Nutritional Foundations and Clinical Applications - E-Book: Nutrition Final Exam Review Flashcards


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1

Health

  • a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being

2

Wellness

  • a lifestyle that enhances our level of health

3

Lifestyle

  • pattern of behaviors

4

Primary Prevention

  • prevent initial development of a disease or poor health
  • ex:
    • diet
    • exercise

5

Secondary Prevention

  • early detection to halt, reduce, or reverse the effects of a disease or poor health
  • manages disease

6

Essential Nutrients

  • body CAN NOT synthesize
  • must be obtained from diet

7

Nonessential Nutrients

  • nutrients that the body can synthesize

8

Dietary Standards

  • a guide to adequate nutrient intake levels against which to compare nutrient values of foods consumed

9

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)

  • the amount of nutrient and calorie intake per day considered necessary for maintenance of good health
  • amount of nutrient needed to satisfy the needs of almost healthy individuals at a life stage or gender study

10

Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)

  • The daily intake of a specific nutrient estimated to meet the requirement in 50% of healthy people in an age- and gender-specific group

11

Adequate Intake (AI)

  • A recommended intake value based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy people
  • used when recommended allowance is not determined

12

Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)

  • is the level of nutrient intake that should not be exceeded to prevent adverse health risks

13

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)

  • daily percent of calories intake that should come from carbs, lipids, and proteins

14

daily kcal intake for carbs

  • 45-65%

15

daily kcal intake for saturated fats

  • 10% or less

16

daily kcal intake for lipids/fats

  • 20-35%

17

daily kcal intake for proteins

  • 10-35%

18

Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)

  • the DRI for dietary energy intake

19

Nutrient Density

  • ratio comparison of a food's nutrient content with the kcal value that the food contains
  • nutrient value vs caloric value

20

Overnutrition

  • consumption of too many nutrients and too much energy in comparison with DRI values

21

Malnutrition

  • condition resulting from an imbalanced nutrient and/or energy intake

22

Undernutrition

  • consumption of not enough energy or nutrients in comparison with DRI values

23

Four Themes of MyPlate

  1. Variety
  2. Proportionality
  3. Moderation
  4. Activity

24

Variety (MyPlate Theme)

  • eat foods from all food groups and subgroups

25

Proportionality (MyPlate Theme)

  • eat more of some foods and less of others

26

Moderation (MyPlate Theme)

  • choose types of foods that limit intake of saturated or trans fats, added sugars, cholesterol, salt, and alcohol

27

Activity (MyPlate Theme)

  • be physically active every day

28

Food Labels

  • a way for consumers to see how individual foods fit their nutritional needs

29

Metabolism

  • enzyme mediated chemical reactions
  • cells use energy to build and acquire energy from the breakdown of organic molecules
  • absorbed nutrients are used by the body for energy and to form and maintain body structures and functions

30

Anabolism

  • process of synthesis from which substances are formed
  • uses energy to build organic molecules
  • endothermic

31

Catabolism

  • breakdown of food components into smaller molecular particles
  • acquires energy breaking down organic molecules
  • exothermic

32

GER (gastroesophagel reflux)

  • A backflow of the contents of the stomach into the esophagus, caused by relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter

33

Strategies to prevent GER

  • avoid high-fat meals
  • avoid overeating
  • avoid laying down after eating
  • avoid pressure on stomach
  • avoid eating too fast

34

3 Elements found in Carbohydrates

  • Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

35

Ratio of elements in Carbs

  • 1:2:1

36

Monosaccharides (simple carbohydrates)

card image
  • composed of single carbohydrate units
  • ex: glucose, fructose, galactose

37

Disaccharides (simple carbohydrates)

  • consists of two single carbohydrates bound together
  • ex: sucrose, maltose, lactose

38

Polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates)

  • consists of many subunits of monosaccharides joined together
  • ex: starch, fiber, glycogen

39

Glycogen

  • storage form of carbohydrate energy
  • stored in the liver and muscles
  • retrieved as needed for energy

40

Glycogenesis

  • the process of converting glucose to glycogen

41

Carbohydrates

  • provides energy (function)
  • protein-sparing effect
    • If enough carbohydrate is provided to meet the energy needs of the body, protein can be spared or saved to use for specific protein functions
  • the CNS functions best from glucose
  • the GI tract has the role of digesting carbs into monosaccharides for easy absorption

42

Blood glucose homeostasis

  • between 70 to 100 mg/dL

43

Glycogenolysis

  • the process of converting glycogen back to glucose

44

Glycolysis

  • a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and releases energy for the body in the form of ATP

