A&P 1 Flashcards


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created 7 years ago by Laura_Samuel
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HISTOLOGY, BODY REGIONS
updated 7 years ago by Laura_Samuel
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1

integumentary system

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The integumentary system is the organsystem that protects the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside. The system comprises the skin and its appendages (including hair, scales, feathers, hooves, and nails).

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skeletal system

protects and support body organs and provides a framework the muscle use to cause movement.Blood cells are formed within the the bones.Bones store minerals.

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Muscular system

Allows manipulation of the environment , locomotion and facial expression , Mantains posture and produces heat

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Nervous system

As the fast acting control system of the body , it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscle and glands

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Endocrine system

Gland secrete hormones that regulate process such as growth ,reproduction and nutrient use (metabolism by body cells

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Cardiovascular system

Blood vessels transport blood , which carries oxygen ,carbon dioxide, nutrients waste, etc.The heart pumps blood

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Lymphatic system/immunity

picks up fluid from blood vessels and return it to blood .Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream .Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes )involved in immunity

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Respiratory system

keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide

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Digestive system

breaks down food into more absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells to indigesable food stuff are eliminated as feces.

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Urinary system

Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water electrolyte and electrolyte and acid base balance of the the blood.

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anabolism

breaking down substances into simpler building blocks

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Anabolism

synthesizing more complex cellular from simpler substances

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Homeostasis

is the ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the the outside world changes continuously

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Process of homeostatic control

#1. receptor

#2. control system

#3 afferent pathway

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Regional terms

Axial:the head trunk

Appendicular: limbs

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Cephalic

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THORACIC

STERNAL(STERNUM), AXILLARY AND MAMMARY

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BACK

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UPPER LIMB,MANUS, LOWER LIMB PEDAL(FOOT)REGIONS

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SUPERIOR (CRANIAL)

Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body above.(ex)the head is superior to the shoulder

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Inferior (caudal)

Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure of the body;below ex)the navel is inferior to the the chin

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Anterior (ventral)

toward at the front of the body ;in front of.EX) the breastbone is anterior to the spine

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Posterior(dorsal)

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Toward or at the front of the body;behind

the heart is posterior to the breastbone

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Medial

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Toward or at the mid line of the body; on the inner side of

the heart is medial to trunk

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Lateral

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Away from the midline of the body l on the outer side of

the arms are lateral to the chest

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Intermediate

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Between a more medial and a more lateral structure

The collar bone is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulder

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Proximal

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Closer to the origin of the body part or the point or the attachment of the a limb to the trunk

the elbow is proximal to the wrist

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Distal

Farther from the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

the knee is is distal to the tigh

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Superficial (external )

toward or at the body surface

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Deep (INTERNAL)

The lungs are deep to the skin

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Sagittal plane

Is a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts

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Median plane or mid sagittal plane

Lies exactly in the middle of the body

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Parasagittal plane

divides the body into unequal halves

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frontal and coronal planes

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CRANIAL CAVITY

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DORSAL AND VENTRAL CAVITIES

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ABDOMINO PELVIC CAVITY, ABDOMIAL

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THORACIC CAVITY

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Ventral cavity:houses the pleura cavities which encases the lungs .

Superior Mediastenum houses the

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DORSAL CAVITY

Protects the fragile nervous system organs,has two subdivisions the cranial and the vertebral cavities

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PELVIC CAVITY

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VENTRAL BODY CAVITY

HAS TWO MAJOR SUBDIVISIONS THE THORACIC AND THE ABDOMINO PELVIC AREA CAVITY .IT HOUSES THE INTERNAL ORGANS CALLED VISCERA OR VISCERAL ORGANS

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PELURAL CAVITIES IN THE THORACIC CAVITY ENCLOSE ?

THE LUNGS

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THE MEDIAL MEDIASTENUM IN THE THORACIC CAVITY ENCLOSE ?

