284 notecards = 71 pages (4 cards per page)
Which of the following processes is the function of the smooth muscle layer of the digestive system?
Mixing and propulsion
Which of the following processes is the primary function of the mouth?
Which of the following processes is the primary function of the villi of the small intestine?
Which of the following accessory organs produces a fluid to soften food?
Which of the following accessory organs produces a fluid that functions to emulsify dietary fats?
Which of the following accessory organs stores bile?
The capability of the GI tract to move material along its length is called?
This layer of the GI tract is composed of areolar connective tissue containing blood and lymph vessels?
This layer of the GI tract is composed of areolar connective tissue that binds the mucosa to the muscularis?
This layer functions by secreting a lubricating fluid?
These are composed of prominent lymphatic nodules that function in the immune response?
This plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers of the muscularis?
Why do emotions such as anger or fear slow digestion?
Because they stimulate the sympathetic nerves that supply the GI tract.
This portion of the peritoneum drapes over the transverse colon and coils of the small intestine?
This portion of the peritoneum attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and diaphragm?
This portion of the peritoneum is largely responsible for carrying blood and lymph vessels to the intestines?
The hard palate?
Is the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth, Is formed by the maxillae and palatine bones, and Is covered by a mucous membrane.
In the mouth, this runs posteriorly to the sides of the pharynx?
In the mouth, the tooth sockets are lined with?
Deciduous molars are replaced by?
How many stages of deglutition are there?
This structure of the stomach allows greater distension for food storage?
Which of the following secrete gastric acid?
This cell secretes the hormone that promotes production of gastric acid?
How long can food stay in the fundus before being mixed with gastric juices?
This major duct carries a fluid rich in bicarbonate ions?
Which of the following gastric enzymes digests proteins?
This is the heaviest gland of the body?
This is found on the liver and is a remnant of the umbilical cord in a fetus?
This is the principle bile pigment?
Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver?
Storage of bilibrubin
Which of the following small intestine cells secrete lysozyme?
Secrete both mucous and an alkaline juice
Which of the following enzymes acts to produce monoglycerides as products?
Which of the following pancreatic enzymes act to produce monosaccharides?
Which of the following pancreatic enzymes act to produce smaller peptides from proteins?
This hormone functions to counteract the effect of gastric acid in the small intestine?
This hormone is stimulates by high levels of dietary fat in the small intestine?
This digestive aid, produced by the stomach, begins digestion by denaturing proteins?
This structure regulates the flow of material into the colon?
Which of the following is the primary function of the large intestine?
Chemical reactions that break down complex organic molecules into simpler ones are called?
Chemical reactions that combine simple molecules and monomers to form complex structures are known as?
When the terminal phosphate is cut off ATP, what is formed?
The removal of electrons
Reduction is the?
The addition of electrons
This is a derivative of vitamin B?
Which of the following is NOT a form of phosphorylation?
Glycogenesis is NOT?
One way to make glycogen
This process is the synthesis of triglycerides?
This reaction oxidizes acetyl co-A to produce carbon dioxide, ATP, NADH=H, and FADH2?
Glycolysis, formation of acetyl co-A, Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain are all involved in?
This is the key regulator of the rate of glyocolysis?
Where can pyruvate dehydrogenase be found?
The most abundant product of the reaction of the Kreb cycle is?
Reduced co enzymes
The net result of the complete oxidation of glucose does NOT include?
How many reactions take place during the Krebs cycle?
When a large amount of H+ accumulates between the inner and outer mitochondria membranes, this describes?
How many ATPs can come from substrate level phosphorylation during glycolysis?
What hormone stimulates glycogenesis?
What hormone stimulates gluconeogenesis?
Glycogenolysis is _______and stimulates by________?
These transport dietary lipids?
Where does glycolysis take place?
Where does the Kreb cycle take place?
Lipogenesis occurs when?
More calories are consumed than required for ATP need
Excess amino acids in the body are?
Converted into glucose
Live cells convert?
