Microbiology Exam 1

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1

The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that is found in the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria is also known as?

Murein

2

Bacteria are good models to use because they?

Share many biochemical/ physiological properties with more complicated organisms

3

Which shows the incorrect complementary base pairing?

G:T

4

The polynucleotide strands of DNA are linked along their lengths by _______ bonds.

Hydrogen

5

The N terminal in a protein

Is the end characterized by a free amino group

6

Acidic or basic amino acids are

Readibly soluble in water, able to form ions and considered hydrophilic

7

Which of the following is not true of bacterial plasmids?

They are required for host growth and/ or reproduction

8

Water?

Is polar

is referred to as a universal solvent

makes up 70% ( by wt) of an organism

is often a product or reactant in chemical reactions

9

The opposite results obtained by scientists apparently doing the same experiments in investigating spontaneous generation?

Shows the importance of repeating experiments

shows the importance of exactly duplicating experimental conditions

led to further experiments that ultimately furthered knowledge

10

A weak, attractive force between nearby molecules is called a ?

Hydrogen bond

11

Carbohydrates?

May interconvert between ring and linear structures

12

The microscope which allows the specimen to appear 3-dimensional is the?

Interference microscope

13

ATP is best described as?

The energy molecule of cells

14

Which of the following strains is/are considered differential?

Acid fast stain and gram stain

15

Bacteria and Archean ribosomes are known as _______ ribosomes, based on their sedimentation coefficient.

70s

16

The subunits ( building blocks) of proteins are?

Amino acids

17

Although penicillin inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis, bacterial cells will continue to grow normally in the presence of penicillin in an ________ environment.

Isotonic

18

A microbiologist obtained two pure isolated biological samples: one of the virus, and one a viroid . The labels came off during a move from one lab table to the next , however. The scientists felt she could distinguish between the two samples by analyzing for the presence of a single type of molecule. What type of molecule would she be looking for to differentiate between the two?

Protein

19

Amino acids in proteins are linked to one another by peptide bonds between the?

Carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another

20

Immunofluorescence ?

Uses fluorescently tagged molecules, makes use of the specificity in binding of antibodies and would require a special UV microscope

21

Which is true of simple diffusion of water?

Water usually enters a cell and produces a tremendous osmotic pressure and the diffusion ultimately relies on the selectively permeable nature of the cell membrane.

22

The sugars found in nuclei can acids consists of ?

5 carbon atoms

23

The purines of DNA are?

Adenine and guanine

24

Which may be or is an RNA molecule ?

GGGCCCA and GCCCUUA

25

The idea of spontaneous generation postulated that?

Living organisms could spontaneously arise from Non-living material

26

In general, when saturated fats are compared to unsaturated fats ( assuming the same number of carbon atoms in the molecule)

Unsaturated fats have a lower melting temperature

27

GCCCAAG is a molecule of?

Cannot tell as written

28

HIV/AIDS can be categorized as a new or emerging infectious disease. By putting it into a category , we are effectively saying that

This infection hasn't been observed in the human population prior to recent ( approximately years or so sooner) outbreaks

29

Which is not true about enzymes?

Have high-energy bonds between phosphates

30

What type of binding holds one strand of DNA to the complementary strand of DNA?

Hydrogen

31

Shrinkage of the plasma membrane away from the cell wall when the bacterium is placed in hypertonic environment is called?

Plasmolysis

32

All of the following pertain to 14 C except it?

6

Has 14 neutrons

33

In viewing a microscope specimen , oil is used to?

Decrease the refraction and increase the resolution

34

Prior to staining , smears of microorganisms are heat fixed in order to

Attach it firmly to the slide

35

Viruses are often referred to as ?

Infectious agents

36

Which of the following is found in RNA but not in DNA?

Ribose and Uracil

37

The cell type which lack a membrane bound nucleus are found in the ?

Prokaryotes and Archaea

38

Which is true of carbohydrates?

They may be part of the structure of bacteria

the may serve as a source of food

they contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio

they may be bonded to proteins to form glycoproteins

39

Endospores are?

A dormant cell type

40

Penicillin would be most effective against ?

Growing bacteria and gram positive bacteria

41

The scientific name of an organism includes its?

Genes and species

42

The term antiparellel ?

Referees to the opposite orientation of the two strands in DNA

43

Proteins that are loosely attached to the cytoplasmic membrane are called?

Peripheral

44

The energy storage form of ATP?

Contains ribose

45

Endospores represents a challenge to the fields of industrial and medical microbiology because?

They are resistant to harsh environments, thus allowing survival of spore forming organisms under conditions in which nonsporulating cells would not survive and spore forming organisms are often dangerous pathogens are correct.

46

The valence number is the?

Number of outermost electron

47

Phagocytosis?

Is the ingestion of particles and may be performed by animal cells

48

Scientists recently cloned Luis Pasteur and put him back to work in the lab. He promptly developed a gel that breaks down proteins. Since he hasn't been around for some time; he's unsure what the best application for his invention might be. Help him out what pathogenic item would this gel be most effective and safe at eliminating?

