a&p 2 test 1
identify the main organs of the cardiovascular system
heart blood vessels (arteries, capillaries, veins)
list the four chambers of the heart plus their separating septa
right atria and left atria-interatrial setptum/ and left and right ventricles-interventricular septum
understand direction of blood flow in heart
blood enters the heart through two large veins, the inferior and superior vena cava, emptying oxygen-poor blood from the body into the right atrium of the heart. as the atrium contracts, blood flows from your right atrium into your right ventricle through the open tricuspid valve
difference between pulmonary circuit and systematic circuit of blood
-Pulmonary circulation - carries blood from heart through lungs back
to heart. Allows for exchange of gases w/in lungs where CO2 is
exchanged for O2
- Systemic circulation - carries oxygenated blood from heart to tissues and organs of body and returns O2-poor/CO2-filled blood back to heart
describe pericardial sac and its functions
a cronical sac of fibrous tissue which surrounds the heart and the roots of the great blood vessels. also called the pericardium
-it encloses the pericardial cavity which contains pericardial fluid
what is pericardial cavity? is it air or fluid filled?
-the potential space formed between the two layers of the serous pericardium around the heart. contains fluid that acts to reduce surface tension and lubricate
be able to ID heart on a radiograph
direction of apex of heart
downward, forward and to the left
is base of heart posterior or anterior?
what tubular structures are posterior to base of the heart?
list the three surfaces of the heart
sternocostal, pulmonary, and diaphramic
be able to label the borders of heart on a diagram
be able to label the atria, auricles, ventricles, IVC, SVC, ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk, and pulmonary veins on a diagram
understand the epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium
epicardium-inner pericardium and outer surface of the heart
myocardium-muscular wall of the heart.
endocardium-smooth membrane that lines the inside of the chambers of the heart and forms the surface of the valves
which three vessels open into the right atrium?
superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus
is there a wall between the right and left atrium?
the interatrial septum is the wall
where is fossa ovalis?
in the right atrium
where are the sino-atrial nodes and atrio-ventricular (AV) nodes situated?
which ventricle does blood from the right atrium flow into?
blood flows from your right atrium into your right ventricle through the open tricuspid valve
through which valve does blood flow?
what is the common name for this valve?
what are trabeculae carnae? are they present in both the left and right ventricles?
rounded or irregular muscular columns which project from the inner surface of the right and left ventricles of the heart
-present in both the left and right ventricles
what is any one function of the moderator band?
act as a primary conduction path in to the free wall originating from the right bundle branch
what is the role of chordae tendinae and papillary muscles? (these are present in both ventricles)
The papillary muscles are muscles located in the ventricles of the heart. They attach to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves (also known as the mitral and tricuspid valves) via the chordae tendineae and contract to prevent inversion or prolapse of these valves on systole
through which valve does blood from the right ventricle pass to get into the pulmonary trunk?
what is the destination of blood that leave the right ventricle?
flow to the lungs via the pulmonary artery
blood draining into the left atrium is draining from which organ?
Deoxygenated blood is drained from the left atrium through the oblique vein of the left atrium, which joins with the larger coronary sinus to return blood to the interior of the heart.
is this blood oxygenated or not?
left atrium receives the oxygenated blood
the left atrium is separated from the right atrium by what?
what valve does blood from the left atrium pass through to get to the left ventricle? why is it called bicuspid
mitral valve-contains two cusps-allows the blood to flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle
does the left ventricle have a moderator band?
no the right ventricle
does the LV have papillary muscles, trabeculae carne and chordae tendinae?
why is the left ventricular myocardium thicker than the right ventricular myocardium?
The myocardium is thinnest within the atria, as the atria fill largely through passive blood flow. The right ventricle myocardium is thicker than the atrial myocardium, as this muscle must pump all blood returning to the heart into the lungs for oxygenation.
through what valve does blood from the LV pass to get into the ascending aorta?
when do the sinuses of the semilunar valves fill with blood? is it in diastole or systole?
when do the coronary arteries get their blood from the aortic semilunar sinuses? is it diastole or systole?
the heart receives autonomic nervous system fibers. the heart electrical system is capable of autonomous function. these nerves only modulate the hearts intrinsic electrical system
what are the two major arteries of the heart?
the coronary arteries and the circumflex artery
at what point do they branch off the aorta?
what part of the heart do they chiefly supply?
they supply the heart with oxygenated blood
label the right coronary, right marginal artery and posterior interventricular artery
label left corornary artery, anterior interventricular artery, circumflex artery and left marginal artery
which of the two supplies the major (2/3) part of the IVS
what is the corornary sinus? which heart chamber does it drain into?
receives blood from the coronary veins and empties into the right atrium of the heart
-drains into the right atrium
label veins p.17 and 18
what is the function of the cardiac conduction system?
send signals to the heart muscle causing it to contract
what structures make up the conduction system?
