Chapter 3 - Cell Structure and Function

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Microbiology
Chapter 3
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1

What 4 processes of life do biologists agree all living things share?

Growth

reproduction

responsiveness

metabolism

2

Moving towards or away from an environmental stimuli

taxis

3

Cells store energy in chemical bonds of

ATP

4

Describe how growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and metabolism work in viruses.

Growth- Growth does not occur

Reproduction- Host cell replicates the virus

Responsiveness- Reactions occur to host cells

Metabolism- Uses the host cell metabolism

5

What is different about the structure of a bacteria vs a virus.

Bacteria have a membrane and a cellular structure, while viruses lack a cytoplasmic membrane or cellular structure.

6

Viruses are not ______

cellular.

7

Smallest living things are:

single-celled microrganisms

8

A living thing, surrounded by a membrane, that can grow, reproduce, respond, and metabolize.

A Cell.

9

2 ways of describing cells, as either _____ or ______

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

10

What 2 domains do Prokaryotes a part of

Archaea

Bacteria

11

Prokaryotes can make ____ while reading their _____, because they dont have a _____

Proteins...

Genetic code...

membrane around their DNA.

12

A prokaryote does not have a

nucleus

13

Which has a nucelus, prokaryotes or eukaryotes?

Eukaryotes

14

Structures that compartmentalize a eukaryotes cellular fuctions (act like organs of the cell).

Organelles

15

Animals, Plants, Fungi, Algae, and Protozoa are _____.

Eukaryotes

16

Which is smaller, eukaryotes or prokaryotes?

Prokaryotes.

17

Sticky substance around some cells

glycocalyx

18

When the glycocalyx is made of chemicals firmly attached to the cell's surface, it is called a ____

capsule

19

When the glycocalyx is loose and water-soluble, it is called a ____

Slime layer

20

Purpose of the glycocalyx

keep the cell from drying out and make it be able to attach to surfaces as biofilm

21

Long structures that propel a cell thru the environment

flagella

22

3 parts of flagella

filament

hook

basal body

23

hollow shaft of the flagella that extends out into the cell's environment

filament

24

filament are made of protein molecules called

flagellin

25

flagellum grows at the

tip

26

the part of the flagella that anchors the filament and hook to the cell wall

the basal body

27

what does the filament need to rotate

hook, rod, and rings

28

flagella that cover the surface of a cell are called

peritrichous

29

flagella only at the ends

polar

30

spiral shaped bacteria

spirochetes

31

flagella at both ends of a cell that spiral tightly

endoflagella

32

caused the cell to corkscrew

the axial filament of an endoflagella

33

disease caused by spirochetes

lyme

34

moves a cell using a boat-propeller motion

flagella

35

bacteria move with a series of ___ and ___

runs and tumbles

36

light stimulus that causes movement

phototaxis

37

chemical stimulus that causes movement

chemotaxis

38

movement towards favorable stimulus

positive taxis

39

movement away from negative stimulus

negative taxis

40

rodlike proteinaceous extensions of bacteria

fimbriae

41

a disease that uses fimbriae to attached to the reproductive tract

gonorrhea

42

slimy masses of microbes adhering to a surface

biofilms

43

99% of bacteria exist in

biofilms

44

a special type of fimbriae that is larger than normal

pili

45

cells use pili to transfer

dna from cell to cell

46

transferring dna from one cell to another using pili is called

conjugation

47

provides structure, shape, and protection to a cell

cell wall

48

can cause resistance to some drugs

cell walls

49

penicillin attacks the cell wall of ____ but not ____

bacteria...

human cells

50

spherical cells

cocci

51

rod shaped cells

bacilli

52

bacterial cells walls are composed of ____, which our bodies don't have.

peptidoglycan

53

glycan portion of peptidoglycan

NAG and NAM

54

2 basic types of bacterial cell walls

Gram + and Gram -

55

cell wall with a thick peptidoglycan layer

Gram +

56

the surface of a gram + bacteria is __ charged

negatively

57

Gram + will be stained

purple

58

Stain used for gram + stains with large amounts of waxy lipds

acid-fast

59

the structure of a cytoplasmic membrane is referred to as a

phospholipid bilayer

60

the phospholipid molecule heads are hydro___, while the tails are hydro___

philic

phobic

61

function as pores to let substances cross the membrane

proteins

62

the interior of a membrane is usually ___ charged, the exterior is ___ charged.

