Surgical Technology for the Surgical Technologist: A Positive Care Approach: Instrumentation, Equipments, and Supplies Chapter 10 (Nicola) Flashcards


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1

What is the name for an opening

aperture

2

For this type of electrosurgery, both the active electrode and return electrode functions are performed at the site of surgery.

bipolar electrosurgery

3

By which action does liquid travels along an established path; often used in reference to suture in which infectious fluid travels along the length of the suture strand placed in a wound; also referred to as wicking

capillary action

4

What is a hollow, cylindrical tube that allows for the removal of fluids or air from the body, injection of fluids, removal of obstruction from ducts, or intravascular monitoring; may be plain tipped or may contain a retention balloon

catheter

5

What is another name for neurosurgical sponge; used to protect delicate neural tissue and to assist with hemostasis

cottonoid

6

What is the prefix or combining form meaning cold

cryo

7

What is a cylindrical device that is used to evacuate air and/or fluids from a surgical wound; may be passive or active

drain

8

What do we call an opening, for instance in a drape

fenestration

9

What is it called when forcing powder, gas, or vapor into a body cavity

insufflation

10

What is it called when washing with a stream of fluid

irrigation

11

What is the process of enlarging the size of an object with the use of a device such as a microscope

magnification

12

What is monopolar electrocautery in which the electrical circuit completes a path from the generator, to the patient, and then back again to the generator

monopolar cautery

13

What is (1) Opposing or counteracting force; (2) a force that delays or impedes action

resistance

14

What is to draw back; to expose

retract

15

What are grooves that are located on the jaws of surgical instruments that are either longitudinal, crosshatched, or horizontal

serrations

16

What is the name for a type of metal that is a combination of carbon, chromium, iron, and other metals; most often used in the manufacture of surgical instruments

stainless steel

17

What are small projections from the tip(s) of the jaw of certain surgical instruments; used to aid in grasping tissue or vessels

teeth

18

What pertains to the ureters that exit the kidney and transport urine from the kidney to the bladder

ureteral

19

What pertains to the urethra, which travels from the bladder to the exterior of the body

urethral

20

What is stronger and lighter in weight, non magnetic, and more resistant to corrosion than stainless steel.

Titanium

21

What type of finish - bright finish increases resistance to corrosion but can be distracting to the surgical team because of its tendency to reflect light.

A highly polished,

22

What type of finish - is less reflective and reduces glare.

A satin (dull) finish

23

What type of finish - is non reflective and virtually eliminates glare. This type of finish is recommended for procedures involving a laser because it prevents deflection of the laser beam.

An ebonized (black chromium) finish

24

Instruments are classified as:

cutting/dissecting
grasping/holding
clamping/occluding
retracting/viewing
probing
dilating
suturing
suctioning
Accessory for anything else

25

Instruments with one or more sharp edges that are used for incision, sharp dissection, or excision of tissue are classified as .........

cutting/dissecting instruments

26

knives, scalpels, scissors, and bone-cutting instruments (osteotomes, curettes, chisels, gouges, and rongeurs). Saws, drills, biopsy punches, adenotomes, and dermatomes may also be classified as cutting instruments are examples of......

Examples of cutting/dissecting instruments

27

What organizations? ..... as well as the frequency of employee sharps injuries has driven many organizations to convert to safety scalpels

The OSHA Bloodborne Pathogen Standard

28

Long knife handles are available for number ...... knife handles

Other knife handles are 5" in length

3L, 4L

#7 is a slightly longer knife handle than a regular handle but not as long as a 3L or 4L

29

What blade will fit the #3 knife handle

Blades #10, #11, #12, #15

30

What blade will fit the #4 knife handle

Blades #20‒#25

31

What blade will fit the #7 knife handle

Blades #10, #11, #12, #15

32

What blade will fit the #9 knife handle

Blades #10, #11, #12, #15

33

What is thee most frequently used Beaver blade

Blade #69

34

What is the blade most frequently used and is typically loaded onto the #3 handle

The #10 blade

35

The #11, #12, and #15 blades are usually loaded onto the ........

#7 handle

36

What is frequently used with the #3 handle for superficial procedures requiring a small incision, such as plastic or hand procedures or the #3L handle for use in deep surgical wounds

the #15 blade

37

The #12 blade is used almost exclusively for ........

tonsillectomy

38

The #20 blade is occasionally used for ...........

long and deep abdominal incisions.

