Surgical Technology for the Surgical Technologist: A Positive Care Approach: Diagnostic Procedures Chapter 13 (Nicola) Flashcards


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1

What is intermittent or continuous cardiac pain caused by anoxia of the myocardium called

Angina

2

What is the act of listening, either directly or through a stethoscope or other instrument, to sounds within the body as a method of diagnosis calledIE: lungs, heart, & abdomen

Auscultation

3

What is the removal of living tissue from the body for diagnostic examination called

Biopsy

4

What is a mobile unit used in surgery or at the bedside that produces "real time" fluoroscopic images for the surgeon, or radiographer called

C-arm

5

What is used in the anesthetic setting to provide a breath-by-breath analysis of expired carbon dioxide (end-tidal CO2)called

Capnography

6

What is the fluid that flows through the ventricles of the brain, subarachnoid space, and spinal canal; serves to protect these structures called

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

7

What is a preoperative and intraoperative diagnostic tool in which a catheter is inserted into the common bile duct and contrast medium is injected to outline potential calculi under fluoroscopy called

Cholangiography

8

What is the solution injected into arteries, veins, or ducts during a radiographic exam that is radiopaque and therefore stands out in contrast to the surrounding tissues called
IE: Hypaque, Renografin, or Cystografin

Contrast medium

9

What is a solution that fills the hollow cavities of the brain, circulates around the brain and spinal cord, it provides nourishment, cushions, and removes wastes called

Cerebral Spinal Fluid
CSF

10

What is the insertion of an endoscope through the urethra and into the bladder for the purpose of viewing for treatment and diagnosis called

Cystoscopy

11

What is the abbreviation for electrocardiogram, which is a record of the electrical activity of the heart

ECG or EKG

12

What is the abbreviation electroencephalography. Display and recording of the brain’s electrical activity by measurement of changes in electric potentials

EEG

13

What is a quick preparation of a biopsy sample for examination during an actual surgical procedure to determines if a sample is benign or malignant. A pathological method of diagnosis that involves freezing a tissue sample, slicing it into thin sections, staining it, and then viewing it under a microscope

Frozen Section

14

What is the suffix for written record

Gram

15

What is the laboratory method of identifying bacteria; bacteria that stain purple are referred to as gram-positive, and bacteria that do not retain the stain and appear red in color are referred to as gram-negative

Gram Stain

16

What is the suffix meaning producing a drawing or writing

Graph

17

What is a substance or item that remains in place either permanently or for a period of time, for instance a Foley remains in place until the patient is able to completely void.

Indwelling

18

What procedure involves the intravenous injection of a radioactive isotope into the patient prior to an imaging study; also referred to as nuclear medicine study or radionuclide imaging

Isotope Scanning

19

What is the name of something that causes or forms a blockage or hindrance of a passage

Obstruction

20

What is the term for an examination technique in which the examiner's hands are used to feel the texture, size, consistency, and location of certain body parts. Examining by touch.

Palpation

21

What is an artificial device used to replace a body structure, aid bodily function, or give a cosmetic appearance; may be permanent or removable

Prosthesis

22

What is the process of recording Radiography; X-rays (radiation)

Roentgenography

23

What is the indication of a disease or condition perceived by the EXAMINER

Sign

24

What is the Indication of a disease or condition perceived by the PATIENT

Symptom

25

What is the use of high-frequency waves that are directed into the body and are reflected from the tissues to record an image for diagnostic purposes called

Ultrasonography

26

What is the laboratory examination of a urine specimen for diagnostic purposes

Urinalysis

27

What is an X-ray produced by the collision of a beam of electrons with a metal target within an X-ray tube

Radiography (Roentgenography)

28

What is the unit of energy
Penetrability of the X-ray beam

Joule

29

What does RADS refer to

Radiation Absorbed Dosage

30

What is directed from the front toward the back

Anteroposterior

31

For an X-Ray what radiographic views require that the film be placed underneath the patient

Anteroposterior (AP)

32

For an X-Ray what view demands placement next to the body

Lateral views

33

What is it called when the surgeon uses his eyes (no instruments) to look direct at something

Direct visualization

34

What is it called when the surgeon uses instruments, for instance otoscope/ophthalmoscope, laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy for viewing

Enhanced visualization

35

What is it called when a surgeon uses an instrument to help perform exams (pharyngeal mirror)

Indirect visualization

36

A radiographic examination of the breast to detect the presence of tumors or precancerous cells

card image

Mammography

37

What diagnostic procedure is performed to evaluate the spine for patients with neck, back, or leg pain.

