Ch. 24 Digestive System & Ch. 25 Metabolism

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1

Which of the following processes is the function of the smooth muscle layer of the digestive system?

Mixing and propulsion

2

Which of the following processes is the primary function of the mouth?

Ingestion

3

Which of the following processes is the primary function of the villi of the small intestine?

Absorption

4

Which of the following accessory organs produces a fluid to soften food?

Salivary glands

5

Which of the following accessory organs produces a fluid that functions to emulsify dietary fats?

Liver

6

Which of the following accessory organs stores bile?

Gallbladder

7

The capability of the GI tract to move material along its length is called?

Motility

8

This layer of the GI tract is composed of areolar connective tissue containing blood and lymph vessels?

Lamina propria

9

This layer of the GI tract is composed of areolar connective tissue that binds the mucosa to the muscularis?

Submucosa

10

This layer functions by secreting a lubricating fluid?

Serosa

11

These are composed of prominent lymphatic nodules that function in the immune response?

MALT

12

This plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers of the muscularis?

Myenteric plexus

13

Why do emotions such as anger or fear slow digestion?

Because they stimulate the sympathetic nerves that supply the GI tract.

14

This portion of the peritoneum drapes over the transverse colon and coils of the small intestine?

Greater omentum

15

This portion of the peritoneum attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and diaphragm?

Falciform ligament

16

This portion of the peritoneum is largely responsible for carrying blood and lymph vessels to the intestines?

Mesocolon

17

The hard palate?

Is the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth, Is formed by the maxillae and palatine bones, and Is covered by a mucous membrane.

18

In the mouth, this runs posteriorly to the sides of the pharynx?

Palatopharyngeal arch

19

In the mouth, the tooth sockets are lined with?

Periodontal ligament

20

Deciduous molars are replaced by?

Bicuspids

21

How many stages of deglutition are there?

Three

22

This structure of the stomach allows greater distension for food storage?

Rugae

23

Which of the following secrete gastric acid?

Parietal cells

24

This cell secretes the hormone that promotes production of gastric acid?

G cell

25

How long can food stay in the fundus before being mixed with gastric juices?

1 hour

26

This major duct carries a fluid rich in bicarbonate ions?

Pancreatic duct

27

Which of the following gastric enzymes digests proteins?

Pepsin

28

This is the heaviest gland of the body?

Liver

29

This is found on the liver and is a remnant of the umbilical cord in a fetus?

Round ligament

30

This is the principle bile pigment?

Bilirubin

31

Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver?

Storage of bilibrubin

32

Which of the following small intestine cells secrete lysozyme?

Paneth cells

33

Brunners glands?

Secrete both mucous and an alkaline juice

34

Which of the following enzymes acts to produce monoglycerides as products?

Lipase

35

Which of the following pancreatic enzymes act to produce monosaccharides?

Amylase

36

Which of the following pancreatic enzymes act to produce smaller peptides from proteins?

Chymotrypsin

37

This hormone functions to counteract the effect of gastric acid in the small intestine?

Secretin

38

This hormone is stimulates by high levels of dietary fat in the small intestine?

Cholecystokinin

39

This digestive aid, produced by the stomach, begins digestion by denaturing proteins?

Hydrochloric acid

40

This structure regulates the flow of material into the colon?

Ileocecal sphincter

41

Which of the following is the primary function of the large intestine?

Feces formation

42

Chemical reactions that break down complex organic molecules into simpler ones are called?

Catabolism

43

Chemical reactions that combine simple molecules and monomers to form complex structures are known as?

Anabolism

44

When the terminal phosphate is cut off ATP, what is formed?

Adenosine diphosphate

45

Oxidation is?

The removal of electrons

46

Reduction is the?

The addition of electrons

47

This is a derivative of vitamin B?

NAD

48

Which of the following is NOT a form of phosphorylation?

Reduction phosphorylation

49

Glycogenesis is NOT?

One way to make glycogen

50

This process is the synthesis of triglycerides?

Lipoogenesis

51

This reaction oxidizes acetyl co-A to produce carbon dioxide, ATP, NADH=H, and FADH2?

Krebs cycle

52

Glycolysis, formation of acetyl co-A, Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain are all involved in?