negatively

positively

63

3 types of passive processes

diffusion

facilitated diffusion

osmosis

64

moving chemicals from a high concentration to a low one

diffusion

65

molecules diffuse down their concentration gradient using proteins

facilitated diffusion

66

has a binding site that is selective for only one substance

permease

67

diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane

osmosis

68

when the concentration of solutes are equal, it is called ___.

If the concentration of solutes is higher it is called ___, and if it is lower it is ____

isotonic

hypertonic

hypotonic

69

most cells are ___tonic to their environment

hyper

70

if you give a patient a hypertonic solution, the cells will

shrivel, or crenate.

71

if you give a patient a hypotonic solution, the cells will

swell, and possibly burst

72

if only one substance is transported during an active process, the permease is called a

uniport

73

in antiports, ___ substances are transported, but in opposite directions. (in/out)

2

74

when 2 substances move in the same direction across a membrane, it is called

symport

75

breaks down ATP into ADP

ATPase

76

oxygen, carbon dioxide, and lipid-soluble substances use ____, a passive transport process.

diffusion

77

glucose, fructose, urea, and some vitamins use ___, a passive transport process.

facilitated diffusion

78

glucose, mannose, and fructose use ___, an active transport process.

group translocation

79

gelatinous material inside a cell

cytoplasm

80

the liquid portion of the cytoplasm

cytosol

81

in a prokaryote, the cell's dna is stored in the ___ of the cytosol

nucleoid

82

can tolerate boiling water for several hours and radiation at very high levels, as well as be unharmed by toxic chemicals like alcohol and bleach

endospores

83

anthrax, tetanus, and gangrene are examples of ___-forming bacteria.

endospore

84

site of protein synthesis in cells

ribosomes

85

70S ribosomes are composed of ___ and ___ subunits

30S

50S

86

archaea move using __, ___, and ___

flagella, fimbriae, and hami

87

___ are small, barbed-wire like projections used to stick fimbriae to surfaces

hami

88

most archaea have cells walls, but none have

peptidoglycan

89

Pili is not found on ___, but is found on ___.

Archaea...

Bacteria.

90

Hami is not found on ___, but is found on ___.

Bacteria...

Archea

91

Cell wall of archaea composed of

polysaccharides or proteins

92

cell wall of bacteria composed of

peptidoglycan

93

___ are absent in eukaryotes that have cell walls

glycocalyces

94

The eukaryotes ___, ___, and ___ have cell walls

fungi, algae, plants

95

Lipid A is only in Gram ___

negative

96

Fungi cell walls include polysaccharides including ___, ___, and ___

cellulose, chitin, and glucomannan

97

All eukaryotes have ___ that contain ___

cytoplasmic membranes...

sterols

98

Eukaryotes use ___ to localize cellular processes, sort protein, and some cell movement

membrane rafts

99

physical manipulation of the cytoplasmic membrane around the cytoskeleton

endocytosis

100

endocytosis is called ___ if a solid is brought into a cell, and ___ if a liquid is.

phagocytosis...

pinocytosis

101

Nutrients brought into the cell by endocytosis are then enclosed in a ___

food vessicle

102

The basal body in a eukaryote are ___ the cell membrane

inside

103

the basal body in eukaryotes have ___ microtubules, instead of ___ like prokaryotes

3...

2

104

___ flagella move rhythmically

eukaryote

105

eukaryotes flagella do not move with ___ and ___

runs and tumbles

106

No ___ cells have cilia

prokaryote

107

eukaryote ribosomes are ___ and contain ___ and ___ subunits

80S

60S and 40S

108

threadlike masses of DNA

chromatin

109

Double membrane surrounding the nucleus

nuclear enevelope

110

"Shipping department" of a cell

golgi body