Myelography

38

MRI is useful in imaging the spinal cord, nerve roots, and disks, BUT myelography has the added benefit of clearly outlining bone tissue, and for patients with metal implants

MRI vs Myelography

39

For a myelographic study to be performed what has to be injected into the cerebrospinal fluid at the lower lumbar level to outline the spinal cord and nerve roots

Contrast Medium

40

What diagnostic procedure is performed to identify osteophytes (bony spurs) or disk extrusions, along with a myelographic study

Computed Axial Tomography (CAT)

41

What diagnostic procedure utilizes X-rays to project images of body structures onto a monitor, the images may be viewed during movement and projected in “real time,” allowing the action of joints and organs to be viewed directly.

Fluoroscopy

42

The C-arm is frequently used in conjunction with a special radiographic table that allows X-rays to pass through the tabletop, which is referred to as being ........

Radiolucent

43

Angiography (including cardiac catheterization)
Cholangiography
Retrograde urography
Aid in bone realignment and prosthesis placement
Verification of catheter placement epidural/central venous pressure and lead pacemaker introduction
To direct instrumentation, neurosurgery/orthopedics

Fluoroscopy Intraoperative Applications

44

What diagnostic procedure remains the reference standard for assessing the cause and severity of peripheral vascular disease

Angiography

45

What is an invasive procedure that must be accomplished under sterile conditions

Angiography

46

What diagnostic procedure allows the visualization of most veins and arteries of the body following the intravenous or intra-arterial injection of a contrast medium, and are typically performed in a cardiac catheterization laboratory

Angiography

47

What are solutions that are injected into the arteries or veins during angiography that are not penetrable by X-rays (that is, they are radiopaque) and therefore stand out in contrast to the surrounding tissues during angiographic study.

Contrast materials

48

For an Angiography the ....... the radius of the catheter, the safer is the procedure

The smaller

49

What is the name for a method of percutaneous insertion of a catheter into a blood vessel or space. A needle is used to puncture the structure and a guide wire is threaded through the needle; when the needle is withdrawn, a catheter is threaded over the wire; the wire is then withdrawn, leaving the catheter in place.

Seldinger technique

50

What diagnostic procedure permits the evaluation of heart function, visualization of coronary arteries and cardiac chambers, to diagnose coronary artery, valvular, pulmonary, and congenital heart disease

Cardiac catheterization

51

What procedure refers to making an incision and dissecting through the tissue layers to expose the vessel and making an incision into the vessel for the introduction of the catheter

Cut-down

52

What refers to the percentage of blood that is pumped out of a filled ventricle with each heartbeat

Ejection fraction

53

What is a normal ejection fraction

55% to 75%

54

Right heart studies are accomplished with the aid of a balloon-tipped, ........... catheter attached to a transducer and monitor

Swan-Ganz pulmonary artery

55

What is this diagnostic tool that can be used preoperatively, and intraoperatively during cholecystectomy or common bile duct exploration, where a catheter can be inserted and contrast medium injected into the biliary system to outline calculi or other obstructions under fluoroscopy

card image

Cholangiography

56

What diagnostic procedure uses a specialized X-ray machine that produces pictures of a body part in “slices” for evaluation by a radiologist

card image

Computed Axial Tomography (CT or CAT scan)

57

What uses electromagnetic radiation to create an image from approximately 4,000 different tissue densities that are sorted into 16 different groups

A CT scan

58

What can sometimes be enhanced with the use of an iodine-based contrast medium, which is given to the patient intravenously, unless they are allergic to iodine

The CT image

59

As a neurological diagnostic tool, what is better than MRI for emergencies related to the brain because it is faster and better able to detect fresh bleeding

CT scanning

60

What combines CT and radioisotope brain scanning, and helps to identify how different areas of the brain function by highlighting chemical or metabolic activity

Positron Emission Tomography (PET scanning)

61

What uses two different forms of energy to create an image. A spinning hydrogen atom is placed into a magnetic field, forcing the atoms to line up and “spin” at a particular frequency

card image

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

62

What imaging tool allows slices to be taken from any direction, in addition to using NO X-ray radiation

MRI

63

What diagnostic procedure is especially good for imaging soft tissue, so it is often used for the evaluation of brain disorders and for providing images of a herniated disc and its relationship to the spinal cord

MRI

64

What diagnostic procedure uses high-frequency sound waves directed into the body and reflected from the tissues to a recording device for diagnostic purposes. Frequencies of 1-10 million Hz are necessary for diagnostic studies. The lower the frequency, the greater is the depth of sound wave penetration into the body.

