developmental science is a field of study devoted to
understanding constancy and change throughout lifespan
Within the _______ view of development, new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times.
Although Justin spent his first 18 months in an orphanage, his adoptive mother believes that sensitive caregiving will help Justin overcome his early experiences. Justin’s mother emphasizes the role of ______ in development.
The lifespan perspective on human development assumes that development is
multidimensional and multidirectional
according to the lifespan perspective, ______ is supreme in its impact on the life course.
no single age period
Which of the following is an example of an age-graded influence?
Frank got his driver’s license at age 16
Although Betty grew up in a rundown neighborhood, had divorced parents, and rarely saw her father, she is a successful, happy, and health adult. Betty;s ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development is known as
Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution emphasized ________ and ______.
natural selection; survival of the fittest
G. Stanley Hall and his student, Arnold Gesell,
launched the normative approach
According to the _______ perspective, people move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations.
According to Sigmund Freud, the
id is the source of basic biological drives and social expectation
In contrast to Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson
pointed out that normal development must be understood in relation to each culture’s life situation.
In historic experiment with 11-month-old Albert, John Watson demonstrated that
children can be conditioned to fear a formerly neutral stimulus
According to B.F. Skinner and operant conditioning, _________ will increase the frequency of a behavior and ______ will decrease the frequency of a behavior.
A(n) _______ period is a time that optimal for certain capacities to emerge.
Unlike Jean Piaget. Lev Vygotsky viewed cognitive development as a _________ process.
Ecological systems theory views the person as
developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of surrounding environment
A _______ is a prediction about behavior drawn from a _______.
Taking tests and answering questionnaire are examples of
Dr. Wiren observes children’s responses to bullying by watching them play in a park. This is an example of a(n)
_________ ask research participation to provide information on their perceptions, thoughts, and feelings.
Jade spent two years in a Mexican-American community studying communication between parents and children. Jade is using the ________ research method.
In a(n) _____ design, research look at relationship between participations’ characteristics and their behavior or development.
Dr. Anodyne found a correlation of +.49 illegal drugs use and levels of adolescent delinquency. This correlation is _________ and ________.
In an experiment examining whether phonics instruction in preschool increases a child’s reading level in third grade, the dependent variable would be the
child’s reading level in third grade
A major strength of the longitudinal design is that researchers can
examine relationships between early and later behavior
In a longitudinal study, _______ effect occur when individuals born in the same time period are influenced by a particular set of historical and cultural conditions.
in a cross-sectional design, researchers study
groups of participants differing in age at the same point in time.
One limitation of debriefing is
young children often lack the cognitive skills to understand the reasons for deceptive procedures.
Ethical standards permit deception in research studies if
the benefits to society justify the risks to the participants
A ______ is a complex blend of genetic information that determines the species and influences unique characteristics.
Generally, human ________ come in 23 matching pairs.
The sex of a new organism is determined by whether
the X-bearing sperms or Y-bearing sperm fertilizes the ovum
Gilles has had frequent and high exposure to radiation in his occupation for the past ten years. Gilles’s offspring are at greater risks for ________ than children whose father were not exposed to radiation.
The risk of bearing a child with down syndrome rises dramatically with
To detect developmental problems before birth, doctors use
prenatal diagnostic methods
Most adopted children
become well-adjusted adults
Higher SES parents tend to emphasize the importance of ______ for their children, whereas lower SES parents tend to emphasize ______.
psychological traits; external characteristics
of all western nations, ________ has the highest percentage of extremely poor children.
The United States
The United States is strongly _____, whereas most Western European countries lean toward _____.
Among African Americans, living within an extended family tends to produce
improved child rearing and reduce stress
The United States
does not rank well on any key measure of children’s health an well being.
Which of the following is strongly canalized?
infant motor development
Bart and Nadia are gymnasts, Their son, 4-year old Dylan, participates in children’s gymnastics. This is an example of
an ovum bursts from one of the woman’s two ___ and is drawn into one of the two ______
ovaries; fallopian tubes
Following fertilization, a one-celled _______ multiplies and forms a _______
The most rapid prenatal changes take place in the period of the _____
By the _____ week of pregnancy, Monica will be able to learn the sex of her fetus
Viability occurs to between ________ weeks.
22 and 26
The term teratogen refers to
any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period
Which of the following is true about the harm done by teratogens?
The genetic makeup of the mother and the developing organism plays an important role
Willa gets regular headaches. While pregnant, Willa being using aspirin to ease the pain because she is convinced that aspirin is harmless. What effects can Willa’s regular aspirin use have on the developing organism?
Regular aspirin use is linked to low birth weight and poorer motor development
It is difficult to isolate the precise damage caused by illegal drugs during pregnancy because
drug using mother often take several drugs, displays there higher-risk behaviors and suffer from poverty
Adolescents prenatally exposed to smoking tend to have________ than those born to mothers who did not smoke.
higher levels of disruptive, aggressive behavior
Maryann is pregnant and works in a smoke-filled environment. What can you tell her about passive smoking?
passive smoking is related to low birth weight, infant death, and childhood respiratory illnesses.
Recent evidence suggests that paternal alcohol use around the time of conception
can alter gene expression
The more alcohol a woman consumes during pregnancy
poorer the child’s intelligence and achievement test scores during school
Untreated HIV-infected expectant mothers pass the deadly virus to the developing organism ________ percent of the time
frequent, vigorous exercise, especially late pregnancy, results in
lower birth weight than in healthy, non-exercising controls
The poorer the mother’s diet, the _________, especially if malnutrition occurs during the last trimester
greater the loss in brain weight
The effects on stress on the developing organism can be greatly reduced if the mother
has access to social support during stressful periods.
the Apgar Scale rates the following newborns characteristics:
appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration
A certified nurse-midwife
has a degree in nursing and additional training in childbirth managament
is the most common approach to controlling pain during labor
are those born several weeks or more before the due date
Small-for-date infants _______ than preterm infants
more often show evidence of brain damage
A ______ is a inborn, automatic responses to a particular form of stimulation.
Although newborns sleep more at night than during the day, their sleep-wake cycle are affected more by ______ than by _________.
fullness - hunger; dark - light
_______ doubles the risk of SIDS.
maternal cigarette smoking
Which of the following is supported by research on colic?
Newborns who react especially strongly to unpleasant stimuli are at risk for colic.
______ helps stimulate early physical growth and vital for emotional development as well.