Fundamentals of Microbiology: Micro - Exam 2 Flashcards
What is the asexual process by which a cell divides to form two new cells?
The proper term for CYTOPLASMIC division is.....
Referring to an organism that grows in the presence OR absence of oxygen gas.
Referring to an organism that does not require free oxygen.
A lab test in which a statistical evaluation is used to estimate the number of bacteria in a sample of fluid; often employed in determinations of coliform bacteria in water.
Most Probably Number (MPN)
Each bacterial cell on an agar growth medium that divides to produce a discrete colony.
Colony Forming Unit (CFU)
The time interval between bacterial divisions.
An organic substance that helps stabilize the proteins in a bacterial spore, therefore increasing spore resistance.
The cloudiness of a broth culture due to a bacterial growth.
The final portion of a bacterial growth curve in which environmental factors overwhelm the population and induce death; also called death phase.
The portion of a bacterial growth curve in which the reproductive and death rates of cells are equal.
The portion of a bacterial growth curve during which active growth leads to a rapid rise in cell numbers.
Llogarithmic Phase or Log Phase
Referring to a prokaryotic cell requiring low oxygen gas and a high concentration of carbon dioxide gas for metabolism.
A measure of the viable cells by counting the number of colonies on a plate; each colony presumably started from one viable cell.
Colony Forming Unit
A prokaryote living under extremely high temperature environments.
The initial portion of a bacterial growth curve during which time the cells are preparing for reproduction (binary fission).
A bacterium not inhibited by oxygen gas.
An accumulation or colony of microorganisms of one species.
A chemically undefined medium in which the nature and quantity of each component has not been identified.
A growth medium in which special nutrients are added to get a species to grow.
A microorganism that grows at acidic pH's below 4.
A procedure to estimate the number of cells in a sample dilution spread on an agar plate.
Standard plate count
A growth medium in which different species of microorganisms can be distinguished visually.
An organism that live in cold temperature ranges from 0-20 Celsius.
Referring to microorganisms that grow at 0*C but have a temperature optima of 20*C-40*C.
Estimation of the number of cells by observation with the light microscope.
Direct microscopic count.
An extremely resistant dormant cell produced by some gram positive bacterial species.
A process by which a mixed culture can be separated into pure colonies and the colonies isolated.
Pour plate method
Referring to an organism that grows best in an oxygen reduced environment.
An archaeal organism living in an extreme environments.
A bacterial medium that binds oxygen gas from the atmosphere and creates an environment suitable for anaerobic growth.
A chemically defined medium in which the nature and quantity of each component is identified.
An organism that grows only in the absence of oxygen gas.
A polysaccharide derived from marine seaweed that is used as a solidifying agent in many microbiological culture media
A common bacteriological growth medium consisting of beef extract, peptone, water and agar.
An archaeal organism living in an extremely acidic environment.
Referring to prokaryotes that are viable but not culturable.
An organism living in environments with high concentrations of salt.
A process by which a mixed culture can be streaked onto an agar plate and pure colonies isolated.
Streak Plate Method
A growth medium that contains ingredients to inhibit certain microorganisms while encouraging the growth of others.
A microorganism that lives under conditions of high atmospheric pressure.
The second portion of a bacterial growth curve, in which active growth leads to a rapid rise in cell numbers.
Llogarithmic or Log phase
A microbe that grows best without salt but can tolerate low concentrations.
The process of spore formation.
An organism that does not require or cannot use oxygen gas for metabolism.
An organism that cannot use oxygen gas for metabolism.
The time duration for a cell to double in number.
A growth medium containing special nutrients used to grow fastidious organisms.
A differential growth medium that encourages the growth of staphylococci by containing a high percentage of salt, which is inhibitory to most other microorganisms.
Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA)
A prokaryote that has an optimal growth temperature above 80*C.
An organism that grows best in an oxygen reduced environment.
A microorganism that cannot grow in the presence of added sodium chloride
An organism that requires oxygen gas for metabolism.
An organism that lives in high temperature ranges of 40*C-90*C.
A chemically defined medium in which the components are not known.
The form of reproduction that maintains genetic constancy while increasing cell number.
A bacterium not inhibited by oxygen gas
An organism that that grows in temperature ranges of 20*C-40*C.
The production of ATP in the presence of an inorganic final electron acceptor other than oxygen gas.
The slowing down or prevention of a metabolic pathway when excess end product binds noncompetitively to an enzyme in the pathway.
A cyclic series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in which carbon Acetyl-CoA is released as carbon dioxide; the reactions also yield protons and high-energy electrons that are transported among coenzymes and cytochromes as their energy is released.
A biochemical process in which light energy is converted to chemical energy and used in carbohydrate synthesis.
A biochemical process in which amino groups are enzymatically removed from amino acids or other organic compound.
An anabolic, energy-requiring process.
An organism that uses light energy to synthesize nutrients from carbon compounds other than carbon dioxide.
An organic molecule that forms the nonprotein part of an enzyme molecule
A metal ion that is needed for enzyme function.
An organism that derives energy from organic chemicals and uses the energy to synthesize carbon compounds other than carbon dioxide.
The substance(s) in which an enzyme acts.
The sum of all biochemical processes taking place in a living cell.
The region of the enzyme where the substrate binds.
A pigmented molecule that functions in photosynthesis; exists free in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes and within the chloroplasts of eukaryotes.
The production of ATP using the organic compound Pyruvate as the final electron receptor.
The use of a proton gradient across a membrane to generate cellular energy in the form of ATP.
A six-carbon sugar used as a major energy source for metabolism.
A type of heterotrophic organism that feeds on dead organic matter, such as rotting wood or compost.
A pigment located in the membrane systems of purple sulfur bacteria that upon excitement by light, loses electrons and initiates photosynthetic reactions.
The inhibition of enzyme function through the binding of a molecule to a non-active site on the enzyme.
A chemical process releasing energy
A series of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions in which glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate with a net gain of 2 ATP molecules.
The gain of electrons by a molecule.
A chemical change in which electrons are lost by an atom.
A type of heterotrophic organism that feeds on live organic matter such as another organism.
An organism that uses light energy to synthesize nutrients from carbon dioxide.
A form of photosynthesis in which molecular oxygen is produced.
A group of pigments that act as a light trapping system for photosynthesis
A substance(s) resulting from a chemical reaction