Glucose catabolism

53

This is the key regulator of the rate of glyocolysis?

Phosphofructokinase

54

Where can pyruvate dehydrogenase be found?

Mitochondria

55

The most abundant product of the reaction of the Kreb cycle is?

Reduced co enzymes

56

The net result of the complete oxidation of glucose does NOT include?

Oxygen

57

How many reactions take place during the Krebs cycle?

8

58

When a large amount of H+ accumulates between the inner and outer mitochondria membranes, this describes?

Chemiosmosis

59

How many ATPs can come from substrate level phosphorylation during glycolysis?

2

60

What hormone stimulates glycogenesis?

Insulin

61

What hormone stimulates gluconeogenesis?

Thyroid

62

Glycogenolysis is _______and stimulates by________?

Catabolic; Epinephrine

63

Thyroid hormones?

Promote glycolysis

64

These transport dietary lipids?

Chylomicrons

65

Where does glycolysis take place?

Cytosol

66

Where does the Kreb cycle take place?

Mitochondria

67

Lipogenesis occurs when?

More calories are consumed than required for ATP need

68

Excess amino acids in the body are?

Converted into glucose

69

Live cells convert?

Ammonia into urea

70

Glucose-6-phosphate?

Can be used to make ribose-5-phosphate, Can be dephosphorylated to glucose, Can be used to synthesize glycogen, and Can be converted to pyruvic acid

71

Which of the following are used in "metabolic crossroads"?

Pyruvic acids

72

In the absorptive state?

Storage of energy is important

73

Most glucose that enters the liver is converted to?

Glycogen

74

Keto acids?

Can enter Krebs or be used for ATP production

75

Which of the following is NOT a postabsorptive state reaction?

Lipogenesis

76

Cardiac muscles can produce ATP from?

Lactic acid

77

The most dramatic metabolic change that occurs with fasting is?

Increase in Lipolysis

78

Which of the following is a factor that does NOT affect heat production?

Blood volume

79

This is a mechanism of heat transfer that involves direct contact?

Conduction

80

The higher the relative humidity?

The lower the rate of evaporation

81

The heat promoting center stimulates parts of the brain that?

Stimulates skeletal muscle activity

82

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is secreted by the?

Hypothalamus

83

Neuropeptide Y stimulates?

Food intake

84

Which of the following is NOT a major nutrient the body needs?

Phosphates

85

Provitamines are?

Building blocks of vitamins

86

Which of the following is a fat-soluble vitamin?

Vitamin E

87

Antioxidant vitamins?

Can inactivate oxygen free radicals

88

Each of the following organs is a component of the digestive tract, except the?

Bladder

89

Which of the following is an accessory organ of digestion?

Pancreas

90

The lamina propria and mucous epithelium are components of the?

Mucosa

91

Which of these descriptions best matches the term myenteric plexus?

Coordinates activity of muscularis externa

92

Contraction of the _____alters the shape of the intestinal lumen and moves epithelial pleats and folds?

Muscularis mucosa

93

The ______are double sheets of peritoneal membrane that suspend the visceral organs and carry nerves, lymphatics, and blood vessels.

Mesenteries

94

Sensory nerve cells, parasympathetic ganglia, and sympathetic postganglionic fibers can be found in the?

Submucosal plexus

95

Sandwiched between the layer of circular and longitudinal muscle in the muscularis externa is the ?

Myenteric plexus

96

Which layer of the digestive tract has a dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the muscularis mucosae?

Submucosa

97

Which of the following is classified as being either squamous or columnar?

Mucosal epithelium

98

Large blood vessels and lymphatics are found in the?

Submucosa

99

The layer of loose connective tissue that directly supports the digestive epithelium is the?

Lamina propria

100

Which of these descriptions best matches the term submucosal plexus?

Includes a sensory neural network

101

The oral mucosa has ______epithelium?

Stratified squamous

102

A stratified squamous epithelial lining can be found in all of the following, except in the?

Stomach

103

A disease that attacks and disables the myenteric plexus would?

Decreases intestinal motility

104

In the digestive and urinary systems, rings of smooth muscle, called ______, regulate the movement of materials along internal passageways.