Ultrasonography

65

What are produced when a crystal (transducer) is stimulated electrically. The beam that is produced is directed into the body and variances in tissue density are reflected back to the transducer as echoes

Ultrasonic waves

66

What is a useful diagnostic tool for examination of the heart and abdominopelvic cavity. It is also useful for identifying carotid artery stenosis.

Ultrasound

67

What diagnostic procedure is not used to examine the lungs because it's waves cannot pass through structures that contain air

Ultrasonography

68

What diagnostic procedure is a noninvasive study that provides a two-dimensional image of the heart by directing beams of ultrasonic waves from a sonar-like device through the chest wall

Echocardiography

69

What techniques of echocardiography are useful for mapping blood flow through the heart

Color Doppler

70

What diagnostic procedure is a slightly more invasive procedure, involves the introduction of a transducer attached to the end of a gastroscope into the esophagus, bringing the probe into closer approximation with the heart

Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE)

71

What diagnostic procedure is used in the OR to determine the patency of arterial anastomosis

card image

Doppler Ultrasonography

72

What diagnostic procedure examines the blood flow in the major arteries and veins in the arms and legs with the use of ultrasound (high-frequency sound waves that echo off the body). It may help diagnose a blood clot, venous insufficiency, arterial occlusion (closing), abnormalities in arterial blood flow caused by a narrowing, or trauma to the arteries

Doppler Ultrasonography

73

What diagnostic procedure is sometimes referred to as a nuclear medicine study or radionuclide imaging, involves the intravenous injection of a radioactive substance into the patient prior to the imaging study

Isotope scanning

74

Collections of isotopes in a certain area are referred to as a ....... and may indicate the presence of a pathological condition

card image

Hot spot

75

What therapy is used in predetermined doses to treat specific types of neoplasms that are susceptible to radiation by exposure to the radiation source

Radiation therapy

76

What kills cells by interfering with their metabolic activity

Radiation

77

What can be administered to the patient with a beam that passes through the tissue or by direct tissue contact with an implantable source

Radiation

78

What is the study called when venous or arterial blood is drawn from the patient for visual or computerized examination in the laboratory setting

Hematological Studies

79

What are these Hematology values for:
13.5–18 g/dL, 135–180 g/L (SI units)

Male Hemoglobin

80

What are these Hematology values for:
11.5–15.5 g/dL,115–155 g/L (SI units)

Female Hemoglobin

81

What are these Hematology values for:
40–52% (0.40–0.52)

Hematocrit Male

82

What are these Hematology values for:
35–46% (0.35–0.46)

Hematocrit Female

83

What are these Hematology values for:
5,000–10,000/mm3

White blood cells (leukocytes)

84

What are these Hematology values for:
0.25–0.5%

Basophils

85

What are these Hematology values for:
25–40%

Lymphocytes

86

What are these Hematology values for:
60–80% of lymphocytes

T-lymphocytes

87

What are these Hematology values for:
10–20% of lymphocytes

B-lymphocytes

88

Blood Gas Value
96–100% of capacity

Arterial Saturation

89

What involves cleaning the urinary meatus prior to voiding and “catching” the sample midstream into a sterile collection device

A clean-catch sample

90

What is a histologic examination

Study of tissue

91

What is a cytologic examination

Study of cells

92

What can have devastating effects for the patient. It could necessitate a second procedure to be performed to obtain another specimen and delay postoperative treatment, such as chemotherapy or antibiotic therapy.

The loss of a specimen

93

What must be correctly labeled. The STSR should confirm the identity of the specimen (name) and origin (left arm) with surgeon, and the circulator should confirm this information with the surgeon. Additionally, the orientation of the specimen becomes important when the margins of the wound must be proven to be free of tumor. The surgeon may mark the edges with suture and the STSR should accurately communicate the information to the circulator, e.g., “left breast biopsy, suture marker on superior quadrant of biopsy.”