45

Gluconeogenesis

  • the process of producing glucose from fats or protein

46

Ketone Bodies

  • created when fatty acids are broken down for energy when sufficient carbs are unavailable

47

Glucose

  • simple carbs (monosaccharides)
  • blood sugar
  • rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream
  • food sources: fruits, sweeteners

48

Fructose

  • simple carbs (monosaccharides)
  • fruit sugars
  • food sources: fruits, honey, syrups, vegetables

49

Galactose

  • simple carbs (monosaccharides)
  • food sources: part of lactose, found in milk

50

Sucrose

  • simple carbs (disaccharides)
  • glucose + fructose
  • table sugar
  • food sources: sugarcane, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables

51

Lactose

  • simple carbs (disaccharides)
  • milk sugar
  • food sources: milk and milk products
  • glucose + galactose

52

Maltose

  • simple carbs (disaccharides)
  • malt sugar
  • food sources: germinating grains
  • glucose + glucose

53

Starches

  • complex carbohydrates
  • strings of glucose
  • storage form of plant carbohydrate
  • food sources: grains, legumes, potatoes

54

Fiber

  • roughage
  • strings of monosaccharides, usually glucose
  • cannot be broken down by human digestive enyzmes
  • Insoluble vs Soluble Fiber
  • food sources: legumes, whole grains, fruits, vegetables

55

Blood Glucose

  • a source of energy to all cells

56

Ketoacidosis/Ketosis

  • the result build up of ketones leading to acid-base imbalances in the body

57

Insulin

  • hormone
  • produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans
  • lowers/decrease blood glucose levels by enhancing the conversion of excess glucose to glycogen (glycogenesis)

58

Glucagon

  • hormone
  • increases blood glucose levels
  • stimulates conversion of liver glycogen to glucose
  • assists regulation of blood glucose throughout the night

59

Somatostatin effect on blood glucose

  • hormone
  • secreted from the hypothalamus and pancreas
  • inhibits the functions of insulin and glucagon

60

Epinephrine effect on the liver

  • hormone
  • enhances the fast conversion of liver glycogen to glucose (glycogenolysis)

61

Steroid Hormones (Insulin Inhibitor)

effect on blood glucose

  • functions against insulin
  • promotes glucose formation from protein

62

Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH)

effect on blood glucose

  • insulin inhibitor
  • promotes glucose formation from protein

63

Thyroid Hormones effect on blood absorption

  • affects blood glucose level by enhancing intestinal absorption of glucose and releasing epinephrine

64

Growth Hormones effect on blood glucose

  • insulin inhibitor
  • increase gluconeogenesis from protein

65

Glycemic Index

  • rankings of foods according to the level to which a food raises blood glucose levels
  • measures a single component of food

66

Glycemic Load

  • considers the total glycemic index effect of a mixed meal of dietary plan
  • whole thing

67

What happens to fructose in the liver?

  • liver cels rearrange fructose into glucose

68

What happens to starch in the digestive tract?

  • it is broken down to provide glucose

69

Insoluble FIber

  • fiber that does not dissolve in fluids

70

Soluble Fiber

  • fiber that dissolves in fluids
  • thickens substances
  • provides structure and protection for plants

71

Health Effects of Dietary Fiber

  • obesity
  • constipation
  • diverticular disease
  • colon cancer
  • heart disease
  • diabetes control

72

Since the 1940s ______ grains are generally enriched with niacin, folate, thiamine, riboflavin, and iron.

refined

73

______/______ grains are sources of magnesium, riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, vitamin B6, zinc, and some protein that are k=lost when refined.

whole/unrefined

74

Palatibility (Lipids)

  • fats make food taste and smell good

75

Satiety (Lipids)

  • hormones released in response to the consumption of fat causes us to feel full and satisfied

76

Satiation (Lipids)

  • increases our desire to eat more fatty food

77

Emulsifier

  • a substance that works by being soluble in water and fat at the same time

78

Lipoproteins

  • carriers or transporters of lipids

79

Lecithin

  • a phospholipid
  • extensive role as an emulsifier
  • part of lipoproteins

80

Triglycerides (structure)

  • composed of a glycerol and three fatty acids

81

How can you tell the difference between carbohydrates and triglycerides by looking at the chemical formula?

...

82

What elements are found in triglycerides?

  • carbon
  • hydrogen
  • oxygen

83

Physiologic Function of Triglycerides

  • stored energy
  • organ protection
  • temperature regulation
  • insulation

84

Function(s) of Phospholipids

  • form part of all cell membrane structure
  • serve as emulsifiers to keep fats dispersed in body fluids

85

Function(s) of Sterols

  • provides basic material to make bile, vitamin D, sex hormones, and cells in brain and nerve tissue

86

What elements are found in fatty acids?