Sphincters

105

The ability of functions over a wide range of lengths is called?

Plasticity

106

What type of muscle cells are arranged in sheets or layers, with adjacent muscle cells electrically connected by gap junctions and mechanically connected by dense bodies?

Visceral smooth muscles

107

Waves of muscular contractions that propel the contents of the digestive tract are called?

Peristalsis

108

The activities of the digestive system are regulated by?

Hormones, Parasympathetic and Sympathetic neurons, The content of the digestive tract, and Intrinsic nerve plexuses

109

Which of the following is NOT a function of the digestive system?

Filtration

110

A structure that helps prevent food from entering the pharynx prematurely is the?

Uvula

111

Functions of the tongue include all of the following, except?

Partitioning the oropharynx from the nasopharynx

112

________pairs of salivary glands secrete into the oral cavity?

Three

113

The roof of the oral cavity is formed by the?

Hard palate, and Soft palate

114

The space between the cheeks or lips and teeth is called the?

Vestibule

115

The ridge of oral mucosa that surrounds the base of a tooth is the?

Gingiva

116

Carbohydrate digestive begins in the?

Mouth

117

The connection of the anterior portion of the tongue to the underlying epithelium is the?

Lingual frenulum

118

The uvula is located at the?

Posterior margin of the soft palate

119

The functions of the oral cavity include all of the following, except?

Absorption of monosaccharides

120

Which of the following is a function of the tongue?

Manipulation to assist with chewing, Mechanical processing, Sensory analysis, and Secretion of mucins

121

The bulk of each tooth consists of a mineralized matrix similar to that of bone called?

Dentin

122

The chamber within a tooth that contains blood vessels and nerves is the?

Pulp cavity

123

The root of a tooth is covered by?

Cementum

124

The crown of a tooth is covered by?

Enamel

125

_______are blade-shaped teeth that function in cutting or clipping?

Incisors

126

_______are pointed teeth that are adapted for tearing and slashing?

Cuspids

127

_________are teeth with flattened crowns and prominent ridges that are adapted for crushing and grinding?

Molars

128

______are also known as canines.

Cuspids

129

Functions of teeth include?

Tearing, Crushing, Cutting, and Clipping

130

________crush and grind food.

Both bicuspids and molars

131

True esophagus has several variations from the standard plan of the gut tube. These include?

Epithelium of mucosa is stratified squamous, and muscularis externa may be striated muscle.

132

During deglutition, which of the following phases is NOT present?

Laryngeal

133

Muscles known as the pharyngeal constrictors function in?

Swallowing

134

The ______supports most of the small intestine and provides stability and limited movement?

Mesentery proper

135

What provides access for blood vessels entering and leaving the liver?

Lesser omentum

136

Which of the following contains adipose tissue and provides padding for the anterior and lateral portions of the abdomen?

Greater omentum

137

The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity.

Secretes peritoneal fluid, Decreases friction, Lubricates the cavity, and Prevents irritation

138

Approximately ________ liters of fluid are secreted and reabsorbed into the peritoneal cavity each day.

7

139

The double-layer sheets of serous membrane that support the viscera are called?

Mesenteries

140

Regions of the stomach include all of the following, except?

Ileum

141

Which region of the stomach does the esophagus connect to?

Cardia

142

The greater omentum is?

A fatty sheet that hangs like an apron over the abdominal viscera

143

The portion of the stomach that is superior to the junction between the stomach and the esophagus is the?

Fundus

144

The part of the stomach that functions as a mixing chamber for food secretions in the?

Body

145

The region of the stomach that empties into the duodenum is the?

Pylorus

146

A feature of the digestive epithelium that assists expansion of the stomach is the presence of?

Rugae

147

The prominent ridges in the lining of the empty stomach are called?

Rugae

148

The _______mechanically digests ingested food?

Stomach

149

Parietal cells secrete?

Hydrochloric acid

150

Chief cells secrete?

Pepsinogen

151

Gastric pits are?

Opening into gastric glands

152

The enzymes pepsin digests?

Proteins

153

An enzyme secreted by the gastric mucosa of a newborn that assists in the digestion of milk proteins is?

Rennin

154

All of the following are true of the lining of the stomach, except that it?