Ammonia into urea
Can be used to make ribose-5-phosphate, Can be dephosphorylated to glucose, Can be used to synthesize glycogen, and Can be converted to pyruvic acid
Which of the following are used in "metabolic crossroads"?
In the absorptive state?
Storage of energy is important
Most glucose that enters the liver is converted to?
Can enter Krebs or be used for ATP production
Which of the following is NOT a postabsorptive state reaction?
Cardiac muscles can produce ATP from?
The most dramatic metabolic change that occurs with fasting is?
Increase in Lipolysis
Which of the following is a factor that does NOT affect heat production?
This is a mechanism of heat transfer that involves direct contact?
The higher the relative humidity?
The lower the rate of evaporation
The heat promoting center stimulates parts of the brain that?
Stimulates skeletal muscle activity
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is secreted by the?
Neuropeptide Y stimulates?
Which of the following is NOT a major nutrient the body needs?
Building blocks of vitamins
Which of the following is a fat-soluble vitamin?
Can inactivate oxygen free radicals
Each of the following organs is a component of the digestive tract, except the?
Which of the following is an accessory organ of digestion?
The lamina propria and mucous epithelium are components of the?
Which of these descriptions best matches the term myenteric plexus?
Coordinates activity of muscularis externa
Contraction of the _____alters the shape of the intestinal lumen and moves epithelial pleats and folds?
The ______are double sheets of peritoneal membrane that suspend the visceral organs and carry nerves, lymphatics, and blood vessels.
Sensory nerve cells, parasympathetic ganglia, and sympathetic postganglionic fibers can be found in the?
Sandwiched between the layer of circular and longitudinal muscle in the muscularis externa is the ?
Which layer of the digestive tract has a dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the muscularis mucosae?
Which of the following is classified as being either squamous or columnar?
Large blood vessels and lymphatics are found in the?
The layer of loose connective tissue that directly supports the digestive epithelium is the?
Which of these descriptions best matches the term submucosal plexus?
Includes a sensory neural network
The oral mucosa has ______epithelium?
A stratified squamous epithelial lining can be found in all of the following, except in the?
A disease that attacks and disables the myenteric plexus would?
Decreases intestinal motility
In the digestive and urinary systems, rings of smooth muscle, called ______, regulate the movement of materials along internal passageways.
The ability of functions over a wide range of lengths is called?
What type of muscle cells are arranged in sheets or layers, with adjacent muscle cells electrically connected by gap junctions and mechanically connected by dense bodies?
Visceral smooth muscles
Waves of muscular contractions that propel the contents of the digestive tract are called?
The activities of the digestive system are regulated by?
Hormones, Parasympathetic and Sympathetic neurons, The content of the digestive tract, and Intrinsic nerve plexuses
Which of the following is NOT a function of the digestive system?
A structure that helps prevent food from entering the pharynx prematurely is the?
Functions of the tongue include all of the following, except?
Partitioning the oropharynx from the nasopharynx
________pairs of salivary glands secrete into the oral cavity?
The roof of the oral cavity is formed by the?
Hard palate, and Soft palate
The space between the cheeks or lips and teeth is called the?
The ridge of oral mucosa that surrounds the base of a tooth is the?
Carbohydrate digestive begins in the?
The connection of the anterior portion of the tongue to the underlying epithelium is the?
The uvula is located at the?
Posterior margin of the soft palate
The functions of the oral cavity include all of the following, except?
Absorption of monosaccharides
Which of the following is a function of the tongue?
Manipulation to assist with chewing, Mechanical processing, Sensory analysis, and Secretion of mucins
The bulk of each tooth consists of a mineralized matrix similar to that of bone called?
The chamber within a tooth that contains blood vessels and nerves is the?
The root of a tooth is covered by?
The crown of a tooth is covered by?
_______are blade-shaped teeth that function in cutting or clipping?
_______are pointed teeth that are adapted for tearing and slashing?
_________are teeth with flattened crowns and prominent ridges that are adapted for crushing and grinding?
______are also known as canines.
Functions of teeth include?
Tearing, Crushing, Cutting, and Clipping
________crush and grind food.
Both bicuspids and molars
True esophagus has several variations from the standard plan of the gut tube. These include?