IT CONTAINS THE PERICARDIAL CAVITY ,WHICH IT ENCLOSES THE HEART , ESOPHAGUS and THE THRACHEA

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SEROUS MEMEBRANE

The walls of the ventral cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs on the ventral cavity are protected by a thin double layer membrane called serosa or serous membrane

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Regional name =

regional term

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The axial part is:

Head neck and trunk

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The appendicular part is:

The limbs

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Cephalic

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Cephalic (back)

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Thoracic

Sternal ,Axillary ,mamary

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Abdominal

Umbilical

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Pelvic

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Inguinal(groin)

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Regional terms Ventral (anterior)

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Regional terms dorsal(posterior)

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Superior mediastenum

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Medial Mediastenum

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Poterior Mediastenum

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Pericardial cavity encloses?

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Encloses the heart and it also surrounds the other remaining thoracic organs (esophagus, trachea and others)

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The abdominopelvic cavity

The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into the abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity.

Abdominal cavity contains the intestines,the stomach,spleen, liver and other organs.

The pelvic cavity contains the urinary bladder, some reproductive organs and rectum

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SEROSA

The walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs it contains are covered by a thin double layer called the "serosa" or the serorus membrane

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Parietal pericardium

lines into the pericardial cavity and folds back as the visceral pericardium, which it cover the heart

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Parietal pleurae

line the walls of the of the thoracic cavity and the visceral pleurae cover the lungs.

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Parietal peritoneum

is associated with the walls of the abodominopelvic cavity while the visceral peritoneum covers most of the organs within that cavity

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ABDOMINOPELVIC REGIONS AND QUADRANTS

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ABDOMINOPELVIC REGIONS

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THE 9 REGIONS SHOWING THE SUPERFICIAL ORGANS

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MID SAGITTAL CROSS CUT SECTION

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TRANSVERSE PLANE SECTION

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MORE TRANsVERSE PLANE CUT SECTIONS

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coronal plane of cephalic area or head

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transverse section of cephalic area or head

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Forehead is superior to?

the forehead is superior to the nose

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The navel is inferior to?

The navel is inferior to the breast bone

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The breast bone is anterior to?

The breast bone is anterior to the the spine

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The heart is posterior to ?

The heart is posterior ton the breastbone

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The heart is medial to ?

The heart is medial to the arms

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The arms are lateral to?

The armas are lateral to the chest

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The elbow is proximal to?

The elbow is proximal to the wrist

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The knee is distal to?

The knee is distal to the thigh

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The skin is superficial to?

The skins superficial to the skeleton

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The lungs are deep to?

The lungs are deep to the rib cage

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the aorta is __________ to the vertebral column

ventral

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the vertebral column is ________ to the aorta

dorsal

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the sternum is _______ to the heart

anterior

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the esophagus is _________ to the trachea

posterior

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the _______ end of the embryonic neural tube develops into the brain

cephalic

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the forebrain is _______ to the brainstem

rostral

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the spinal cord is ________ to the brain

caudal

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the heart is _______ to the diaphragm

superior

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the liver is _______ to the diaphragm

inferior

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the heart is ________ to the lungs

medial

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the eyes are _______ to the nose

lateral

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the fingernails are at the _______ ends of the fingers

distal

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the bones are _______ to the muscle

deep

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The serous membranes

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Are double thin layer composed of connective and epithelial tissue.they line the walls of the thoracic and abdominal cavities and then fold back to cover the organs within the cavities.A slippery serous fluid produced by the cells of the membrane is found in between the two layers. This fluid permits the free sliding of the two layers during movement. THE portion of the membrane attached to an organ is called the visceral layer. The external layer or the portion of the membrane that attaches the body wall is called the parietal layer.

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PERICARDIAL MEMBRANE(PERICARDIUM)

Surrounds the heart

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PLEURAL MEMEBRANES

Surround the lungs

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PERITONEAL MEMBRANE(PERITONUM)

Surrounds many organs in the abdominopelvic cavity

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respiratory system

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The heart is in the ?

The heart is in the thoracic cavity over the ventral cavity

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The trachea is located in ?

The trachea is locate din the superior is in the superior mediastenum cavity of the thoracic cavity over the ventral cavity

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The stomach is located where?

in the abdominal cavity on the ventral cavity

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the uterus is in the ?

pelvic cavity on the ventral cavity

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The spinal cord is in located ?

is located in the vertebral cavity o the dorsal cavity