A&P II Quiz 1 Flashcards


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1

How would a chemical that blocks sodium channels in neuron cell membranes affect its ability to depolarize?

It would completely inhibit depolarization

2

What effect would decreasing the concentration of extracellular potassium ions have on the transmembrane potential of a neuron?

Hyperpolarization

3

Which type of gated channel responds to physical distortion of the membrane surface? Where is this ability important?

Mechanically regulated channels/sensory receptors

4

Which of the choices below correctly lists the steps of an action potential?

Depolarization to threshold->activation of sodium channels and depolarization->inactivation of sodium channels and activation of potassium channels->return to normal permeability

5

Which area of the diencephalon would be stimulated by changes in body temperature?

Preoptic area of the hypothalamus

6

Damage to the amygdaloid body would interfere with regulation of what division of the ANS?

Parasympathetic

7

Which of the following is NOT a function of the limbic system?

Directing somatic motor patterns associated with rage, pleasure, and pain

8

What is the name given to axons carrying information between the brain and the spinal cord, and through which brain regions do they pass?

Projection fibers; diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum

9

What symptoms would you expect to observe in an individual who has damage to the basal nuclei?

Difficulty starting voluntary movements and decreased muscle tone

10

A patient suffers a head injury that damages her primary motor cortex. Where is the primary motor cortex and what functions will be lost due to the injury?

Precentral gyrus/voluntary movementscontrolled by the specific regions damaged

11

Paul is having a difficult time remembering facts and recalling long-term memories. Which part of his cerebrum is involved?

Temporal Lobe

12

Which of these is NOT usually a characteristic function associated with the left cerebral hemisphere?

Analyzing emotional context of a conversation

13

The relationship between a neurotransmitter, such as NE and cAMP is ___, which is enhanced by a "link" called a ___?

1st messenger and 2nd messenger/G protein

14

In what way(s) is/are temporal and spatial summation the same?

Both are methods by which individual EPSPs combine to result in an action potential

15

A patient has damage to several spinal nerves. Which of the major divisions of the nervous system has been damaged?

Peripheral nervous system

16

You've just touched a hot stove. What type of reflex did you experience ___ and in what way was your brain involved in the reflex?

Spinal/it was not involved at all

17

Which of the following is true concerning the spinal cord?

The spinal cord of an adult ends between L1 and L2

18

Why are spinal nerves classified as "mixed" nerves?

They contain both afferent and efferent fibers

19

Which of these is NOT a site at which acetylcholine is released at a synapse?

Postganglionic synapses in the sympathetic division of the ANS

20

Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are all members of which category of neurotransmitter?

Biogenic amines

21

A person you know has experienced sleep problems and prolonged depression. Which neurotransmitter may be in short supply?

Serotonin

22

Which of the following is true concerning neuromodulators?

None of these are correct

23

An anesthetic blocks the function of the dorsal rami of the cervical spinal nerves. Which areas of the body will be affected?

Both A and B

24

Injury to which nerve plexus would interfere with the ability to breathe ___? Which nerve is the major nerve of this plexus?

Cervical plexus/phrenic nerve

25

If a patient has persistent numbness in the medial two fingers, which nerve of the brachial plexus has been damaged?

Ulnar Nerve

26

Damage to the long thoracic nerve would cause paralysis to which muscle(s)?

Serratus anterior muscle

27

Compression of which nerve produces the sensation that your leg has "fallen asleep"?

Sciatic Nerve

28

Someone with paralysis of the anterior thigh muscles would have damage at which spinal segments?

L4-S2

29

What is the minimum number of neurons in a reflex arc?

Two

30

Which of these is NOT an important factor concerning reflexes?

They involve interaction with the cerebrum

31

What is the term used when one presynaptic neuron synapses with multiple postsynaptic neurons ____? When is this useful ___?

Divergence/when braid distribution of a specific input is important

32

Reflex responses usually remover or oppose the stimulus therefore this type of reflexive response would be considered an example of ___.

Negative feedback

33

One of the first somatic reflexes to develop is the suckling reflex. Which type of reflex is this?

Innate reflex

34

How would the stimulation of the muscle spindles involved in the patellar (knee-jerk) reflex by gamma motor neurons affect the speed of the reflex?

Quicker reflex response

35

A weight lifter is straining to lift a 200-kg barbell. Shortly after he lifts it to chest height, his muscles appear to relax and he drops the barbell. Which reflex has occurred?

Tendon reflex

36

The neurilemma of axons in the peripheral nervous system is formed by

oligodendrocytes

37

Glial cells that surround the neuron in ganglia are

satellite cells

38

Many medications introduced into the bloodstream cannot directly affect the neurons of the CNS because

The endothelium of CNS capillaries forms a blood-brain barrier

39

The spinal cord is part of the

Central nervous system

40

The ___ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support as a component of the coccygeal ligament.

filum terminale

41

Spinal nerves are

both sensory and motor

42

The spinal cord consists of five regions and ____ segments.

31

43

The dorsal root ganglia mainly contain

axons of sensory neurons

44

After age ___ the vertebral column continues to elongate, but the spinal cord itself does not.

4

45

If the dorsal root of a spinal nerve is severed,

The brain would not be able to communicate with that level of the spinal cord

46

The subdural space lies between

The dura mater and the arachnoid mater

47

The layer of the meninges in direct contact with the spinal cord is the

Pia mater

48

A dorsal and ventral root of each spinal segment unite to form a

spinal nerve

49

In meningitis,

all of the answers are correct

50

Which of the following is true regarding an epidural block?

All of the answers are correct

51

The adult human brain contains almost ____ of the body's neural tissue

97 percent

52

Male brains are typically ____ compared to female brains

larger

53

During embryonic development, which of the following secondary brain vesicles will form the cerebrum?

Telencephalon

54

Which of these is not one of the main divisions of the adult brain?

prosencephalon

55

Which of the following lies between the cerebrum and the brain stem?

Diencephalon

56

The floor of the diencephalon is formed by the

hypothalamus

57

The tracts that connect the cerebellum to the brain stem are located in the

pons

58

Autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion are located in the

medulla oblongata

59

The ____ filters and relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex.

thalamus

60

Damage to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus leads to which problem?

reduced ability to regulate body temperature

61

Joe begins to experience mood swings and disturbed thirst and hunger. Imaging studies indicate that a brain tumor is the likely cause of these disorders. In what part of the brain is the tumor most likely located.

hypothalamus

62

Damage to the substantia nigra causes a decrease in the neurotransmitter dopamine. This causes a gradual, generalized increase in muscle tone, which is the main symptom of

Parkinson's disease

63

The two cerebral hemispheres are separated by the

longitudinal fissure

64

divisions of the cerebral hemispheres that are named after the overlying skull bones are

lobes

65

Parkinson's disease is the result of

inadequate production of dopamine by substantia nigra neurons

66

after suffering a stroke, Mary finds that she cannot move her right arm. This would suggest that the stroke damage is in the are of the ___ lobe.

left frontal

67

After suffering a blow to the back of the head, Phil loses his vision. The blow probably caused damage to the

occipital lobe

68

The general interpretive area

allows us to interpret what is read or heard

69

Difficulties in estimating temporal relationships between events may stem from damage to

the prefrontal cortex

70

Extensive damage to the oligodendrocytes in the CNS could result in

loss of sensation and motor control