus all over the little girl’s skin. Her brother comes into conctact with some of the fluid from her sores and ends up getting chicken pox too. What is the portal of entery and exit for the virus, with respect to the little girl?
Portal of entry is the respiratory tract/exit is the skin
What do the cell-mediated and humoral immune systems have in common?
B cells and T cells can be stimulated to produce memory cells
What is herd immunity?
Vaccinated people can not get infected, so it lessens the risk of unvaccinated people getting infected
What is the trigger that intiates an acquired immune system response?
Cells detect the presence of a foreign antigen