Epithelium of mucosa is stratified squamous, and muscularis externa may be striated muscle.
During deglutition, which of the following phases is NOT present?
Muscles known as the pharyngeal constrictors function in?
The ______supports most of the small intestine and provides stability and limited movement?
What provides access for blood vessels entering and leaving the liver?
Which of the following contains adipose tissue and provides padding for the anterior and lateral portions of the abdomen?
The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity.
Secretes peritoneal fluid, Decreases friction, Lubricates the cavity, and Prevents irritation
Approximately ________ liters of fluid are secreted and reabsorbed into the peritoneal cavity each day.
The double-layer sheets of serous membrane that support the viscera are called?
Regions of the stomach include all of the following, except?
Which region of the stomach does the esophagus connect to?
The greater omentum is?
A fatty sheet that hangs like an apron over the abdominal viscera
The portion of the stomach that is superior to the junction between the stomach and the esophagus is the?
The part of the stomach that functions as a mixing chamber for food secretions in the?
The region of the stomach that empties into the duodenum is the?
A feature of the digestive epithelium that assists expansion of the stomach is the presence of?
The prominent ridges in the lining of the empty stomach are called?
The _______mechanically digests ingested food?
Parietal cells secrete?
Chief cells secrete?
Gastric pits are?
Opening into gastric glands
The enzymes pepsin digests?
An enzyme secreted by the gastric mucosa of a newborn that assists in the digestion of milk proteins is?
All of the following are true of the lining of the stomach, except that it?
Which of the following is greater?
The pH of the blood in gastric veins during digestion of a large meal
A drug that blocks the action of carbonic anhydrase in parietal cells would result in?
A higher pH during gastric digestion
Mary had her stomach mostly removed to try to overcome obesity. As a result you would expect Mary to be at risk for?
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Carry absorbed fats to the lymphatic system
Plicate and intestinal villi?
Increase the surface area of the mucosa of the small intestine
Plicate circulares are?
Circumferential folds in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine
Which of these enhance the absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine?
The plicate circulares, The villi, The microvilli, and Intestinal movement
Products of fat digestion are transported initially by?
Submucosal glands that secrete mucus are characteristic if the?
Duodenal glands are characteristic of the?
The villi are most developed in the?
Aggregated lymphoid nodules are characteristic of the?
The middle segment of the small intestine is the?
The portion of the small intestine that attaches to the cecum is the?
The part of the digestive tract that plays the primary role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients is the?
G cells of the stomach secrete?
An intestinal hormone that stimulates mucus secretion by the submucosal duodenal glands and dilation of intestinal capillaries is?
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
The intestinal hormone that stimulates the pancreas to release a watery, bicarbonate-rich fluid is?
An intestinal hormone that stimulates contraction of the gallbladder to release bile is?
An intestinal hormone that stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreatic islet cells is ?
Gastric Inhibitory Peptide (GIP)
An intestinal hormone that stimulates gastric secretion is?
Which of these descriptions best matches the term gastrin?
Stimulates gastric secretion
The hormone that stimulates secretion and contraction by the stomach is?
Which of these descriptions best matches the term cholecystokinin (CCK)?
Causes gall bladder to contract
Gastrin secretion in response to elevated luminal pH is an example of?
In response to the hormone cholecystokinin, the pancreas secretes a fluid?
Rich in enzymes
In response to the hormone secretin, the pancreas secretes a fluid?
Rich in bicarbonate ion (buffers)
In response to the arrival of acid chime in the duodenum, the?
Blood levels of secretin rise
A drug that blocks the action of the hormone cholecystokinin would affect?
Acid production by the stomach, The composition of pancreatic secretions, and The delivery of bile
During the cephalic phase of gastric secretion?
There is an increased flow of action potentials along the vagus nerve to the stomach
The gastric phase of gastric secretion is triggered by the?
Entry of food into the stomach
All of the following are true of the intestinal phase of gastric digestion, except that it?
Precedes the gastric phase
The gastroileal reflex?
