What are the 5 challenges to survival?
1. energy acquisition
2. exchange of materials
3. internal transport of materials
4. maintaining water
What are cells organized into?
tissues, organs, organ systems
What are the 4 general tissue types?
epithelium, connective, muscle, nervous
What are the 4 types of epithelium tissue?
2. simple columnar
3. simple squamous
What does epithelial tissue cover?
The outside of the body, organs, and cavities.
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
1. Skeletal (voluntary)
2. Smooth (involuntary)
3. Cardiac (involuntary)
What type of tissue is blood?
What systems control the other organ systems?
endocrine and nervous
What are the 2 major systems for controlling and coordinating responses to stimuli?
1. endocrine system
2. nervous system
What are the 4 key functions to most excretory systems?
What do both ammonia and urea contain?
What is toxic to cells?
What 2 things are produced when nucleic acids and proteins are digested or metabolized?
ammonia and urea
The liver uses ____ _____ to convert ammonia to urea.
How does water return to the blood?
What can eating salty foods increase?
Kidney disease can result from damage along any part of the _____.
The kidney's ability to concentrate urine depends on the maintenance of an osmolarity gradient between the interstitial fluid of two structures: the cortex and the _____.
Osmolarity gradient is maintained by both the passive transport of ____.
The osmolarity gradient is also maintained by the passive transport of ____.
Water responds to the osmolarity gradient by moving from an area of lower concentration to an area of high solute concentration--a process called ______.
Osmosis does not require energy. For this reason, osmosis is a form of ____ _____.
The loss of water from the _____ results in urine that is highly concentrated.
________ allows for cellular specialization with particular cells devoted to specific activities.
________ requires organization and results in an internal environment that differs from the external environment.
________ in ectotherms often includes adjustments at a cellular level.
The _______ triggers heat loss or heat-generating mechanisms.
________ may supplement body heat through environmental factors like sitting in the sun.
The _______ system is well adapted for coordinating gradual changes that affect the entire body.
The ______ system is well suited for directing immediate and rapid responses to the environment.
Coordination of pH control in the duodenum relies on an ______ pathway.
The intracellular response is called _____ _______.