How would a chemical that blocks sodium channels in neuron cell membranes affect its ability to depolarize?
It would completely inhibit depolarization
What effect would decreasing the concentration of extracellular potassium ions have on the transmembrane potential of a neuron?
Which type of gated channel responds to physical distortion of the membrane surface? Where is this ability important?
Mechanically regulated channels/sensory receptors
Which of the choices below correctly lists the steps of an action potential?
Depolarization to threshold->activation of sodium channels and depolarization->inactivation of sodium channels and activation of potassium channels->return to normal permeability
Which area of the diencephalon would be stimulated by changes in body temperature?
Preoptic area of the hypothalamus
Damage to the amygdaloid body would interfere with regulation of what division of the ANS?
Which of the following is NOT a function of the limbic system?
Directing somatic motor patterns associated with rage, pleasure, and pain
What is the name given to axons carrying information between the brain and the spinal cord, and through which brain regions do they pass?
Projection fibers; diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum
What symptoms would you expect to observe in an individual who has damage to the basal nuclei?
Difficulty starting voluntary movements and decreased muscle tone
A patient suffers a head injury that damages her primary motor cortex. Where is the primary motor cortex and what functions will be lost due to the injury?
Precentral gyrus/voluntary movementscontrolled by the specific regions damaged
Paul is having a difficult time remembering facts and recalling long-term memories. Which part of his cerebrum is involved?
Which of these is NOT usually a characteristic function associated with the left cerebral hemisphere?
Analyzing emotional context of a conversation
The relationship between a neurotransmitter, such as NE and cAMP is ___, which is enhanced by a "link" called a ___?
1st messenger and 2nd messenger/G protein
In what way(s) is/are temporal and spatial summation the same?
Both are methods by which individual EPSPs combine to result in an action potential
A patient has damage to several spinal nerves. Which of the major divisions of the nervous system has been damaged?
Peripheral nervous system
You've just touched a hot stove. What type of reflex did you experience ___ and in what way was your brain involved in the reflex?
Spinal/it was not involved at all
Which of the following is true concerning the spinal cord?
The spinal cord of an adult ends between L1 and L2
Why are spinal nerves classified as "mixed" nerves?
They contain both afferent and efferent fibers
Which of these is NOT a site at which acetylcholine is released at a synapse?
Postganglionic synapses in the sympathetic division of the ANS
Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are all members of which category of neurotransmitter?
A person you know has experienced sleep problems and prolonged depression. Which neurotransmitter may be in short supply?
Which of the following is true concerning neuromodulators?
None of these are correct
An anesthetic blocks the function of the dorsal rami of the cervical spinal nerves. Which areas of the body will be affected?
Both A and B
Injury to which nerve plexus would interfere with the ability to breathe ___? Which nerve is the major nerve of this plexus?
Cervical plexus/phrenic nerve
If a patient has persistent numbness in the medial two fingers, which nerve of the brachial plexus has been damaged?
Damage to the long thoracic nerve would cause paralysis to which muscle(s)?
Serratus anterior muscle
Compression of which nerve produces the sensation that your leg has "fallen asleep"?
Someone with paralysis of the anterior thigh muscles would have damage at which spinal segments?
What is the minimum number of neurons in a reflex arc?
Which of these is NOT an important factor concerning reflexes?
They involve interaction with the cerebrum
What is the term used when one presynaptic neuron synapses with multiple postsynaptic neurons ____? When is this useful ___?
Divergence/when braid distribution of a specific input is important
Reflex responses usually remover or oppose the stimulus therefore this type of reflexive response would be considered an example of ___.
One of the first somatic reflexes to develop is the suckling reflex. Which type of reflex is this?
How would the stimulation of the muscle spindles involved in the patellar (knee-jerk) reflex by gamma motor neurons affect the speed of the reflex?
Quicker reflex response
A weight lifter is straining to lift a 200-kg barbell. Shortly after he lifts it to chest height, his muscles appear to relax and he drops the barbell. Which reflex has occurred?
The neurilemma of axons in the peripheral nervous system is formed by
Glial cells that surround the neuron in ganglia are
Many medications introduced into the bloodstream cannot directly affect the neurons of the CNS because
The endothelium of CNS capillaries forms a blood-brain barrier
The spinal cord is part of the
Central nervous system
The ___ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support as a component of the coccygeal ligament.
Spinal nerves are
both sensory and motor
The spinal cord consists of five regions and ____ segments.
The dorsal root ganglia mainly contain
axons of sensory neurons
After age ___ the vertebral column continues to elongate, but the spinal cord itself does not.
If the dorsal root of a spinal nerve is severed,
The brain would not be able to communicate with that level of the spinal cord
The subdural space lies between
The dura mater and the arachnoid mater
The layer of the meninges in direct contact with the spinal cord is the
A dorsal and ventral root of each spinal segment unite to form a
all of the answers are correct
Which of the following is true regarding an epidural block?
All of the answers are correct
The adult human brain contains almost ____ of the body's neural tissue
Male brains are typically ____ compared to female brains
During embryonic development, which of the following secondary brain vesicles will form the cerebrum?
Which of these is not one of the main divisions of the adult brain?
Which of the following lies between the cerebrum and the brain stem?
The floor of the diencephalon is formed by the
The tracts that connect the cerebellum to the brain stem are located in the
Autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion are located in the
The ____ filters and relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex.
Damage to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus leads to which problem?
reduced ability to regulate body temperature
Joe begins to experience mood swings and disturbed thirst and hunger. Imaging studies indicate that a brain tumor is the likely cause of these disorders. In what part of the brain is the tumor most likely located.
Damage to the substantia nigra causes a decrease in the neurotransmitter dopamine. This causes a gradual, generalized increase in muscle tone, which is the main symptom of
The two cerebral hemispheres are separated by the
divisions of the cerebral hemispheres that are named after the overlying skull bones are
Parkinson's disease is the result of
inadequate production of dopamine by substantia nigra neurons
after suffering a stroke, Mary finds that she cannot move her right arm. This would suggest that the stroke damage is in the are of the ___ lobe.
After suffering a blow to the back of the head, Phil loses his vision. The blow probably caused damage to the
The general interpretive area
allows us to interpret what is read or heard
Difficulties in estimating temporal relationships between events may stem from damage to
the prefrontal cortex
Extensive damage to the oligodendrocytes in the CNS could result in
loss of sensation and motor control