Moves some chyme to the colon
The secretion of acid and enzymes by the gastric mucosa is controlled and regulated by?
The central nervous system, Short reflexes coordinated in the stomach wall, and Digestive tract hormones
Inhibit gastric motility, Inhibit gastric secretion, Are triggered by chyme entering the duodenum, and Involve the enteric nervous system
Which organ is responsible for dehydration and compaction of indigestible materials?
Powerful peristaltic contractions that occur a few times each day in the colon are called?
At the left colic flexure, the colon becomes the?
At the right colic flexure, the colon becomes the?
Approximately the last 15 cm of the digestive tract is the?
Expansible pouches of the colon
The taeniae coli are?
Longitudinal bands of smooth muscle in the colon wall
The sac-like structure that joins the ileum at the ileocecal valve is the?
A small, wormlike structure attached to the posteromedial surface of the cecum is the?
This organ is primarily responsible for water absorption?
Movements unique to the large intestine are________movements?
Identify the salivary gland that secretes a watery mixture rich in salivary amylase and buffers
Which of the following is false about secretions from the salivary glands?
Contain enzymes for the digestion of disaccharides
The enzyme amylase digests?
Each of the following is a function of the liver, except?
The _______salivary glands are covered by the mucous membrane in the floor of the mouth?
Which salivary gland produces a serous secretion containing large amounts of salivary amylase?
The ________gland empties into the oral cavity at the level of the second upper molar?
The functions of the liver include?
Metabolic regulation, Hematological regulation, and Bile production
Increased secretion by all the salivary glands results from?
A blockage of the ducts from the parotid gland would?
Reduce delivery of saliva, Cause mumps-like swelling of the face, and Interfere with carbohydrate digestion in the mouth
The human liver is composed of______lobes?
The structure that marks the division between the right and left lobes of the liver is the?
Which of the following is a remnant of the fetal umbilical vein?
In the center of a liver lobule there is a?
The basic function unit of the liver is the?
________are arranged within a lobule of the liver into a series of plates converging towards a central vein?
The Kupffer cells of the liver?
Destroy damaged RBCs, Destroy bacteria, Present antigens, and Are phagocytic
Which of these descriptions best matches the term duodenal ampulla?
Where pancreatic juice and bile enter the duodenum
The duodenal ampulla receives secretions from the?
Common bile duct and the pancreatic duct
The fusion of the hepatic duct and cystic duct forms the?
Common bile duct
The exocrine portion of the pancreas is composed of?
The pancreas produces?
Lipase and amylase, Nucleases, and Peptidases and proteinases
The pancreas produces ______digesting enzymes in the form of proenzymes?
Bile is stored in the?
Enzymes secreted by the pancreas include?
Trypsin, Amylase, Nuclease, and Chymotrypsinogen
An enzyme that digests proteins into peptides is?
Blockage of the common hepatic duct would interfere with digestion of?
Tom has hepatitis, an inflammation of the liver. Which of the following symptoms would you expect to observe in Tom?
Tony is a chronic alcoholic with cirrhosis of the liver, a condition in which liver cells die and are replaced by connective tissue. Which of the following signs would you expect to observe in Tony?
Increased clotting time, Jaundice, and Portal hypertension and ascites
The sum of all of the biochemical processes going on within the human body at any given time is called?
Cells synthesize new organic components for which of the following reasons?
Structural maintenance, Growth and repair, and Production of secretions
The citric acid cycle?
Begins with the formation of a molecule of citric acid.
The carbon dioxide of respiration is formed during?
The citric acid cycle
The electron transport system?
Receives electrons from coenzymes, Produces energy that supports the synthesis of ATP, and Is found on the inner mitochondrial membrane (The Cristae)
Reactions within________provide most of the energy needed by a typical cell.
The function of the citric acid cycle is to?
Remove hydrogen atoms from organic molecules and transfer them to coenzymes
Cells must synthesize new organic compounds?
To support growth, Perform structural maintenance/repairs, Produce secretions, and Store nutrient reserves
In the ETS,________accepts electrons from one molecule and transfers them to another?