SA node , AV node, bundle of his, bundle branches, and purkinje fibers
what is systole? what is diastole?
systole-the phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood from the chambers into the arteries
diastole-the phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle relaxes and allows the chambers to fill with blood
true/false-during systole only the left ventricle contracts
true/false-during systole the AV valves are wide open
what is auscultation? what are the auscultation points of the valves of the heart?
the action of listening to sounds from the heart, lungs, or other organs, typically with a stethoscope, as a part of medical diagnosis.
-aortic valve, pulmonic valve, tricuspid valve, and mitral valve
distinguish blood vessels from the pulmonary and systematic circuits
PULMONARY: blood vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs.
systematic:Freshly oxygenated blood leaving the lungs is returned to the left atrium and passes into the left ventricle which pumps it into the aorta.
list the 5 main types of blood vessels
what function defines an artery?
An artery is a vessel that carries blood away from the heart and toward other tissues and organs. Arteries are part of the circulatory system, which delivers oxygen and nutrients to every cell of the body.
what function defines a vein?
Veins are the blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from parts of our body back to the heart.
identify the main differences in anatomy of the various blood vessel types
-arteries and veins range in size from 10 mm to 0.1 mm (100 microns)
-arterioles and venules are 10 to 100 microns
-capillaries are less than 10 microns
what are the three layers in blood vessels larger than 100 microns in diameter
which layer of those listed above is found in capillaries?
why do you think smooth muscle is important in blood vessel walls?
It relaxes to allow more blood to flow to an area, and contracts to restrict the local blood flow.
what is vasa vasorum?
is a network of small blood vessels that supply the walls of large blood vessels, such as elastic arteries (aorta) and large veins (vena cava).
what structure is present in veins that is absent in arteries, arterioles and venules?
internal elastic membrane
why are valves important in veins?
they prevent backflow. the valves in the heart prevent backflow from the ventricles to the atria. and the valves in the veins prevent backflow because the blood pressure is lower in the veins than the arteries. Therefore helping the blood return to the heart again.
list one function of blood
supplies essential nutrients to cells
blood is what percent of body volume
about 7 percent of body weight
plasma is what percent of body volume...while cells are what percent of blood volume?
55 percent plasma and 45 percent blood cells
what is the difference between serum and plasma?
Serum is that part of blood which is similar in composition with plasma but exclude clotting factors of blood. Fibrinogen is a protein that is involved in blood coagulation
list one type of stain used in blood work
what is the main component of RBCs
what is the principal function of RBCs?
the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide
each hemoglobin consists of 4 what and 4 what transporting carbon dioxide and oxygen respectively
4 subunits. 4 molecules
what is the difference between granulocytes and agranulocytes?
A granulocyte is a white blood cell that has granular cytoplasm. Agranulocytes are white blood cells that lack cytoplasmic granules. Name five types of leukocytes, and list the major functions of each type.
what is the difference between mononuclear and polymorphonuclear WBCs?
mono has one lobed nucleus and poly has more
which type of wbc is involved in cell mediation immunity antibody mediated immunity?
which type of wbc is very rare, has numerous purplish granules and is involved in mediation of allergic responses....it is?
this wbc has neutral granules, is the most common wbc (70%) and the first responder inflammatory response. it is?
this wbc has numerous reddish granules and is involved in parasitic infectins. it is ?
what is unique about avian RBCs?
lifespan 28 to 45 days
which blood component initiates clotting?
what is the pH of blood? does that mean it is near neutral, acidic or alkaline
A pH of 7 is neutral. The lower the pH, the more acidic the blood. A variety of factors affect blood pH including what is ingested, vomiting, diarrhea, lung function, endocrine function, kidney function, and urinary tract infection. The normal blood pH is tightly regulated between 7.35 and 7.45.
relative to water, does blood have higher or lower osmolarity?
what is hematocrit? would your hematocrit increase if you moved from Charleston SC to Aspen CO? Aspen is a higher altitude
the ratio of the volume of red blood cells to the total volume of blood
list the three major proteins in blood
albumin, fibrinogen, and globulins
what is the difference between hematopoiesis and erythropoiesis?
Hematopoiesis the development of ALL cells in the blood including red blood cells (RBC) and all white blood cells, whereas erythropoiesis is on the process of RBC development.
what is the difference in red bone marrow distribution between adults and infants?
found in flat bone in infants and its restricted to flat bones in adults
t/f-all blood cells arise from the same stem cell
what protein is produced by the kidneys in response to decrease renal blood oxygen content?
what are the three dietary requirments for adequate red blood cell synthesis?
what is the average life span of human RBCs
80 to 120 days
t/f-in RH positive person, the RBC do not carry RH agglutinogens
t/f-RH negative mother will have issues when she carries the first RH positive fetus
From which ventricle does blood leave for the pulmonary circuit. Through which valve and by which blood vessel does this blood get leave the heart for the lungs.
right ventricle/pulmonary valve
Which blood vessels deliver oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium?
