Research Quiz #1 (Week 2) Flashcards


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created 8 years ago by Husky_Murse
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Chapters 3, 4, and 7; ARTICLE: Aiken LH, Clarke SP, Sloane DM, Sochalski J, Silber JH. Hospital nurse staffing and patient mortality, nurse burnout, and job dissatisfaction. Jama. Oct 23-30 2002;288(16):1987-1993.
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1

In a quantitative study, the people being studied are called:

Subjects (or study participants)

2

In a qualitative study, the people cooperating in the study are called:

Informants (or study participants)

3

Researchers sometimes do this type of study, since it offers a larger & often more diverse sample of participants

Multisite study

4

An explanation of some aspect of reality

Theory

5

Studies are conceptualized in abstract terms; for example, pain, fatigue, and resilience are abstractions of human behavior. These abstractions are called:

Phenomena (esp. in qualitative studies) or concepts

6

An abstraction that is deliberately invented;

Refers to a slightly more complex abstraction than a concept

Construct

7

How does a "theory" fit into quantitative studies?

Researchers start with a theory, then predict how phenomena would behave if the theory were true

*In the beginning

8

How does a "theory" fit into qualitative studies?

The theory is often the product of research

*In the end

9

In quantitative studies, concepts are usually called:

Central building blocks in quantitative studies

Variables

*e.g. weight, anxiety, fatigue (all vary from person to person)

10

Any quality of a person, group, or situation that varies or takes on different values

Variable

11

When studying a disease (e.g. lung cancer), the cause, or _____ variable, would be the something like smoking, whereas the presumed effect, or _____ variable, would be lung cancer

Independent variable;

Dependent variable

12

Variation in the dependent variable, or end-product, is dependent upon what?

Variation in the independent (causative) variable

13

Which variable is that which researchers want to understand, explain, or predict?

Dependent variable

*Use the independent variable to discover the dependent variable

14

A conceptual definition, the abstract or theoretical meaning of a concept, has these 5 categories:

Human trait

Moral imperative

Affect

Interpersonal relationship

Therapeutic intervention

15

In qualitative studies, concepts are defined at what point?

At the end (may be a major end-product)

16

In quantitative studies, concepts are defined at what point?

At the beginning

17

Describes what the researchers specifically must do to measure the concept & collect needed information

Operational definition

18

Information in numeric form;

*e.g. with depression, generating numbers on a scale from 1-10

Quantitative data

19

Data collected is in narrative descriptions

Qualitative data

20

When analyzing a variable such as weight, what type of relationship is being analyzed when, looking at caloric intake & weight, we deduce that eating more calories causes weight gain?

Cause-and-effect (causal) relationship

*Eating more calories CAUSES weight gain

21

When a relationship between two variables cannot be classified as causal, it's sometimes referred to as an:

Associative (or functional) relationship

22

Distinction in quantitative studies:

In _____ research, researchers actively introduce an intervention or treatment - most often, to address therapy questions

Experimental research

*Intervention applied

23

Distinction in quantitative studies:

In _____ research, researchers are bystanders - they collect data without introducing treatments or making changes

Nonexperimental research

*No intervention applied

24

Experimental or nonexperimental research?

An intervention is applied over the course of a study to alter an outcome

Experimental research

*If no intervention was applied, and the outcome was merely observed without interjection, it would be nonexperimental

25

In medical & epidemiological research, experimental studies are called _____ _____ & nonexperimental studies are called _____ _____

Clinical trials;

Observational studies

26

Experimental studies are designed to test this type of relationship

Causal relationship

*Test whether an intervention caused changes in the outcome variable

27

3 traditions of qualitative research:

Seeks to describe & understand key social psychological processes that occur in a social setting

Major component is the discovery of a core variable to explain what's going on in that social scene

Grounded theory tradition

28

3 traditions of qualitative research:

Rooted in philosophy; concerned with lived experiences of humans

An approach to thinking about what life experiences of people are like & what they mean

Phenomenology

29

3 traditions of qualitative research:

Primary research tradition in anthropology

Provides a framework for studying a defined cultural group

Extensive fieldwork

Ethnography

30

5 phases of a quantitative study

Conceptual phase

Design/planning phase

Empirical phase (collecting research)

Analytical phase (analyze data)

Dissemination phase (release results)

31

Many research articles follow this format

*Preceded by title & abstract, & concludes with references

IMRAD -

Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion

32

Brief description of the study placed at the beginning of the article

Abstract

33

Nursing Research suggests the following abstract headings:

Background

Objectives

Method

Results

Conclusions

34

This part of a research article describes the concepts of interest, the need for the study, & the study purpose