Recycles bile

155

Which of the following is greater?

The pH of the blood in gastric veins during digestion of a large meal

156

A drug that blocks the action of carbonic anhydrase in parietal cells would result in?

A higher pH during gastric digestion

157

Mary had her stomach mostly removed to try to overcome obesity. As a result you would expect Mary to be at risk for?

Vitamin B12 deficiency

158

Lacteals?

Carry absorbed fats to the lymphatic system

159

Plicate and intestinal villi?

Increase the surface area of the mucosa of the small intestine

160

Plicate circulares are?

Circumferential folds in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine

161

Which of these enhance the absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine?

The plicate circulares, The villi, The microvilli, and Intestinal movement

162

Products of fat digestion are transported initially by?

Lacteals

163

Submucosal glands that secrete mucus are characteristic if the?

Duodenum

164

Duodenal glands are characteristic of the?

Small intestine

165

The villi are most developed in the?

Jejunum

166

Aggregated lymphoid nodules are characteristic of the?

Ileum

167

The middle segment of the small intestine is the?

Jejunum

168

The portion of the small intestine that attaches to the cecum is the?

Ileum

169

The part of the digestive tract that plays the primary role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients is the?

Jejunum

170

G cells of the stomach secrete?

Gastrin

171

An intestinal hormone that stimulates mucus secretion by the submucosal duodenal glands and dilation of intestinal capillaries is?

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)

172

The intestinal hormone that stimulates the pancreas to release a watery, bicarbonate-rich fluid is?

Secretin

173

An intestinal hormone that stimulates contraction of the gallbladder to release bile is?

Cholecystokinin

174

An intestinal hormone that stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreatic islet cells is ?

Gastric Inhibitory Peptide (GIP)

175

An intestinal hormone that stimulates gastric secretion is?

Gastrin

176

Which of these descriptions best matches the term gastrin?

Stimulates gastric secretion

177

The hormone that stimulates secretion and contraction by the stomach is?

Gastrin

178

Which of these descriptions best matches the term cholecystokinin (CCK)?

Causes gall bladder to contract

179

Gastrin secretion in response to elevated luminal pH is an example of?

Local stimulation

180

In response to the hormone cholecystokinin, the pancreas secretes a fluid?

Rich in enzymes

181

In response to the hormone secretin, the pancreas secretes a fluid?

Rich in bicarbonate ion (buffers)

182

In response to the arrival of acid chime in the duodenum, the?

Blood levels of secretin rise

183

A drug that blocks the action of the hormone cholecystokinin would affect?

Acid production by the stomach, The composition of pancreatic secretions, and The delivery of bile

184

During the cephalic phase of gastric secretion?

There is an increased flow of action potentials along the vagus nerve to the stomach

185

The gastric phase of gastric secretion is triggered by the?

Entry of food into the stomach

186

All of the following are true of the intestinal phase of gastric digestion, except that it?

Precedes the gastric phase

187

The gastroileal reflex?

Moves some chyme to the colon

188

The secretion of acid and enzymes by the gastric mucosa is controlled and regulated by?

The central nervous system, Short reflexes coordinated in the stomach wall, and Digestive tract hormones

189

Enterogastric reflexes?

Inhibit gastric motility, Inhibit gastric secretion, Are triggered by chyme entering the duodenum, and Involve the enteric nervous system

190

Which organ is responsible for dehydration and compaction of indigestible materials?

Large intestine

191

Powerful peristaltic contractions that occur a few times each day in the colon are called?

Mass movements

192

At the left colic flexure, the colon becomes the?

Descending colon

193

At the right colic flexure, the colon becomes the?

Transverse colon

194

Approximately the last 15 cm of the digestive tract is the?

Rectum

195

Haustra are?

Expansible pouches of the colon

196

The taeniae coli are?

Longitudinal bands of smooth muscle in the colon wall

197

The sac-like structure that joins the ileum at the ileocecal valve is the?

Cecum

198

A small, wormlike structure attached to the posteromedial surface of the cecum is the?

Appendix

199

This organ is primarily responsible for water absorption?

Large intestine

200

Movements unique to the large intestine are________movements?

