Microbiology Exam 1
The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that is found in the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria is also known as?
Bacteria are good models to use because they?
Share many biochemical/ physiological properties with more complicated organisms
Which shows the incorrect complementary base pairing?
The polynucleotide strands of DNA are linked along their lengths by _______ bonds.
The N terminal in a protein
Is the end characterized by a free amino group
Acidic or basic amino acids are
Readibly soluble in water, able to form ions and considered hydrophilic
Which of the following is not true of bacterial plasmids?
They are required for host growth and/ or reproduction
is referred to as a universal solvent
makes up 70% ( by wt) of an organism
is often a product or reactant in chemical reactions
The opposite results obtained by scientists apparently doing the same experiments in investigating spontaneous generation?
Shows the importance of repeating experiments
shows the importance of exactly duplicating experimental conditions
led to further experiments that ultimately furthered knowledge
A weak, attractive force between nearby molecules is called a ?
May interconvert between ring and linear structures
The microscope which allows the specimen to appear 3-dimensional is the?
ATP is best described as?
The energy molecule of cells
Which of the following strains is/are considered differential?
Acid fast stain and gram stain
Bacteria and Archean ribosomes are known as _______ ribosomes, based on their sedimentation coefficient.
The subunits ( building blocks) of proteins are?
Although penicillin inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis, bacterial cells will continue to grow normally in the presence of penicillin in an ________ environment.
A microbiologist obtained two pure isolated biological samples: one of the virus, and one a viroid . The labels came off during a move from one lab table to the next , however. The scientists felt she could distinguish between the two samples by analyzing for the presence of a single type of molecule. What type of molecule would she be looking for to differentiate between the two?
Amino acids in proteins are linked to one another by peptide bonds between the?
Carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another
Uses fluorescently tagged molecules, makes use of the specificity in binding of antibodies and would require a special UV microscope
Which is true of simple diffusion of water?
Water usually enters a cell and produces a tremendous osmotic pressure and the diffusion ultimately relies on the selectively permeable nature of the cell membrane.
The sugars found in nuclei can acids consists of ?
5 carbon atoms
The purines of DNA are?
Adenine and guanine
Which may be or is an RNA molecule ?
GGGCCCA and GCCCUUA
The idea of spontaneous generation postulated that?
Living organisms could spontaneously arise from Non-living material
In general, when saturated fats are compared to unsaturated fats ( assuming the same number of carbon atoms in the molecule)
Unsaturated fats have a lower melting temperature
GCCCAAG is a molecule of?
Cannot tell as written
HIV/AIDS can be categorized as a new or emerging infectious disease. By putting it into a category , we are effectively saying that
This infection hasn't been observed in the human population prior to recent ( approximately years or so sooner) outbreaks
Which is not true about enzymes?
Have high-energy bonds between phosphates
What type of binding holds one strand of DNA to the complementary strand of DNA?
Shrinkage of the plasma membrane away from the cell wall when the bacterium is placed in hypertonic environment is called?
All of the following pertain to 14 C except it?
Has 14 neutrons
In viewing a microscope specimen , oil is used to?
Decrease the refraction and increase the resolution
Prior to staining , smears of microorganisms are heat fixed in order to
Attach it firmly to the slide
Viruses are often referred to as ?
Which of the following is found in RNA but not in DNA?
Ribose and Uracil
The cell type which lack a membrane bound nucleus are found in the ?
Prokaryotes and Archaea
Which is true of carbohydrates?
They may be part of the structure of bacteria
the may serve as a source of food
they contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio
they may be bonded to proteins to form glycoproteins
A dormant cell type
Penicillin would be most effective against ?
Growing bacteria and gram positive bacteria
The scientific name of an organism includes its?
Genes and species
The term antiparellel ?
Referees to the opposite orientation of the two strands in DNA
Proteins that are loosely attached to the cytoplasmic membrane are called?
The energy storage form of ATP?
Endospores represents a challenge to the fields of industrial and medical microbiology because?
They are resistant to harsh environments, thus allowing survival of spore forming organisms under conditions in which nonsporulating cells would not survive and spore forming organisms are often dangerous pathogens are correct.
The valence number is the?
Number of outermost electron
Is the ingestion of particles and may be performed by animal cells
Scientists recently cloned Luis Pasteur and put him back to work in the lab. He promptly developed a gel that breaks down proteins. Since he hasn't been around for some time; he's unsure what the best application for his invention might be. Help him out what pathogenic item would this gel be most effective and safe at eliminating?
