Biology 1 Exam Study Guide

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created 6 years ago by Lindsay_woldman
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Campbell Biology
Chapters 3-20, 22-24
College Biology 1
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1

Character

Heritable feature (eye color)

2

Trait

Varient for a character (brown)

3

Law of Segregation

During the production of gametes the two copies of each hereditary factor segregate so that offspring azure one factor from each parent

4

Testcross

Breeding of a recessive homozygote X dominant phenotype (but unknown genotype)

5

Law of Independent Assortment

When two or more characteristics are inherited, individual heredity factors assort independently during gamete production, giving different traits and equal opportunity of occurring together

6

Incomplete dominance

Appearance between phenotypes of the two parents

7

Codominance

Two alleles affect phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways

8

Chromosomal Theory

Genes have specific loci on chromosomes and chromosomes undergo segregation and independent assortment

9

Chromosomal Linkage

What did Thomas Hut Morgan come up with?

10

Modes of heredity in pea plants

What did Mendel find?

11

Morgan

Who found Genes located on chromosomes

12

Griffith

Who discovered Bacterial work, transformation; change in phenotype and genotype due to assimilation of external substance (DNA) by a cell?

13

Avery

Who found out the the transformation agent was DNA?

14

Chargaff

Who found that the ratio of nucleotide bases?

15

Watson and Crick

Who found the double helix

16

Species

A population or group of populations whose membranes have the potential to intebreed and produce viable, fertile offspring

17

Evolution

The change over time of the genetic composition of population

18

Fossil Record

A record showing us that todays organisms descend from ancestral species

19

Artificail Selection

Artificial breeding can use variations in populations to create vastly different breeds and varieties

20

Microevolution

A change in the gene pool of a population over a succession of generations

21

Genetic Drift

Changes in the gene pool of a small population due to chance (usually reduces genetic variability)

22

The Bottleneck Effect

Type of genetic drift resulting from reproduction in population such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population

23

Founder Effect

cause of genetic drift attributable to colonization by a limited number of individuals from a parent population

24

Gene Flow

Genetic exchange due to the migration of fertile individuals or gametes between populations

25

Polymorphism

Coexhistance of 2 or more distinct forms of individuals within the same populations

26

Geographical Variation

Differences in genetic structure between populations