Mass

201

Identify the salivary gland that secretes a watery mixture rich in salivary amylase and buffers

Submandibular

202

Which of the following is false about secretions from the salivary glands?

Contain enzymes for the digestion of disaccharides

203

The enzyme amylase digests?

Polysaccharides

204

Each of the following is a function of the liver, except?

Antibody production

205

The _______salivary glands are covered by the mucous membrane in the floor of the mouth?

Sublingual

206

Which salivary gland produces a serous secretion containing large amounts of salivary amylase?

Parotid

207

The ________gland empties into the oral cavity at the level of the second upper molar?

Parotid

208

The functions of the liver include?

Metabolic regulation, Hematological regulation, and Bile production

209

Increased secretion by all the salivary glands results from?

Parasympathetic stimulation

210

A blockage of the ducts from the parotid gland would?

Reduce delivery of saliva, Cause mumps-like swelling of the face, and Interfere with carbohydrate digestion in the mouth

211

The human liver is composed of______lobes?

Four

212

The structure that marks the division between the right and left lobes of the liver is the?

Falciform ligament

213

Which of the following is a remnant of the fetal umbilical vein?

Round ligament

214

In the center of a liver lobule there is a?

Central vein

215

The basic function unit of the liver is the?

Lobule

216

________are arranged within a lobule of the liver into a series of plates converging towards a central vein?

Hepatocytes

217

The Kupffer cells of the liver?

Destroy damaged RBCs, Destroy bacteria, Present antigens, and Are phagocytic

218

Which of these descriptions best matches the term duodenal ampulla?

Where pancreatic juice and bile enter the duodenum

219

The duodenal ampulla receives secretions from the?

Common bile duct and the pancreatic duct

220

The fusion of the hepatic duct and cystic duct forms the?

Common bile duct

221

The exocrine portion of the pancreas is composed of?

Pancreatic acini

222

The pancreas produces?

Lipase and amylase, Nucleases, and Peptidases and proteinases

223

The pancreas produces ______digesting enzymes in the form of proenzymes?

Protein

224

Bile is stored in the?

Gallbladder

225

Enzymes secreted by the pancreas include?

Trypsin, Amylase, Nuclease, and Chymotrypsinogen

226

An enzyme that digests proteins into peptides is?

Trypsin

227

Blockage of the common hepatic duct would interfere with digestion of?

Fats

228

Tom has hepatitis, an inflammation of the liver. Which of the following symptoms would you expect to observe in Tom?

Jaundice

229

Tony is a chronic alcoholic with cirrhosis of the liver, a condition in which liver cells die and are replaced by connective tissue. Which of the following signs would you expect to observe in Tony?

Increased clotting time, Jaundice, and Portal hypertension and ascites

230

The sum of all of the biochemical processes going on within the human body at any given time is called?

Metabolism

231

Cells synthesize new organic components for which of the following reasons?

Structural maintenance, Growth and repair, and Production of secretions

232

The citric acid cycle?

Begins with the formation of a molecule of citric acid.

233

The carbon dioxide of respiration is formed during?

The citric acid cycle

234

The electron transport system?

Receives electrons from coenzymes, Produces energy that supports the synthesis of ATP, and Is found on the inner mitochondrial membrane (The Cristae)

235

Reactions within________provide most of the energy needed by a typical cell.

The Mitochondria

236

The function of the citric acid cycle is to?

Remove hydrogen atoms from organic molecules and transfer them to coenzymes

237

Cells must synthesize new organic compounds?

To support growth, Perform structural maintenance/repairs, Produce secretions, and Store nutrient reserves

238

In the ETS,________accepts electrons from one molecule and transfers them to another?

A coenzyme or a cytochrome

239

Poisons like cyanide bind to _______and prevent electron transfer?

Cytochromes

240

Cells perform catabolism to generate ATP, which can be used for?

Muscle contraction, Ion transport, Protein synthesis, and Glycogen synthesis

241

The major job of coenzymes in oxidative phosphorylation include all of the following, except?

The breaking of carbon-carbon covalent bonds

242

In oxidative phosphorylation, energy for the synthesis of ATP is directly obtained from?

The movement of hydrogen ions through channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane

243

Catabolism of all the following is fairly common for energy production, except?