39

Which scissors may be of heavy for tough tissue, medium construction for tissue that is neither tough nor delicate, or light construction for thin, friable tissue

Tissue scissors

40

What is the term when scissors are used to spread and open tissue planes

blunt dissection

41

Which scissors are often the scissors of choice for heavy tissue

Curved Mayo scissors

42

Which scissors are always used to cut suture and rarely used to cut tissue

straight Mayo scissors

43

Which scissors are used for medium to fine tissue.

curved Metzenbaum scissors

44

Delicate tissue is frequently dissected with .....

curved iris, Jamison, Westcott, Stephen’s tenotomy, or Potts-Smith scissors

45

Which instruments are designed to manipulate tissue to facilitate dissection or suturing or to reduce and stabilize fractured bone during internal fixation

Grasping/holding
May or may not have ratcheted locking mechanism

46

Ratcheted grasping/holding instruments include

Allis, Babcock, and Kocher (Ochsner), tenaculum
Forceps, adsons, DeBakey, Russian
Bone holding clamps

47

Clamping/occluding instruments are designed to .......

occlude or constrict tissue

48

Which clamps are small, spring-loaded devices with atraumatic serrations

Bulldog vascular

49

Which clamps are designed to occlude bleeding vessels until they can be ligated, occluded with stainless steel or titanium ligaclips, or coagulated

Curved hemostatic clamps

50

Which clamps are frequently utilized for “tagging” sutures; “tagging” is performed when a suture strand is not immediately cut.

Straight hemostats

51

These type of retractors are what? Weitlaner, Gelpi, Bookwalter, O’Connor–O’Sullivan, and Balfour retractors,

Self-retaining retractors

52

A ............ with a blunt edge are typically used to retract the abdominal wall or abdominal and thoracic organs

Handheld retractors

53

Which retractors are used for retraction of nonvital structures, such as fat or skin.

Sharp rake-like retractors

54

What are typically found in abdominal, gallbladder, or rectal instrument sets and are often used with guides called ........

Probes
& grooved directors

55

What are instruments used to gradually dilate an orifice or duct to allow for introduction of larger instrumentation or to open a stricture

Dilators

56

Dilators gradually taper to the .........
The proximal end is where it is held by the surgeon

distal end

57

What type of needled holder is called a Heaney needle holders, and are used during certain genitourinary and gynecological procedures.

curved needle holders,

58

Which surgeon prefers an angled suction tip with a proximal thumbhole that allows for variability in suction strength.

Neurosurgeons

59

Commonly used for aspiration of abdominal fluids are the .......... abdominal suction tips

Yankauer and Poole

60

Which suction tip resembles a large, bent hypodermic needle and is included with an adapter for suction tubing attachment

The Rosen

61

Which procedures typically require a major lapa-rotomy or a minor laparotomy set (also called a major or minor procedures set

General abdominal

62

What are used for diagnosis, biopsy, visualization, and/or repair of a structure within a body cavity or the interior of a hollow organ

Endoscopes

63

Edoscopes with or without a ...... can be inserted into body cavities, these include arthroscopes, laparoscopes, and thoracoscopes.

camera

64

Which scope is used for exploration of the biliary system

Choledochoscopes

65

Which scope is used for visualization and biopsy of the structures of the mediastinum

Mediastinoscopes

66

Which scope is used for exploration of the brain’s ventricular system

Ventriculoscopes

67

Which scope is used for visualization of a fetus in utero

Fetoscopes

68

Which scope is used for exploration of the ureters

Ureteroscopes

69

The ........ uses a monopolar electric current to shave hypertrophied prostate tissue from within the proximal urethra

Resectoscope

70

What uses compressed air, nitrogen, electricity, or battery

powered instruments

71

Power saws have either a ....... (back-and-forth) motion

reciprocating

72

Power saws have either a ....... (side-to-side) action for cutting bone

oscillating

73

The blade of a craniotome cuts through the cranium with a

rotary motion

74

What motion does a reamers utilize

slower rotary motion

75

What is a binocular apparatus that uses bent light waves for variable magnification of tissues during microsurgery