Introduction (IMRAD)

35

This part of a research article describes the way in which variables were measured & data was collected

Method (IMRAD)

36

This part of a research article describes the findings that were obtained, names of statistical tests (quantitative), and significance of those findings

Results (IMRAD)

37

Findings are probably true & replicable with a new sample

Statistically significant

38

An index of how probable it is that the findings are reliable

Level of significance

39

This part of a research article describes the conclusions about the meaning of the findings, the limitations of the study, & how the results can be used in practice

Discussion (IMRAD)

40

A conclusion drawn from the study evidence using logical reasoning & taking into account the methods used to generate that evidence

Inference

41

Refers to the accuracy & consistency of information obtained in a study

Reliability (quantitative)

42

Broadly concerns the soundness of the study; whether the methods are really measuring the concepts they state they're measuring

Validity (quantitative)

43

Quantitative researches assess the _____ _____ (reliability, validity) of a study, whereas qualitative researchers assess the _____ (credibility)

Scientific merit;

Trustworthiness

44

To establish credibility in a qualitative study, _____ (use of multiple sources to draw conclusions about what constitutes the truth) is used

Triangulation

45

An influence that results in an error in an inference or estimate;

Can threaten a study's validity & trustworthiness

Bias

46

Bias that is haphazard & only affects small segments of data

Random bias

47

Bias that is consistent or uniform

Systematic bias

48

2 methods employed to reduce bias in a study

Randomness

Blinding

49

Concealing information from participants, data collectors, care providers, or data analysts to enhance objectivity

Blinding

50

Qualitative process of reflecting critically on the self, & of analyzing & making note of personal values that could affect data collection & interpretation

Reflexivity

51

Criterion used in quantitative studies to assess the extent to which the findings can be applied to other groups & settings

Generalizability

52

The extent to which qualitative findings can be transferred to other settings; another aspect of trustworthiness

Transferability

53

The most important type of information for a research review

Findings from prior studies

54

If you are preparing a literature review, you should rely mostly on _____ sources, which are descriptions of studies written by the researchers who conducted them

Primary sources

55

_____ source documents are descriptions of studies prepared by someone else

A literature review would be an example of this

Secondary sources

56

When conducting a research review, having good search skills is imperative.

These 3 search strategies are often employed in a research review:

Bibliography databases

Ancestry approach ("footnote chasing", or tracking down earlier research the study is based upon)

Descendancy approach (tracking down subsequent studies that cite current study, or "descendants" of the study)

57

What are the keywords used to search for quantitative studies in a database?

The independent & dependent variables

58

What are the keywords used to search for qualitative studies in a database?

Central phenomenon & population

59

Feature that allows you to search for topics using your own keywords, instead of needing the exact subject heading for a database

Mapping

60

Can be used to expand or restrict a search;

Adding "and" or "or" to a keyword search

*e.g. lung cancer AND smoking; lung cancer OR smoking

Boolean operators

61

2 especially useful databases for nurses searching literature

CINAHL

MEDLINE

62

The shortage of hospital nurses may be linked to what?

Unrealistic nurse workloads

63

In the staffing/burnout article for this week, what 3 hospital characteristics were used as control variables?

Size

Teaching status

Technology

64

In the staffing/burnout article for this week, what method was used to reduce bias when surveying nurses regarding burnout & job dissatisfaction?

Randomness

*Surveys were mailed to a 50% random sample of RN's on the PA Board of Nursing rolls

65

In the staffing/burnout article for this week, what quantitative data was collected from surveyed nurses regarding burnout & job dissatisfaction?

Burnout: Measured w/Emotional Exhaustion scale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, a standardized tool)

Job dissatisfaction: Rated on a 4-point scale from very dissatisfied to very satisfied)

66

In the staffing/burnout article for this week, identify the following:

- 2 nursing outcomes analyzed

- 2 patient outcomes analyzed

Nursing: Burnout & job dissatisfaction

Patient: Mortality & failure-to-rescue (deaths w/in 30 days of admission among patients who experienced complications)

67

In the staffing/burnout article for this week, data analyses was considered statistically significant, meaning that the findings are:

Probably true & replicable with a new sample

68

In the staffing/burnout article for this week, what correlation was made between nurse burnout/job dissatisfaction & patient-to-nurse ratios?

The higher the patient-to-nurse ratio, the greater the level of fatigue/job dissatisfaction

69

In the staffing/burnout article for this week, the conclusion stated that when taken together, the impacts of RN staffing on patient & nurse outcomes suggest that by investing in RN staffing, hospitals may avoid these 2 critical issues:

-Preventable mortality

-Low nurse retention