A coenzyme or a cytochrome
Poisons like cyanide bind to _______and prevent electron transfer?
Cells perform catabolism to generate ATP, which can be used for?
Muscle contraction, Ion transport, Protein synthesis, and Glycogen synthesis
The major job of coenzymes in oxidative phosphorylation include all of the following, except?
The breaking of carbon-carbon covalent bonds
In oxidative phosphorylation, energy for the synthesis of ATP is directly obtained from?
The movement of hydrogen ions through channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane
Catabolism of all the following is fairly common for energy production, except?
Although other nutrients can feed into the citric acid cycle, ________ yields energy the quickest?
The largest lipoproteins, ________ are produced by intestinal epithelial cells from the fats in food?
_______carry excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver?
High density lipoproteins (HDLs)
The lipoproteins that carry absorbed lipids from the intestinal tract to the bloodstream are the?
Provide energy for cells with modest energy demands like resting skeletal muscle
In the human body, cholesterol is important because it?
Is a lipid component of all cell membranes, Is a key constituent of bile, and, Is the precursor of several steroid hormones and vitamin D3
A drug that blocks the action of lipoprotein lipase would?
Interfere with triglyceride utilization, and Prolong the circulation time of chylomicrons
Triglycerides are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids
All of the following are true of beta-oxidations, except that?
Lipids are converted into glycogen molecules
Lipogenesis generally begins with?
Linoleic acid and linolenic acid are examples of?
Essential fatty acids
The essential fatty acids are?
Linoleic acid and linolenic acids
The nutrients that yield the most energy per gram when metabolized are?
In transamination, the amino group of an amino acid is, _______ yielding a different amino acid?
Transferred to another molecule
The conversion of ammonia into a less toxic substance produces?
Urea is formed in the?
For children there are ______essential amino acids?
During the absorptive state?
The liver forms glycogen and insulin levels are elevated
All of the following occur during the postabsorptive state, except that?
Levels of blood glucose are elevated
Glucocorticoids have which of the following effects on general peripheral tissues?
They increase the conversion of amino acids to pyruvate, They increase gluconeogenesis, and They increase glycogenolysis
When the body is relying on internal energy reserves to continue meeting its energy demands, it is in the?
Which of the following complements the actions of glucocorticoids?
Wally decides to go on a hunger strike to further one of his favorite causes. After many days with nothing but water you would expect to observe?
Elevated levels of glucocorticoids, Ketone bodies in urine, and Lowered blood pH
The vitamin that plays a role in maintaining epithelia and is required for the synthesis of visual pigments is?
The vitamin that is required for proper bone growth and for calcium absorption and retention is?
The vitamin that prevents breakdown of vitamin A and fatty acids is?
The vitamin that is part of coenzymes in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle is?
A deficiency in vitamin D would result in which of the following disorders?
A vitamin obtained from meat that is a coenzyme in amino acid and lipid metabolism is?
Deficiency in this vitamin can result in a condition called scurvy?
The vitamin that is a coenzyme in amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism is?
Folic acid (Folate)
The vitamin that is essential for the production of several clotting factors is?
The vitamin whose deficiency causes beriberi is?
A disorder caused by the ingestion of excessive quantities of a fat-soluble vitamin is known as?
The food pyramid recommends many servings a day of dark-green and orange vegetables. Which vitamin is particularly abundant in this food group?
Vitamin A, C, E, and Folic acid
Inadequate exposure to sunlight could result in decreased amounts of vitamin_____in the body?
Impaired fat absorption in the intestine would interfere with the absorption of?
A balanced diet should?
Include adequate substrates for the production of energy, Provide essential amino acids and fatty acids, and Contain adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals
A high uric acid level (above 7.4mg/dl) can lead to the painful condition known as?
Obesity is defined as a body weight more than _______ percent above the ideal body weight for an individual?
On a tour of African countries, Don contracts a bad case of traveler's diarrhea. Because he cant eat very much, his body starts to use energy sources other than carbohydrates. This would result in?
Increased levels of rea in the blood, Ketosis and a decrease blood pH, and Increased gluconeogenesis in the liver