What 4 processes of life do biologists agree all living things share?
Moving towards or away from an environmental stimuli
Cells store energy in chemical bonds of
Describe how growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and metabolism work in viruses.
Growth- Growth does not occur
Reproduction- Host cell replicates the virus
Responsiveness- Reactions occur to host cells
Metabolism- Uses the host cell metabolism
What is different about the structure of a bacteria vs a virus.
Bacteria have a membrane and a cellular structure, while viruses lack a cytoplasmic membrane or cellular structure.
Viruses are not ______
Smallest living things are:
A living thing, surrounded by a membrane, that can grow, reproduce, respond, and metabolize.
2 ways of describing cells, as either _____ or ______
What 2 domains do Prokaryotes a part of
Prokaryotes can make ____ while reading their _____, because they dont have a _____
membrane around their DNA.
A prokaryote does not have a
Which has a nucelus, prokaryotes or eukaryotes?
Structures that compartmentalize a eukaryotes cellular fuctions (act like organs of the cell).
Animals, Plants, Fungi, Algae, and Protozoa are _____.
Which is smaller, eukaryotes or prokaryotes?
Sticky substance around some cells
When the glycocalyx is made of chemicals firmly attached to the cell's surface, it is called a ____
When the glycocalyx is loose and water-soluble, it is called a ____
Purpose of the glycocalyx
keep the cell from drying out and make it be able to attach to surfaces as biofilm
Long structures that propel a cell thru the environment
3 parts of flagella
hollow shaft of the flagella that extends out into the cell's environment
filament are made of protein molecules called
flagellum grows at the
the part of the flagella that anchors the filament and hook to the cell wall
the basal body
what does the filament need to rotate
hook, rod, and rings
flagella that cover the surface of a cell are called
flagella only at the ends
spiral shaped bacteria
flagella at both ends of a cell that spiral tightly
caused the cell to corkscrew
the axial filament of an endoflagella
disease caused by spirochetes
moves a cell using a boat-propeller motion
bacteria move with a series of ___ and ___
runs and tumbles
light stimulus that causes movement
chemical stimulus that causes movement
movement towards favorable stimulus
movement away from negative stimulus
rodlike proteinaceous extensions of bacteria
a disease that uses fimbriae to attached to the reproductive tract
slimy masses of microbes adhering to a surface
99% of bacteria exist in
a special type of fimbriae that is larger than normal
cells use pili to transfer
dna from cell to cell
transferring dna from one cell to another using pili is called
provides structure, shape, and protection to a cell
can cause resistance to some drugs
penicillin attacks the cell wall of ____ but not ____
rod shaped cells
bacterial cells walls are composed of ____, which our bodies don't have.
glycan portion of peptidoglycan
NAG and NAM
2 basic types of bacterial cell walls
Gram + and Gram -
cell wall with a thick peptidoglycan layer
the surface of a gram + bacteria is __ charged
Gram + will be stained
Stain used for gram + stains with large amounts of waxy lipds
the structure of a cytoplasmic membrane is referred to as a
the phospholipid molecule heads are hydro___, while the tails are hydro___
function as pores to let substances cross the membrane
the interior of a membrane is usually ___ charged, the exterior is ___ charged.
3 types of passive processes
moving chemicals from a high concentration to a low one
molecules diffuse down their concentration gradient using proteins
has a binding site that is selective for only one substance
diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane
when the concentration of solutes are equal, it is called ___.
If the concentration of solutes is higher it is called ___, and if it is lower it is ____
most cells are ___tonic to their environment
if you give a patient a hypertonic solution, the cells will
shrivel, or crenate.
if you give a patient a hypotonic solution, the cells will
swell, and possibly burst
if only one substance is transported during an active process, the permease is called a
in antiports, ___ substances are transported, but in opposite directions. (in/out)
when 2 substances move in the same direction across a membrane, it is called
breaks down ATP into ADP
oxygen, carbon dioxide, and lipid-soluble substances use ____, a passive transport process.
glucose, fructose, urea, and some vitamins use ___, a passive transport process.
glucose, mannose, and fructose use ___, an active transport process.
gelatinous material inside a cell
the liquid portion of the cytoplasm
in a prokaryote, the cell's dna is stored in the ___ of the cytosol
can tolerate boiling water for several hours and radiation at very high levels, as well as be unharmed by toxic chemicals like alcohol and bleach
anthrax, tetanus, and gangrene are examples of ___-forming bacteria.
site of protein synthesis in cells
70S ribosomes are composed of ___ and ___ subunits
archaea move using __, ___, and ___
flagella, fimbriae, and hami
___ are small, barbed-wire like projections used to stick fimbriae to surfaces
most archaea have cells walls, but none have
Pili is not found on ___, but is found on ___.
Hami is not found on ___, but is found on ___.
Cell wall of archaea composed of
polysaccharides or proteins
cell wall of bacteria composed of
___ are absent in eukaryotes that have cell walls
The eukaryotes ___, ___, and ___ have cell walls
fungi, algae, plants
Lipid A is only in Gram ___
Fungi cell walls include polysaccharides including ___, ___, and ___
cellulose, chitin, and glucomannan
All eukaryotes have ___ that contain ___
Eukaryotes use ___ to localize cellular processes, sort protein, and some cell movement
physical manipulation of the cytoplasmic membrane around the cytoskeleton
endocytosis is called ___ if a solid is brought into a cell, and ___ if a liquid is.
Nutrients brought into the cell by endocytosis are then enclosed in a ___
The basal body in a eukaryote are ___ the cell membrane
the basal body in eukaryotes have ___ microtubules, instead of ___ like prokaryotes
___ flagella move rhythmically
eukaryotes flagella do not move with ___ and ___
runs and tumbles
No ___ cells have cilia
eukaryote ribosomes are ___ and contain ___ and ___ subunits
60S and 40S
threadlike masses of DNA
Double membrane surrounding the nucleus
"Shipping department" of a cell