The compound operating microscope

76

What in a microscope refers to the ability of the optical system to filter out adjacent images and to clarify detail.

resolving power

77

What is the focal length of the objective lens in a microscope

ranges from 100 to 400 mm

78

What use fiber optics to transmit light waves through the microscope’s optical system

Coaxial illuminators

79

Which specialties makes use of the fiber-optic headlamp, most frequently

neuro-, cardiovascular and otorhinolaryngology surgeons

80

What is powered by nitrogen, battery, or electricity and is utilized to thoroughly irrigate a traumatic, infected, or surgical wound.

pulse lavage irrigator

81

What is often used during orthopedic procedures to irrigate contaminated fractures to clean out the debris and in total joint arthroplasties. Surgical team must wear a face shield to protect from splatter

pulse lavage irrigator

82

Diseased eye lenses may be fragmented and removed with a .........

Phaco-Emulsifier

83

What machine that uses ultrasonic energy (cavitation) to fragment the lens, and an irrigator/aspirator (I/A) to remove the fragments

Phaco-Emulsifier

84

Which therapy is useful for the removal of vascular tumors, brain tumors, and the prostate gland

cryotherapy

85

What is utilized to repair retinal detachments and extract cataracts.

cryotherapy

86

Laparoscopic procedures cannot be performed unless CO2 gas is infused into the abdominal cavity through either a ..............

Verres insufflation needle or a Hasson blunt trocar.

87

The machine that infuses the CO2 gas into the abdominal cavity is called an

insufflator

88

What creates a space for viewing an endo-scope and for work within the cavity through cannulas inserted at strategic points through the abdominal wall

insufflator

89

What produce very small electric currents that, when applied to tissue, help to identify and preserve essential nerves for cranial, facial, neck, or hand reconstructive procedures

Nerve stimulators

90

what is useful for identifying the seventh cranial (facial) nerve during acoustic neuroma removal, nerve branches, cochlear

Nerve stimulators

91

Who may use the nerve stimulator to assess the actions of neuromuscular blockers administered during anesthesia.

Anesthesia providers

92

What may be portable or centralized, and is accessed via outlets located in each operating room (OR).

Vacuum source

93

What connects the vacuum source with the collection unit.

Vacuum source tubing

94

What may be reusable or contain a disposable liner, it may have incremental markings to allow estimation of the amount of fluid contained within.

Collection unit

95

What connects the collection unit to the suction tip. Is usually disposable and may be sterile or nonsterile according to the situation.

Tubing

96

What removes the fluid from the source. May be sterile or nonsterile, disposable or reusable, and one of a variety of styles (

Suction tip

97

What beam should generally be set at a 10- to 12-in. depth of focus so that the intensity of the beam is relatively equal at the surface and depth of the incision.

Overhead operating light

98

What is used during some procedures on the extremities to restrict blood flow to the surgical site.

Tourniquet

99

The tourniquet serves two main purposes in surgery

The amount of blood lost by the patient is minimized

Visualization of the surgical site for the sterile team members is improved.

100

What may also lead to blistering, bruising, pinching, or necrosis of the skin.

Improper application of the tourniquet

101

What consists of a rubber bladder contained within a fabric or plastic covering, similar to a blood pressure cuff and may house a single or double chamber. The double-chamber tourniquet is used for intravenous regional (Bier) blocks

Cuff
tourniquet

102

What connects the cuff to the pressure source.

Tubing
tourniquet

103

What consists of an air compressor, pressure controls, pressure gauge, and timer.

Pressure device
tourniquet

104

Where is the cuff placed on the patient

as far proximally on the extremity as possible

105

The tourniquet pressure for the upper extremity is approximately ............than the patient’s systolic blood pressure

30-70 mm Hg higher

106

What is the recommended time period that the tourniquet be temporarily deflated periodically to permit limb reperfusion.

1 hour

107

What consists of a compressor that is electrically operated, connecting tubing, and one or more sleeves that enclose that patient’s limb

The sequential compression device (SCD)

108

What are used by the surgical team to serve as a barrier to isolate and protect the operative site from contaminants and microbes that can cause a surgical site infection (SSI).

Surgical drapes

109

What may be nonwoven textile fabrics, woven textile fabrics, or plastic.