Protein

244

Although other nutrients can feed into the citric acid cycle, ________ yields energy the quickest?

Glucose

245

The largest lipoproteins, ________ are produced by intestinal epithelial cells from the fats in food?

Chylomicrons

246

_______carry excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver?

High density lipoproteins (HDLs)

247

The lipoproteins that carry absorbed lipids from the intestinal tract to the bloodstream are the?

Chylomicrons

248

Lipids?

Provide energy for cells with modest energy demands like resting skeletal muscle

249

In the human body, cholesterol is important because it?

Is a lipid component of all cell membranes, Is a key constituent of bile, and, Is the precursor of several steroid hormones and vitamin D3

250

A drug that blocks the action of lipoprotein lipase would?

Interfere with triglyceride utilization, and Prolong the circulation time of chylomicrons

251

During lipolysis?

Triglycerides are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids

252

All of the following are true of beta-oxidations, except that?

Lipids are converted into glycogen molecules

253

Lipogenesis generally begins with?

Acetyl-CoA

254

Linoleic acid and linolenic acid are examples of?

Essential fatty acids

255

The essential fatty acids are?

Linoleic acid and linolenic acids

256

The nutrients that yield the most energy per gram when metabolized are?

Fats

257

In transamination, the amino group of an amino acid is, _______ yielding a different amino acid?

Transferred to another molecule

258

The conversion of ammonia into a less toxic substance produces?

Urea

259

Urea is formed in the?

Liver

260

For children there are ______essential amino acids?

10

261

During the absorptive state?

The liver forms glycogen and insulin levels are elevated

262

All of the following occur during the postabsorptive state, except that?

Levels of blood glucose are elevated

263

Glucocorticoids have which of the following effects on general peripheral tissues?

They increase the conversion of amino acids to pyruvate, They increase gluconeogenesis, and They increase glycogenolysis

264

When the body is relying on internal energy reserves to continue meeting its energy demands, it is in the?

Postabsorptive state

265

Which of the following complements the actions of glucocorticoids?

Growth hormone

266

Wally decides to go on a hunger strike to further one of his favorite causes. After many days with nothing but water you would expect to observe?

Elevated levels of glucocorticoids, Ketone bodies in urine, and Lowered blood pH

267

The vitamin that plays a role in maintaining epithelia and is required for the synthesis of visual pigments is?

Vitamin A

268

The vitamin that is required for proper bone growth and for calcium absorption and retention is?

Vitamin D

269

The vitamin that prevents breakdown of vitamin A and fatty acids is?

Vitamin E

270

The vitamin that is part of coenzymes in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle is?

Riboflavin

271

A deficiency in vitamin D would result in which of the following disorders?

Rickets

272

A vitamin obtained from meat that is a coenzyme in amino acid and lipid metabolism is?

Pyridoxine (B6)

273

Deficiency in this vitamin can result in a condition called scurvy?

Vitamin C

274

The vitamin that is a coenzyme in amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism is?

Folic acid (Folate)

275

The vitamin that is essential for the production of several clotting factors is?

Vitamin K

276

The vitamin whose deficiency causes beriberi is?

Thiamine

277

A disorder caused by the ingestion of excessive quantities of a fat-soluble vitamin is known as?

Hypervitaminosis

278

The food pyramid recommends many servings a day of dark-green and orange vegetables. Which vitamin is particularly abundant in this food group?

Vitamin A, C, E, and Folic acid

279

Inadequate exposure to sunlight could result in decreased amounts of vitamin_____in the body?

D

280

Impaired fat absorption in the intestine would interfere with the absorption of?

Vitamin A

281

A balanced diet should?

Include adequate substrates for the production of energy, Provide essential amino acids and fatty acids, and Contain adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals

282

A high uric acid level (above 7.4mg/dl) can lead to the painful condition known as?

Gout

283

Obesity is defined as a body weight more than _______ percent above the ideal body weight for an individual?

20%

284

On a tour of African countries, Don contracts a bad case of traveler's diarrhea. Because he cant eat very much, his body starts to use energy sources other than carbohydrates. This would result in?

Increased levels of rea in the blood, Ketosis and a decrease blood pH, and Increased gluconeogenesis in the liver