Correct specimen labelling

94

What must NEVER be used for passing off and transporting a specimen

A counted sponge

95

What is the name of fluid with cells that are fixed on a microscopic slide, done during endoscopic procedures

Smear and Brush Biopsy

96

What is the removal of fluid through a needle attached to a syringe, for example fluid taken from a cyst, a joint such as the knee joint, a body cavity such as the peritoneal cavity, or a solid lesion in the breast, thyroid or lymph nodes

Aspiration biopsy

97

What is the name for the removal of a portion of the tissue mass or lesion for pathological study

Incisional biopsy

98

What biopsy section allows for an immediate diagnosis; however, the method is not 100% accurate and the final diagnosis is determined by the permanent section performed by the pathologist

Frozen section

99

What section analysis will the pathologist report the results directly to the surgeon in the OR via telephone. Sensitivity is required if the patient is under local anesthesia and awake

Frozen section

100

What sections are placed in a preservative such as formalin and sliced into thin sections by the pathologists, these findings are delivered after the case has concluded

Permanent sections

101

What must be sent to pathology dry. If a preservative is added it will dissolve the stones or permanently alter them.

Calculi (gallstones, kidney stones)

102

What are sent to the pathology department dry. They are carefully bagged and wrapped for transfer. They may be returned to the family if the patient passes for burial purposes

Amputated limbs

103

What must be handled carefully. Do not use forceps or clamps to handle them because the instrument could scratch the material

Bullets

104

What orthopedic implant should be kept dry and sent to pathology

Removed prostheses (orthopedic implants)

105

What bacteriological test is performed on tissue or fluid that is suspected of being infected, it may be cultured so that the pathogen can be identified and treated

Culture and sensitivity

106

Which bacteria die quickly if exposed to air

Anaerobic bacteria

107

What bacteriological test developed in 1844, remains a valuable tool in identifying bacteria

The Gram stain

108

Bacteria that retain the blue dye are called .......

Gram positive

109

Bacteria that fade to pink are

Gram negative

110

What bacteriological test involves the placement of a needle into a posterior portion of the pleural space for the analysis of pleural effusion

Thoracentesis

111

What procedure elevates fluid accumulations within thoracic cavity

Therapeutic thoracentesis

112

What are the studies described as "The body consists of cells that contain polarized molecules, and the communication systems of the body are bioelectrical or biochemical. Microelectrical impulses can be measured and provide useful diagnostic information:

Electrodiagnostic Studies

113

What is a valuable tool for the detection and evaluation of all forms of heart disease, especially myocardial infarction

card image

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

114

What is performed by placing a number of electrodes in predetermined locations on the skin of the arms, legs, and torso to record the electrical activity of the heart.

Electrocardiography

115

What allows 24-hour monitoring for asymptomatic and symptomatic dysrhythmias

The Holter monitor

116

What is a display and recording of the electrical activity of the brain by measurement of changes in electric potentials

card image

Electroencephalography (EEG)

117

What is used to help diagnose seizure disorder, brain tumor, epilepsy, and other diseases and injury to the brain. In addition, it is used intraoperatively during certain cranial, spinal, and vascular procedures for monitoring of neurological function.

Electroencephalography (EEG)

118

What is the study and recording of the electrical activity of skeletal muscle. Electric stimulation is applied to the muscle via a probe that is inserted through the skin into the muscle. Information about muscle contractility and inner-vation can be assembled.

card image

Electromyography (EMG)

119

What is a test used to measure the oxygen level (oxygen saturation) of the blood

Pulse Oximetry

120

What is the normal oxygen saturation in percentages

95%-97%.

121

What is the normal blood pH range

7.35 and 7.45

122

What was designed to estimate arterial levels of carbon dioxide noninvasively for surgical patients requiring mechanical ventilation

card image

Capnography

123

What is the name for the level of carbon dioxide released at the end of an exhaled breath (expiration)

end-tidal CO2

124

What is a functional test of the lungs

card image

Spirometry

125

What is a useful test for detecting leaks in the ventilatory system and patient conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Spirometry

126

What is useful in patients with diffuse small vessel arterial disease, especially diabetics

Plethysmography

127

What is an instrument for determining and registering variations in the volume of an extremity and in the amount of blood present in the extremity or passing through it

A plethysmograph

128

What is a well-established technique for the noninvasive diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremity

Phleborheography