The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs into the left atrium to be returned to systemic circulation. The aorta is the largest artery in the body. It carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle of the heart into systemic circulation.
Where does the ascending aorta begin at?
the top of the left ventricle
Where (in relation to the aortic semilunar valves) do the coronary arteries come off the aorta?
Two major coronary arteries branch off from the aorta near the point where the aorta and the left ventricle meet.
What are the three blood vessels that come off of the aortic arch?
divides into right common carotid artery and the right subclavian artery), the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery.
How many brachiocephalic trunks are there?
How many brachiocephalic veins are there? See slide 14 for answer.
How many common carotid arteries do we have?
In general, what structures are served blood by the external carotid arteries
right branches from the right common carotid and left branches from the left common carotid artery
What structures are served by the internal carotid arteries?
True or false: The biceps muscle is supplied by the internal carotid artery
The descending aorta runs from aortic arch to which vertebral level?
The descending thoracic aorta runs from the aortic arch to the diaphragm. In many texts, this part of the descending aorta is simply called the thoracic aorta
The thoracic aorta crosses the …………………..and is then referred to as become the descending abdominal aorta (OR simply as the abdominal aorta)
Be able to ID at least one branch of the abdominal aorta on a diagram
What are the three branches of the celiac trunk?-What do they supply?
left gastric artery, common hepatic artery, and the splenic artery..supplies blood
The superior mesenteric supplies 90 percent of the …………………intestines and about 50 percent of the …………………………………intestine
At the level of L4/L5 the abdominal aorta divides into what two arteries?
right and left common iliac arteries
Each of these divides into a) ……………… artery that sends blood to the pelvis, and b) an external iliac artery. that sends blood to the lower limb.
The last artery in item above crosses the body wall to become the ……………………………..artery on the medial aspect of the upper thigh
True or false: The gastrocnemius is supplied by the internal carotid arteries
The femoral artery runs down the medial aspect of the thigh, then becomes posterior at the knee joint, where it is called the …………… artery.
Just below the knee, the ……………… artery divides into an anterior tibial artery and a……………….. artery. The ……………….. gives off a lateral branch called the ……………… artery.
The posterior tibial artery runs down the medial side of the ankle to end up as the deep plantar arch. The anterior tibial crosses the ankle as the “dorsal pedal” artery to supply the dorsal surface of the foot. The fibular artery runs down the lateral edge of the foot…see slides 47, 48 and 49
What area is drained by the internal, jugular veins?
brain face neck
What area is drained by the external jugular veins?
deep parts of the face
The internal jugular and subclavian veins unite to form the Brachiocephalic what?
What region of the trunk is drained by the azygos vein?
upper lumbar region
What three veins come together to form the Hepatic portal vein?
inferior and superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein
What great vein drains the dorsum of the foot?
great saphenous vein
What drains the plantar surface of the foot?
Why are the lungs and liver bypassed by vascular shunts in the fetus?
lungs develop late
What shunt bypasses the liver? What does it become after birth
What two shunts bypass the lungs? What do they become after birth
What are the three components of the lymphoid system
fluid, vessels that transport the lymph, and organs that contain lymphoid tissue
What is the main component of ECF?
fluid outside of cells
What two forces drive the movement of ECF
Why do we need the lymphatic system
helps get rid of body toxins
Is the lymphatic system one way or two way.?
one way system
Where does it dump the collected fluid?
back into the system
Where does the lymphatic system originate from ?
Are lymphatic capillaries smaller or larger than blood vascular capillaries. Are they more or less permeable?
What are the different types of lymphatic vessels?
how are lymphatic collecting vessels similar to veins
Like veins of the blood vascular system, the lymphatic collecting vessels have three tunics and are equipped with valves Carry lymph.
Give an example of tissue without lymphatic vessels. What is a lacteal
lyphatic capillary that absorbs dietary fats in the villi of the small intestine
What does cisterna chyli drain?
white fat from the digestive organs
Know the pattern of drainage in 18-9
What are primary and secondary lymphoid organs?
primary-where lymphocytes are formed and mature
secondary-maintain mature naïve lymphocytes and initiate an adaptive immune response
What is the major cell type in lymphoid organs? 18-9b
reticulocytes and FDCs
18-10 is FYI to appreciate the global coverage by the lymphoid system
What are the functions of lymph nodes. Name two other cell types, apart from lymphocytes, that are present in lymph nodes?. Do not memorize 18-11 .Simply understand the organization of a lymph node and the flow of lymph through it.
What is one function of spleen (18-30)? Be able to locate spleen (18-29)
act as a filter for your blood
What is the function of thymus? Is it fully present in the adult? Can you recognize it 18-33
containing glandular tissue and producing several hormones
What is malt? Give an example of MALT.
mucosa associated lymphatic tissue