Drape materials

110

What are reusable drapes made out of

Woven Textile Fabrics
cotton fibers

111

What are disposable drapes made out of

Nonwoven Fabrics
compressed synthetic fibers, such as nylon or polyester bonded with cellulose

112

What have an adhesive backing that may be impregnated with an antimicrobial iodine agent that is slowly released after application to destroy bacteria from the patient’s skin during the surgical procedure

Incise drapes

113

What are applied to the patient’s skin after four towels have been placed “squaring off” the incision site

Incise drapes

114

What are small, clear plastic drapes with openings that are surrounded by an adhesive backing. They are used to drape eyes and ears. These types of drapes allow the surgeon to view landmarks that would normally be covered.

Aperture drapes

115

What are large, clear plastic drapes with an adhesive backing surrounding the fenestration and are frequently utilized as drapes for hip pinning

Isolation aperture drapes

116

“lap sheet”: Abdomen

Laparotomy

117

Pediatric or “pedi” sheet:

Pediatric abdomen

118

Transverse lap sheet:

Thorax and kidney

119

Thyroid sheet:

Neck, especially the thyroid

120

•Extremity sheet:

Extremities

121

•Craniotomy sheet:

Cranium

122

The free ends of the drape are referred to as the .......... of the drape

tails

123

What sterile pack is used for General surgery

laparotomy pack; thyroidectomy pack

124

What sterile pack is used for Gynecological surgery

vaginal hysterectomy pack; laparoscopy pack

125

What sterile pack is used for Orthopedic surgery

arthroscopic pack; total hip pack

126

What sterile pack is used for GU surgery

TURP pack

127

What sterile pack is used for Cardiovascular surgery

CABG pack

128

What skin preparation material may be applied before application of a dressing

tincture of benzoin or Mastisol

129

What are used for temporary coverage of open wounds due to trauma, burns, or skin ulcer

Biologic dressings or biosynthetic skin substitutes

130

What is a material that is surgically taken from a specific area of the patient’s own body.

skin graft (autologous)
cadaver (homografts)
Other species Xenografts or heterografts

131

What is used to cover a small incision from which drainage is expected to be minimal (e.g., endoscopic incision).

A one-layer dressing

132

What are used to maintain approximation of the wound edges and may be used alone or in conjunction with another type of dressing

Skin closure tapes

133

What is a liquid skin adhesive applied by surgeons to close wounds. This strong, flexible agent supports many wounds and incisions with needle-free wound closure

Dermabond

134

What is used to cover any size incision from which drainage (light, moderate, or heavy) is expected

A three-layer dressing

135

What extends from the axillae to the hips to immobilize the lower thoracic and lumbar vertebrae

Body jacket cast

136

What is secured to the torso to support the hip or shoulder in the desired position

Spica cast

137

What extends from the head (incorporating the mandible while exposing the face) to the hips to immobilize the cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae

Minerva jacket cast

138

What cylindrical cast of the lower extremity that has a polyurethane sole or rubber heel added to allow for ambulation

Walking cast

139

What type of dressing is a wet gauze, soaked in saline, antibiotic solution, Dakin’s solution, applied to the wound and allowed to dry. The dried dressing is removed along with any tissue that has adhered to the dressing. Often performed on burn wounds and may be performed under anesthesia in the OR to provide patient comfort.

Wet-to-dry dressing

140

What type of dressing is a gauze sponge that is manufactured, Sof-Wick drain sponge, or fashioned with a scissors, slit or “Y” shape, to accommodate a wound that contains a drain.

Drain dressing

141

What is used to assist with hemostasis, provide pressure, support a wound, and/or eliminate dead space

Packing material

142

What are examples of packing material

NuGauze Packing Strip-Plain), impregnated with an antiseptic (e.g., NuGauze Packing Strip with Iodoform 5%), or contain a radiopaque marker.

143

What are used to remove fluid or other objects, such as thrombi and stones, from the body

Catheters

144

What use the French scale for sizing, and are available as small as 5Fr. for infants and pediatric patients and up to the largest size 30Fr

Urinary catheters

145

What are temporarily inserted through the urethra into the bladder to obtain a urine specimen, decompress the bladder, or maneuver around an obstruction

Non-retaining catheters

146

What are used to measure urinary output over an extended period or provide bladder decompression

Self-retaining or indwelling urethral catheters
Foley catheters

147

What uses a balloon to retain the catheter within the bladder, allowing for continuous drainage of urine. The balloon may have a 5- or 30-cc capacity.

