Bio Exam #2-Chapter 32 Comprehension Flashcards


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1

What are the 5 challenges to survival?

1. energy acquisition

2. exchange of materials

3. internal transport of materials

4. maintaining water

5. communication

2

What are cells organized into?

tissues, organs, organ systems

3

What are the 4 general tissue types?

epithelium, connective, muscle, nervous

4

What are the 4 types of epithelium tissue?

1. cuboidal

2. simple columnar

3. simple squamous

4. psedostratified

5

What does epithelial tissue cover?

The outside of the body, organs, and cavities.

6

What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?

1. Skeletal (voluntary)

2. Smooth (involuntary)

3. Cardiac (involuntary)

7

What type of tissue is blood?

Connective

8

What systems control the other organ systems?

endocrine and nervous

9

What are the 2 major systems for controlling and coordinating responses to stimuli?

1. endocrine system

2. nervous system

10

What are the 4 key functions to most excretory systems?

1. Filtration

2. Reabsorption

3. Secretion

4. Excretion

11

What do both ammonia and urea contain?

nitrogen

12

What is toxic to cells?

ammonia

13

What 2 things are produced when nucleic acids and proteins are digested or metabolized?

ammonia and urea

14

The liver uses ____ _____ to convert ammonia to urea.

carbon dioxide

15

How does water return to the blood?

osmosis

16

What can eating salty foods increase?

osmolarity

17

Kidney disease can result from damage along any part of the _____.

nephron

18

The kidney's ability to concentrate urine depends on the maintenance of an osmolarity gradient between the interstitial fluid of two structures: the cortex and the _____.

medulla

19

Osmolarity gradient is maintained by both the passive transport of ____.

NaCl

20

The osmolarity gradient is also maintained by the passive transport of ____.

urea

21

Water responds to the osmolarity gradient by moving from an area of lower concentration to an area of high solute concentration--a process called ______.

osmosis

22

Osmosis does not require energy. For this reason, osmosis is a form of ____ _____.

passive transport

23

The loss of water from the _____ results in urine that is highly concentrated.

filtrate

24

________ allows for cellular specialization with particular cells devoted to specific activities.

multicellularity

25

________ requires organization and results in an internal environment that differs from the external environment.

specialization

26

________ in ectotherms often includes adjustments at a cellular level.

acclimatization

27

The _______ triggers heat loss or heat-generating mechanisms.

hypothalamus

28

________ may supplement body heat through environmental factors like sitting in the sun.

endotherms

29

The _______ system is well adapted for coordinating gradual changes that affect the entire body.

endocrine

30

The ______ system is well suited for directing immediate and rapid responses to the environment.

nervous

31

Coordination of pH control in the duodenum relies on an ______ pathway.

endocrine

32

The intracellular response is called _____ _______.

signal transduction