Anatomy & Physiology: Circulatory System
Whole blood consists of
approx. 55% plasma & 45% formed elements: erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells) & platelets.
What percent of blood is plasma?
What percent of blood is formed elements?
What does formed elements consist of?
erythrocytes, leukocytes & platelets
What are erythrocytes?
Red blood cells (RBC's)
What are leukocytes?
White blood cells (WBC's)
What are platelets?
A small colorless disk-shaped cell fragment without a nucleus, found in large numbers in blood and involved in clotting.
Visual of Platelet functions -->
Formed elements are produced from
stem cells in red bone marrow.
Erythrocytes are modified for transport of oxygen.
Most of the oxygen (from modified erythrocytes) is bound to the pigmented protein hemoglobin.
There are ___ types of leukocytes.
The 5 different types of leukocytes can be distinguished on the basis of
size, appearance of the nucleus, staining properties, presence & absence of visible cytoplasmic granuels.
White blood cells are active in
phagocytosis (neutrophils & monocytes) and antibody formation (lymphocytes).
Blood serves to
transport oxygen & nutrients to body cells & to carry away carbon dioxide & metabolic wastes.
Blood carries away carbon dioxide & metabolic waste.
Does blood transport oxygen & nutrients to body cells?
Plasma contains approx. _a__% proteins, __b__, ___c__, _d___ & __e____, which are dissolved or suspended in water.
d. waste products
What happens to the proteins, ions, nutrients, waste products & hormones contained w/in plasma?
They are dissolved or suspended in water.
The heart is a __a__ _a__ that sends blood to the __b_ for oxygenation through the __c__ __c__ & to the remainder of the body through the __d_ _d__.
a. double pump
c. pulmonary circuit
d. systemic circuit
Blood is received by the _a__ & is pumped in circulation by the __b__.
Valves between the atria & ventricles include the tricuspid on the RIGHT SIDE of the heart & the bicuspid on the LEFT SIDE of the heart.
The valve on the LEFT SIDE of the heart is the___ valve?
The valve on the RIGHT SIDE of the heart is the ___ valve?
What valves are found at the entrances of the pulmonary trunk & the aorta?
Blood is supplied to the heart muscle (myocardium) by what arteries?
What is the myocardium?
The heart muscle
Circulation of blood through the heart- visualization-
Follow the blood flow path, while looking at the picture to get a better understanding of the pathway our blood travels through our heart.
**Bicuspid valve is also called the mitral valve.
Blood drains from the ____a_____ directly into the ___b__ __b__ through the ___c__ __c__.
b. right atrium
c. coronary sinus
The hearts intrinsic beat is initiated by the __a__ _a__ and transmitted along the conduction system through the __b____.
a. Sinoatrial node
The intrinsic beat intiated by the sinoatrial node along the conduction system through the mycardium -is a wave of electrical activity & is what is measured on a
The cardiac cycle is the period from the
end of one ventricular contraction to the end of the next ventricular contraction.
The contraction phase of the cycles is __a__; the relaxation phase is __b__.
The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle is called
The relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle is called
The vascular system contains
arteries, veins & capillaries.
Arteries carry blood
AWAY from the heart
Veins carry blood
TOWARD the heart
Capillaries is where
exchange takes place between blood & cells of the body.
Capillaries are microscopic vessels.
As arteries get farther away from the heart they
become thinner & thinner
The smallest arteries are called
The veins parallel the arteries and usually have the same names.
The ___a_________________ are the _b__ _b__ that empty into the __c__ __c__ of the heart.
a. Superior & Inferior venae cavae
b. large veins
c. right atrium
The walls of the arteries are thick & elastic, because they carry blood under high pressure.
Vasoconstriction & Vasodilation result from
Contraction & relaxation of smooth muscle in the arterial walls.
Vasocontriction is ______ of the smooth muscle in the artery wall.
Vasodilation is ____ of smooth muscle in the artery wall.
The contraction & relaxation influence blood pressure & blood distribution to the tissues.
Vein walls are ___a___ & less ___b___ than those of the arteries, because they carry blood under lower pressure.
Arteries are thicker & more elastic than veins because they carry blood under high pressure.
* veins are the opposite of arteries as far as structure goes.
Mechanisms that help draw venous blood back to the heart include:
a. pressure of the skeletal muscles on the veins
b. expansions of the chest in breathing
c. valves in the veins of the legs that keep blood moving in a forward direction.
Labled diagram of the heart
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Major arteries & veins of the body.
* These are good to know if you are taking A&P.
Notice the arteries are paralleled w/veins w/the same name (most of them). Example: Femoral artery & Femoral vein.
Arteries in red
Veins in blue