Developmental Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide

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1

developmental science is a field of study devoted to

understanding constancy and change throughout lifespan

2

Within the _______ view of development, new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times.

discontinuous

3

Although Justin spent his first 18 months in an orphanage, his adoptive mother believes that sensitive caregiving will help Justin overcome his early experiences. Justin’s mother emphasizes the role of ______ in development.

nurture

4

The lifespan perspective on human development assumes that development is

multidimensional and multidirectional

5

according to the lifespan perspective, ______ is supreme in its impact on the life course.

no single age period

6

Which of the following is an example of an age-graded influence?

Frank got his driver’s license at age 16

7

Although Betty grew up in a rundown neighborhood, had divorced parents, and rarely saw her father, she is a successful, happy, and health adult. Betty;s ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development is known as

resilience

8

Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution emphasized ________ and ______.

natural selection; survival of the fittest

9

G. Stanley Hall and his student, Arnold Gesell,

launched the normative approach

10

According to the _______ perspective, people move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations.

psychoanalytic

11

According to Sigmund Freud, the

id is the source of basic biological drives and social expectation

12

In contrast to Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson

pointed out that normal development must be understood in relation to each culture’s life situation.

13

In historic experiment with 11-month-old Albert, John Watson demonstrated that

children can be conditioned to fear a formerly neutral stimulus

14

According to B.F. Skinner and operant conditioning, _________ will increase the frequency of a behavior and ______ will decrease the frequency of a behavior.

reinforcement; punishment

15

A(n) _______ period is a time that optimal for certain capacities to emerge.

sensitive

16

Unlike Jean Piaget. Lev Vygotsky viewed cognitive development as a _________ process.

socially mediated

17

Ecological systems theory views the person as

developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of surrounding environment

18

A _______ is a prediction about behavior drawn from a _______.

theory;hypothesis

19

Taking tests and answering questionnaire are examples of

research methods

20

Dr. Wiren observes children’s responses to bullying by watching them play in a park. This is an example of a(n)

naturalistic observation

21

_________ ask research participation to provide information on their perceptions, thoughts, and feelings.

Self-Reports

22

Jade spent two years in a Mexican-American community studying communication between parents and children. Jade is using the ________ research method.

ethnographic

23

In a(n) _____ design, research look at relationship between participations’ characteristics and their behavior or development.

correlational

24

Dr. Anodyne found a correlation of +.49 illegal drugs use and levels of adolescent delinquency. This correlation is _________ and ________.

moderate; positive

25

In an experiment examining whether phonics instruction in preschool increases a child’s reading level in third grade, the dependent variable would be the

child’s reading level in third grade

26

A major strength of the longitudinal design is that researchers can

examine relationships between early and later behavior

27

In a longitudinal study, _______ effect occur when individuals born in the same time period are influenced by a particular set of historical and cultural conditions.

cohort

28

in a cross-sectional design, researchers study

groups of participants differing in age at the same point in time.

29

One limitation of debriefing is

young children often lack the cognitive skills to understand the reasons for deceptive procedures.

30

Ethical standards permit deception in research studies if

the benefits to society justify the risks to the participants

31

A ______ is a complex blend of genetic information that determines the species and influences unique characteristics.

genotype

32

Generally, human ________ come in 23 matching pairs.

chromosomes

33

The sex of a new organism is determined by whether

the X-bearing sperms or Y-bearing sperm fertilizes the ovum

34

Gilles has had frequent and high exposure to radiation in his occupation for the past ten years. Gilles’s offspring are at greater risks for ________ than children whose father were not exposed to radiation.

childhood cancer

35

The risk of bearing a child with down syndrome rises dramatically with

maternal age

36

To detect developmental problems before birth, doctors use

prenatal diagnostic methods

37

Most adopted children

become well-adjusted adults

38

Higher SES parents tend to emphasize the importance of ______ for their children, whereas lower SES parents tend to emphasize ______.

psychological traits; external characteristics

39

of all western nations, ________ has the highest percentage of extremely poor children.

The United States

40

The United States is strongly _____, whereas most Western European countries lean toward _____.

individualistic; collectivism

41

Among African Americans, living within an extended family tends to produce

improved child rearing and reduce stress

42

The United States

does not rank well on any key measure of children’s health an well being.

43

Which of the following is strongly canalized?

infant motor development

44

Bart and Nadia are gymnasts, Their son, 4-year old Dylan, participates in children’s gymnastics. This is an example of

passive correlation

45

an ovum bursts from one of the woman’s two ___ and is drawn into one of the two ______

ovaries; fallopian tubes

46

Following fertilization, a one-celled _______ multiplies and forms a _______

zygote; blastocyte

47

The most rapid prenatal changes take place in the period of the _____

embryo

48

By the _____ week of pregnancy, Monica will be able to learn the sex of her fetus

twelfth

49

Viability occurs to between ________ weeks.

22 and 26

50

The term teratogen refers to

any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period

51

Which of the following is true about the harm done by teratogens?

The genetic makeup of the mother and the developing organism plays an important role

52

Willa gets regular headaches. While pregnant, Willa being using aspirin to ease the pain because she is convinced that aspirin is harmless. What effects can Willa’s regular aspirin use have on the developing organism?

Regular aspirin use is linked to low birth weight and poorer motor development

53

It is difficult to isolate the precise damage caused by illegal drugs during pregnancy because

drug using mother often take several drugs, displays there higher-risk behaviors and suffer from poverty

54

Adolescents prenatally exposed to smoking tend to have________ than those born to mothers who did not smoke.

higher levels of disruptive, aggressive behavior

55

Maryann is pregnant and works in a smoke-filled environment. What can you tell her about passive smoking?

passive smoking is related to low birth weight, infant death, and childhood respiratory illnesses.

56

Recent evidence suggests that paternal alcohol use around the time of conception

can alter gene expression

57

The more alcohol a woman consumes during pregnancy

poorer the child’s intelligence and achievement test scores during school

58

Untreated HIV-infected expectant mothers pass the deadly virus to the developing organism ________ percent of the time

20-30

59

frequent, vigorous exercise, especially late pregnancy, results in

lower birth weight than in healthy, non-exercising controls

60

The poorer the mother’s diet, the _________, especially if malnutrition occurs during the last trimester

greater the loss in brain weight

61

The effects on stress on the developing organism can be greatly reduced if the mother

has access to social support during stressful periods.

62

the Apgar Scale rates the following newborns characteristics:

appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration

63

A certified nurse-midwife

has a degree in nursing and additional training in childbirth managament

64

Epidural analgesia

is the most common approach to controlling pain during labor

65

Preterm infants

are those born several weeks or more before the due date

66

Small-for-date infants _______ than preterm infants

more often show evidence of brain damage

67

A ______ is a inborn, automatic responses to a particular form of stimulation.

reflex

68

Although newborns sleep more at night than during the day, their sleep-wake cycle are affected more by ______ than by _________.

fullness - hunger; dark - light

69

_______ doubles the risk of SIDS.

maternal cigarette smoking

70

Which of the following is supported by research on colic?

Newborns who react especially strongly to unpleasant stimuli are at risk for colic.

71

______ helps stimulate early physical growth and vital for emotional development as well.

Touch