  • carbon atoms

87

Cholesterol

  • a vital part of all cell membrane, nerve tissue, and building block for hormones

88

How many carbons are found in glycerol?

  • there are three carbon atoms in glycerol
  • tri = 3

89

Saturated Fatty Acid

card image
  • has a single-bonded carbon chain
  • fully saturated b/c hydrogen atoms are attached to all available bonding sites
  • contained in meats, butterfat, shortening, and vegetable oils

90

Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA)

card image
  • a carbon chain has only one unsaturated double bond
  • dietary sources: olive oil, peanuts, and canola oil

91

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA)

card image
  • a carbon chain has two or more unsaturated double bonds
  • characterized by the location of the unsaturation in the molecular structure
  • dietary sources: vegetable oils, fish, and margarine

92

What two categories of polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential?

  • omega-3 (linolenic)
  • omega-6 (linoleic)

93

Americans consume a large amount of Omega-____.

omega-6 (linoleic)

94

Americans consumption of Omega-___ is low.

omega-3 (linolenic)

95

Types of Omega-_ help prevents heart disease.

omega-3 (linolenic)

96

Rich sources of Omega-__ are deep water fish such as salmon, tuna, sardines, and herring. Omega-__ can also be obtained from plant sources such as canola oil, some nuts such as walnuts, soybean and soybean oils, and extra virgin or virgin oils.

omega-3; omega-3

97

Hydrogenation

  • process which forces hydrogen atoms to break a double bond and attach to the carbons
  • creates saturated fat
  • makes fats more solid/stable

98

Dietary Sources of Saturated Fatty Acids

  • meats
  • butterfat
  • shortening
  • vegetable oils
  • beef
  • poultry
  • pork
  • lamb
  • egg yolks
  • dairy products

99

Catabolism of Lipids

  • involves the hydrolysis of triglycerides into two-carbon units that become part of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA)

100

Acetyl CoA (Lipids)

  • an intermediate byproduct in metabolism
  • formed from the breakdown of glucose, fatty acids, and certain amino acids
  • enters the TCA cycle

101

Lipogenesis

  • synthesis of lipids
  • results in the formation of triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and prostaglandins

102

When found in excess, glucose and amino acids are converted to what form of lipid?

  • triglycerides and phosphates

103

Lipid metabolism is primarily regulated by _______, ____ _____, and ______ ______ ______.

insulin; growth hormones; adrenal cortex hormones

104

Role of Bile Emulsification (Lipids)

  • bile emulsifies fat to facilitate digestion

105

Chylomicrons

  • the first lipoproteins formed after the absorption of lipids from food
  • transport fats from the intestinal wall to the liver cells

106

Most Americans consume between _______ and _______ % of total energy as fat. How does this compare to the suggested ADMR?

  • 35 to 40%
  • it exceeds the ADMR for fat which is 20-35%

107

Very Low-Density Lipoproteins (VLDL)

  • large lipoproteins rich in triglycerides;
  • VLDLs circulate through the blood giving up their triglycerides to fat and muscle tissue until the VLDL remnants are modified and converted into LDL
  • leaves the liver cells full of fats and lipid components to transfer newly made triglycerides to the cells

108

Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL)

  • a lipoprotein that t ransports cholesterol in the blood; composed of moderate amount of protein and a large amount of cholesterol;
  • high levels are thought to be associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis

109

Protease

  • protein enzymes
  • secreted in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine

110

Amino Acids (20)

  • organic compounds
  • contain carbon, hyrdrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

111

Essential Amino Acids (9)

  • must be eaten in food

112

Nonessential Amino Acids (11)

  • liver can create as long as the structural components (including nitrogen) are available

113

Amino Acid Pool

  • a collection of amino acids that is constantly resupplied with EAAs and NEAAs
  • allows cells to build proteins easily

114

Functions of Proteins

  • growth and maintenance
    • All growth depends on a sufficient supply of amino acids. The amino acids are needed to make the proteins required to support muscle, tissue, bone formation, and the cells themselves
  • creation of communicators and catalysts
  • immune system response
  • fluid anf electrolyte balance
  • acid-base balance
  • transportation

115

Complete Protein

  • contains all nine EAAs in sufficient quantities that best support growth and maintenance

116

Incomplete Protein

  • lacks one or more of the nine essential amino acids

117

Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM)

...