Viruses on the surface of the skin
Are obligate intracellular parasites
The twisted ladder shape of DNA is a result of the covalently bonded building blocks called?
A research laboratory is investigating environmental factors that would inhibit growth of Archaea. One question they have is if adding the antibiotic penicillin would be effective in controlling their growth. What do you think the outcome would be if they tried this?
The penicillin wouldn't affect the archaea because it prevents crosslinking of peptidoglycan-Archaea don't have this compound in their cell walls
The system by which organisms are named is referred to as ?
A monosaccharide with 5 carbon atoms will have __________ hydrogen atoms and ________ oxygen atoms.
Which group below contain single- celled and multicellular organisms?
Algae and fungi
The term used to describe bacteria that are rod shaped is?
If electrons are gained or lost in the formation of a bond, the bond is termed ?
Is a double membrane sac containing DNA and is found in eukaryotes
A microscope that exposes specimens to ultraviolet, violet, or blue light and forms an image within the light emitted at a different wavelength is called?
If while investigating spontaneous generation, Pasteur had his laboratory located in a stable?
The results would, most likely, have supported the idea of spontaneous generation
Which molecules are associated with the cell wall of gram positive bacteria?
Peptidoglycan, D- form amino acids and teichoic acids
Viruses may only be grown ?
In living cells
Which is not usually true of Archaea ?
They contain peptidoglycan as part of their cell walls
Rotating the following answers any way necessary, but not changing their sequence, which are complementary to the sequence 5' AGGCUAAC 3'?
3' TCCGATTC 5'
Consist of LPS
In the gram staining procedures, the primary stain us?
A new drug is developed that targets and binds to the lipid A portion of LPS from gram negative bacterial cells. This drug shows a high degree of activity and binding in a test tube setting against purified lipid A. Based on this info?
We should next proceed by moving to testing in a test tube using whole gram negative cells to see if it binds with the same strength.
Bacteria are present on the body?
Charged atoms are termed?
All of the following are monosaccharides except?
Extrachromasomal DNA is found in ________.
Mitochondria and plasmids
How many times more acidic is a solution with a pH of 3 than a solution with a pH of 6?
The atomic number for an atom of a specific element is equal to?
The number of protons in a single atom of that element
The major criteria used in placing bacteria into different groups is based on differences in?
Cell wall structure
Bacteria are useful to study because?
They produce protein in a similar manner to more complex organisms
they replicate DNA in a similar manner to more complex organisms
they produce energy in a similar manner to more complex organisms
they are grown quickly, easily, and cheaply.
Is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration
The components of fats are fatty acids and?
Results from transferring electrons
Outside a cell, viruses are?
The gram staining procedure is an example of?
The order of reagents in the gram stain reaction are?
Crystal violet, iodine, alcohol and safranin
Protein denaturation can?
Occur due to certain chemicals
occur due to pH changes
occur due to high temperature
cause the protein to no longer function
The helices and sheets of amino acids from a proteins ?
Which is the correct form?
Staphylococcus aeurus and S. Aureus
Which of the following is useful in distinguishing between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
The presence of a membrane-delimited organelles within the cytoplasm
Have positive charges
Atoms that gain electrons are now?
Which of the following represents a synthesis reaction?
A+B ----> AB
The proteins of bacteria that are involved in the movement of small molecules into the cell, are called?
Transport proteins, permeases and carriers
The alpha helix and beta pleated sheet are examples of?
The carbohydrates found in nucleic acids are?
Ribose and deoxyribose
The type of chemical bond linking amino acids together is a ?
Which microscope would be the best selection for examination of a virus?
Scanning electron microscope
Cellulose is a major component of plants and is only directly digested by?
The characteristics common to all lipids is their?
Solubility in organic solvents and hydrophobic nature
A 45X objective and a 10X ocular produce a total magnification of?
The most important feature of a protein is its ?
Chemotaxis is a process by which bacteria?
Move toward an attractant or away from a repellent
The primary structure in a protein?
Refers to the sequence of amino acids
Endospores represent a challenge to the fields of industrial and medical microbiology?
Endospores are resistant to harsh environments, thus allowing survival of endospore forming organisms under conditions in which non endospore forming cells would not survive, and endospore forming organisms are often dangerous pathogens.
C6 H12 O6 + C6 H12 O6----> C12 H22 O11+ H20 represents?