Viruses on the surface of the skin

49

Viruses ?

Are obligate intracellular parasites

50

The twisted ladder shape of DNA is a result of the covalently bonded building blocks called?

Nucleotides

51

A research laboratory is investigating environmental factors that would inhibit growth of Archaea. One question they have is if adding the antibiotic penicillin would be effective in controlling their growth. What do you think the outcome would be if they tried this?

The penicillin wouldn't affect the archaea because it prevents crosslinking of peptidoglycan-Archaea don't have this compound in their cell walls

52

The system by which organisms are named is referred to as ?

Nomenclature

53

A monosaccharide with 5 carbon atoms will have __________ hydrogen atoms and ________ oxygen atoms.

10,5

54

Which group below contain single- celled and multicellular organisms?

Algae and fungi

55

The term used to describe bacteria that are rod shaped is?

Bacillus

56

If electrons are gained or lost in the formation of a bond, the bond is termed ?

Isotonic

57

The nucleus?

Is a double membrane sac containing DNA and is found in eukaryotes

58

A microscope that exposes specimens to ultraviolet, violet, or blue light and forms an image within the light emitted at a different wavelength is called?

Fluorescence

59

If while investigating spontaneous generation, Pasteur had his laboratory located in a stable?

The results would, most likely, have supported the idea of spontaneous generation

60

Which molecules are associated with the cell wall of gram positive bacteria?

Peptidoglycan, D- form amino acids and teichoic acids

61

Viruses may only be grown ?

In living cells

62

Which is not usually true of Archaea ?

They contain peptidoglycan as part of their cell walls

63

Rotating the following answers any way necessary, but not changing their sequence, which are complementary to the sequence 5' AGGCUAAC 3'?

3' TCCGATTC 5'

64

Endotoxin?

Consist of LPS

65

In the gram staining procedures, the primary stain us?

Crystal violet

66

A new drug is developed that targets and binds to the lipid A portion of LPS from gram negative bacterial cells. This drug shows a high degree of activity and binding in a test tube setting against purified lipid A. Based on this info?

We should next proceed by moving to testing in a test tube using whole gram negative cells to see if it binds with the same strength.

67

Bacteria are present on the body?

Constantly

68

Charged atoms are termed?

Ions

69

All of the following are monosaccharides except?

Glycogen

70

Extrachromasomal DNA is found in ________.

Mitochondria and plasmids

71

How many times more acidic is a solution with a pH of 3 than a solution with a pH of 6?

1000

72

The atomic number for an atom of a specific element is equal to?

The number of protons in a single atom of that element

73

The major criteria used in placing bacteria into different groups is based on differences in?

Cell wall structure

74

Bacteria are useful to study because?

They produce protein in a similar manner to more complex organisms

they replicate DNA in a similar manner to more complex organisms

they produce energy in a similar manner to more complex organisms

they are grown quickly, easily, and cheaply.

75

pH?

Is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration

76

The components of fats are fatty acids and?

Glycerol

77

Ionic bonds?

Results from transferring electrons

78

Outside a cell, viruses are?

Inactive

79

The gram staining procedure is an example of?

Differential staining

80

The order of reagents in the gram stain reaction are?

Crystal violet, iodine, alcohol and safranin

81

Protein denaturation can?

Occur due to certain chemicals

occur due to pH changes

occur due to high temperature

cause the protein to no longer function

82

The helices and sheets of amino acids from a proteins ?

Secondary structure

83

Which is the correct form?

Staphylococcus aeurus and S. Aureus

84

Which of the following is useful in distinguishing between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

The presence of a membrane-delimited organelles within the cytoplasm

85

Basic dyes?

Have positive charges

86

Atoms that gain electrons are now?

Negatively charged

87

Which of the following represents a synthesis reaction?

A+B ----> AB

88

The proteins of bacteria that are involved in the movement of small molecules into the cell, are called?

Transport proteins, permeases and carriers

89

The alpha helix and beta pleated sheet are examples of?

Secondary structures

90

The carbohydrates found in nucleic acids are?

Ribose and deoxyribose

91

The type of chemical bond linking amino acids together is a ?

Peptide bond

92

Which microscope would be the best selection for examination of a virus?

Scanning electron microscope

93

Cellulose is a major component of plants and is only directly digested by?

Microorganisms

94

The characteristics common to all lipids is their?

Solubility in organic solvents and hydrophobic nature

95

A 45X objective and a 10X ocular produce a total magnification of?

450X

96

The most important feature of a protein is its ?

Shape

97

Chemotaxis is a process by which bacteria?

Move toward an attractant or away from a repellent

98

The primary structure in a protein?

Refers to the sequence of amino acids

99

Endospores represent a challenge to the fields of industrial and medical microbiology?

Endospores are resistant to harsh environments, thus allowing survival of endospore forming organisms under conditions in which non endospore forming cells would not survive, and endospore forming organisms are often dangerous pathogens.

100

C6 H12 O6 + C6 H12 O6----> C12 H22 O11+ H20 represents?

Dehydration synthesis