microbiology, Principles and Explorations

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Microbiology
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1
  1. The beauty of specific immunity is the production of ___ that provides long lasting protection:

Memory Cells

2
  1. Helper T cells:

Activate B cells and other T cells

3
  1. Which lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells:

Natural Killer Cells

4
  1. Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis:

Opsonization

5
  1. The region of each antibody molecule where amino acid composition is highly varied from one clone of B lymphocytes to another is the:

Variable Region

6
  1. Gamma globulin can be given as immunotherapy to confer artificial passive immunity:

True

7
  1. The secondary response to an antigen is faster and bigger than the primary response:

True

8
  1. What type of cells secrete antibodies:

Plasma Cells

9
  1. Protective features of the skin include all but:

Lysozyme

10
  1. An example of natural active immunity would be:

Chickenpox infection is followed by lifelong immunity

11

A foreign molecule that causes a specific immune response is a/an:

Antigen

12

An example of artificial active immunity would be:

Chickenpox vaccine triggers extended immunity to to chickenpox

13

Superantigens are:

Bacterial Toxins that activate T cells at a 100 times greater rate than other antigens

14

The progeny cells of a B cell clone are called:

Plasma Cells

15

Each of the following can result in acquired immune dificiencies except

Bacterial Infection

16

An example of artificial passive immunity would be Giving a person

immune serum globulins to chickenpox virus after exposure to the disease

17
  1. Plasma cells

Secrete Antibodies

18
  1. After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells.

False

19
  1. Which process involves antibodies cross-linking cells or particles into large aggregates?

Agglutination

20

Each of the following are physical barriers to pathogens except

T-Cells

21

Which type of white blood cells are particularly attracted to sites of parasitic worm infections?

Eosinophils

22

Endogenous infectious agents arise from microbes that are

the patients own normal biota

23
  1. Which protein can be produced by a virus-infected cell, in order to communicate with other cells that need to produce antiviral proteins?

Interferon

24
  1. The initial, brief period of early, general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches is the

Prodromal Stage

25
  1. Which is mismatched?

Coagulase-dissolve fibrin clots

26

An infectious agent that originates from outside the body is called

Exogenous

27

Nonspecific chemical defenses include

All of the choices are correct

28

Which is not terminology used for resident biota?

Pathogenic biota

29

Infection occurs when

Pathogens enter and multiply in body tissues

30

What structures are found along lymphatic vessels are are heavily clustered in the armpit, groin and neck?

Lymph nodes

31

The chemical found in tears and saliva that hydrolyzes bacterial cell walls is

Lysozyme

32

A symptom is a

Subjective indication of disease

33

Which of the following is not an anti-phagocytic factor?

Adhering to the host

34

Which of the following is an example of a sequelae?

Permanent arthritis from a previous Lyme disease infection

35

The most numerous WBC’s, that have multi-lobed nuclei and are very phagocytic are

Neutrophils

36

Each of the following are granulocytes except

Lymphocytes

37

Components of the first line of defense include all of the following except

Phagocytic white blood cells

38
  1. Local edema, swollen lymph nodes, fever, soreness and abscesses are indications of

inflammation

39
  1. The human body typically begins to be colonized by its normal biota

during and immediately after birth

40

Which of the following lymphoid organs or tissues has the immunological function of filtering pathogens from the blood?

Spleen

41

Pathogenic microbes that cause disease in healthy people are called

True Pathogens

42

Which gland shrinks in size during adulthood and has horomones that function in the maturation of T-lymphocytes?

Thymus

43

Which of the following is not a normal portal of exit of an infectious disease?

All of these are normal exit portals

44

Once a microbe has entered a host, what process performed by certain white blood cells will attempt to destroy the microbes?

Phagocytes

45

Which is mismatched?

Secondary infection-localized infection spreads to several tissue sites

46

A ___ is the presence of small numbers of bacteria in the blood.

Bacteremia

47

Microbial hyaluronidase, coagulase and streptokinase are examples of

Exoenzymes

48

Which of the following is mismatched when dealing with inflammation?

Tumor-cancer

49

Resident biota are found in/on the

All of the choices are correct

50
  1. The four classic signs and symptoms of inflammation include all of the following except
  1. Chills
51
  1. The minimum amount of microbes that a person can be exposed to that will lead to infection is the:

Infectious Dose

52
  1. An endotoxin is

Indicative of gram negative organisms

53
  1. Opportunistic pathogens

Cause disease in only compromised individuals

54

A person gets a fungal pathogen that infects the brain on their hands. The salt on the hands prevents the fungus from growing and there is no cut for the fungus to get through to access the blood supply, so the person doesn’t get sick. These are examples of which of the following defenses?

Innate, first line of defense

55

Innate immunity ______ and acquired immunity ____:

is

nonspecific/is specific

56
  1. A child gets strep throat and takes antibiotics to eliminate the infection. The antibiotics kill of some of her E. coli in her gut allowing the C. difficile bacteria in her gut to overgrow. Due to the overgrowth of the C. difficile she gets severe stomach cramps. The term that best describes the scenario is

Secondary C. difficile infection

57
  1. A little girl gets chicken pox after breathing in the virus. This leads to open sores that ooze the virus all over the little girl’s skin. Her brother comes into conctact with some of the fluid from her sores and ends up getting chicken pox too. What is the portal of entery and exit for the virus, with respect to the little girl?

Portal of entry is the respiratory tract/exit is the skin

58

What do the cell-mediated and humoral immune systems have in common?

B cells and T cells can be stimulated to produce memory cells

59

What is herd immunity?

Vaccinated people can not get infected, so it lessens the risk of unvaccinated people getting infected

60

What is the trigger that intiates an acquired immune system response?

Cells detect the presence of a foreign antigen