The Foley catheter

148

What is placed into the bladder through a surgical opening in the abdominal wall. Examples are the Foley, Pezzer (mushroom), and the Malecot (winged tip).

The suprapubic catheter

149

What are placed in the ureter(s) with the assistance of a cystoscope. They are used to decompress the kidney, identify and protect the ureter(s) during pelvic procedures, and introduce contrast media during retrograde pyelography

Ureteral catheters

150

What are used to infuse fluids (including nutrients and medications), obtain a diagnosis, monitor body functions, and remove thrombi. May be inserted percutaneously or via a small incision referred to as a cut-down.

Intravascular catheters

151

Which catheter is passed beyond an obstruction within the lumen of a vein, artery, or duct. The balloon is then inflated, and the catheter is withdrawn along with the obstruction

A Fogarty is a balloon-tipped catheter

152

What are used to aspirate air and fluids from the gastrointestinal tract

Gastrointestinal tubes

153

What may be passed through the nose or mouth into the stomach or intestine, through the rectum into the intestine, or may be inserted surgically

Gastrointestinal tubes

154

What term refers to a dual-lumen tube in which one lumen is used for evacuation of fluid and the second allows air to enter for equalizing the pressure within the structure, reducing the risk of damage to delicate tissues by preventing constant negative pressure.

The term sump

155

What are used to maintain patency of the upper respiratory tract.

Airway tubes

156

What tube is available in adult and pediatric sizes as well as cuffed and uncuffed styles. The tube is passed through the nose or mouth, between the vocal cords, and into the trachea of the unconscious patient.

Endotracheal (ET) tube

157

What is inserted through the mouth to separate the jaws and depress the tongue.

Oral airway

158

What is placed directly into the trachea via an incision in the neck.

Tracheotomy tube

159

What are the three components of a tracheotomy tube

outer cannula
inner cannula
obturator

160

What are inserted percutaneously through a “stab” wound to treat pneumothorax or following cardiothoracic surgical procedures to evacuate air and fluid from the pleural space

Chest tubes

161

What system uses water in the collection unit to prevent air from reentering the pleural space, thereby maintaining the negative pressure necessary for effective respiration

The water-seal drainage
Chest tube

162

What allow a pathway for fluid or air to move from an area of high pressure to one of lower pressure

Passive drains

163

What is a latex tubing that is placed partially within the wound, allowing fluid to move out of the wound into the dressing by capillary action

Penrose drain

164

What is a Penrose drain with gauze inside encourages fluid to move out of the wound into the dressing by wicking action.

Cigarette drain

165

What is placed within the biliary system, it drains bile via gravity into a specialized collection unit called a bile bag.

T-tube drain

166

What is inserted through the abdominal wall into the stomach; removes gastric contents or provides instillation of nourishment (“tube feeding”).

Gastrostomy tube

167

What is inserted through the abdominal wall into the urinary bladder; removes urine.

Cystostomy tube

168

What is inserted percutaneously into the kidney; removes urine.

Nephrostomy tube

169

What make use of negative pressure, and is created by removing air from the collection device manually or mechanically

Active drains

170

What is typically used following orthopedic procedures when a moderate amount of drainage is expected.

Hemovac drain

171

What are typically used following abdominal procedures when a moderate amount of drainage is expected. Also used in neurosurgery and other general surgery procedures such as a mammoplasty.

Jackson, Pratt, drains

172

What is typically used following orthopedic procedures. Effective in reducing dead space due to the strength of the battery-operated evacuation pump.

Stryker drain

173

What syringe consists of a tip that may be plain

Luer-Slip
needles that simply slip over the syringe tip

174

What syringe consists of a tip that may be locking

Luer-Lok
locks the needle onto the syringe tip with a twisting motion

175

What are calibrated in milliliters and/or cubic centimeters

Syringes

176

What syringes are calculated in units

insulin syringes

177

What syringes are calculated in tenths or hundredths of a cubic centimeter, and contain up to 1 cc of fluid

Tuberculin syringes

178

What is the most commonly used standard syringe.

10-cc syringe

179

Which syringe holds approximately 120 cc.

Asepto syringe